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by Ignatius Donnelly

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Title: Atlantis:  The Antideluvian World

Author: Ignatius Donnelly

Release Date: May, 2003  [Etext #4032]
[Yes, we are about one year ahead of schedule]
[The actual date this file first posted = 10/17/01]

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The Project Gutenberg Etext of Atlantis:  The Antideluvian World
by Ignatius Donnelly
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Produced by Norman Wolcott

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Produced by Norman Wolcott



The world has made such comet-like advance
Lately on science, we may almost hope,
Before we die of sheer decay, to learn
Something about our infancy; when lived
That great, original, broad-eyed, sunken race,
Whose knowledge, like the sea-sustaining rocks,
Hath formed the base of this world's fluctuous lore

Frontpiece:  The Profile of Atlantis





















































This book is an attempt to demonstrate several distinct and novel
propositions.  These are:

1. That there once existed in the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the mouth
of the Mediterranean Sea, a large island, which was the remnant of
an Atlantic continent, and known to the ancient world as Atlantis.

2. That the description of this island given by Plato is not, as
has been long supposed, fable, but veritable history.

3. That Atlantis was the region where man first rose from a state
of barbarism to civilization.

4. That it became, in the course of ages, a populous and mighty
nation, from whose overflowings the shores of the Gulf of Mexico,
the Mississippi River, the Amazon, the Pacific coast of South
America, the Mediterranean, the west coast of Europe and Africa, the
Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian were populated by civilized

5. That it was the true Antediluvian world; the Garden of Eden;
the Gardens of the Hesperides; the Elysian Fields; the Gardens of
Alcinous; the Mesomphalos; the Olympos; the Asgard of the traditions
of the ancient nations; representing a universal memory of a great
land, where early mankind dwelt for ages in peace and happiness.

6. That the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the Phoenicians,
the Hindoos, and the Scandinavians were simply the kings, queens,
and heroes of Atlantis; and the acts attributed to them in mythology
are a confused recollection of real historical events.

7. That the mythology of Egypt and Peru represented the original
religion of Atlantis, which was sun-worship.

8. That the oldest colony formed by the Atlanteans was probably in
Egypt, whose civilization was a reproduction of that of the Atlantic

9. That the implements of the "Bronze Age" of Europe were derived
from Atlantis.  The Atlanteans were also the first manufacturers
of iron.

10. That the Phoenician alphabet, parent of all the European
alphabets, was derived from au Atlantis alphabet, which was also
conveyed from Atlantis to the Mayas of Central America.

11. That Atlantis was the original seat of the Aryan or Indo-European
family of nations, as well as of the Semitic peoples, and possibly
also of the Turanian races.

12. That Atlantis perished in a terrible convulsion of nature, in
which the whole island sunk into the ocean, with nearly all its

13. That a few persons escaped in ships and on rafts, and, carried
to the nations east and west the tidings of the appalling catastrophe,
which has survived to our own time in the Flood and Deluge legends
of the different nations of the old and new worlds.

If these propositions can be proved, they will solve many problems
which now perplex mankind; they will confirm in many respects the
statements in the opening chapters of Genesis; they will widen the
area of human history; they will explain the remarkable resemblances
which exist between the ancient civilizations found upon the opposite
shores of the Atlantic Ocean, in the old and new worlds; and they
will aid us to rehabilitate the fathers of our civilization, our
blood, and our fundamental ideas--the men who lived, loved, and
labored ages before the Aryans descended upon India, or the Phoenician
had settled in Syria, or the Goth had reached the shores of the

The fact that the story of Atlantis was for thousands of years
regarded as a fable proves nothing.  There is an unbelief which
grows out of ignorance, as well as a scepticism which is born of
intelligence.  The people nearest to the past are not always those
who are best informed concerning the past.

For a thousand years it was believed that the legends of the buried
cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were myths:  they were spoken of
as "the fabulous cities." For a thousand years the educated world
did not credit the accounts given by Herodotus of the wonders of
the ancient civilizations of the Nile and of Chaldea.  He was called
"the father of liars." Even Plutarch sneered at him.  Now, in the
language of Frederick Schlegel, "the deeper and more comprehensive
the researches of the moderns have been, the more their regard
and esteem for Herodotus has increased." Buckle says, "His minute
information about Egypt and Asia Minor is admitted by all geographers."

There was a time when the expedition sent out by Pharaoh Necho to
circumnavigate Africa was doubted, because the explorers stated that
after they had progressed a certain distance the sun was north of
them; this circumstance, which then aroused suspicion, now proves
to us that the Egyptian navigators had really passed the equator,
and anticipated by 2100 years Vasquez de Gama in his discovery of
the Cape of Good Hope.

If I succeed in demonstrating the truth of the somewhat startling
propositions with which I commenced this chapter, it will only
be by bringing to bear upon the question of Atlantis a thousand
converging lines of light from a multitude of researches made by
scholars in different fields of modern thought.  Further investigations
and discoveries will, I trust, confirm the correctness of the
conclusions at which I have arrived.



Plato has preserved for us the history of Atlantis.  If our views
are correct, it is one of the most valuable records which have come
down to us from antiquity.

Plato lived 400 years before the birth of Christ.  His ancestor,
Solon, was the great law-giver of Athens 600 years before the
Christian era.  Solon visited Egypt.  Plutarch says, "Solon attempted
in verse a large description, or rather fabulous account of the
Atlantic Island, which he had learned from the wise men of Sais,
and which particularly concerned the Athenians; but by reason
of his age, not want of leisure (as Plato would have it), he was
apprehensive the work would be too much for him, and therefore did
not go through with it.  These verses are a proof that business
was not the hinderance:

"'I grow in learning as I grow in age.'

And again:

"'Wine, wit, and beauty still their charms bestow,
Light all the shades of life, and cheer us as we go.'

"Plato, ambitious to cultivate and adorn the subject of the Atlantic
Island, as a delightful spot in some fair field unoccupied, to which
also be had some claim by reason of his being related to Solon,
laid out magnificent courts and enclosures, and erected a grand
entrance to it, such as no other story, fable, or Poem ever had.
But, as he began it late, he ended his life before the work, so
that the more the reader is delighted with the part that is written,
the more regret he has to find it unfinished."

There can be no question that Solon visited Egypt.  The causes of
his departure from Athens, for a period of ten years, are fully
explained by Plutarch.  He dwelt, be tells us,

"On the Canopian shore, by Nile's deep mouth."

There be conversed upon points of philosophy and history with the
most learned of the Egyptian priests.  He was a man of extraordinary
force and penetration of mind, as his laws and his sayings, which
have been preserved to us, testify.  There is no improbability in
the statement that be commenced in verse a history and description
of Atlantis, which be left unfinished at his death; and it requires
no great stretch of the imagination to believe that this manuscript
reached the bands of his successor and descendant, Plato; a scholar,
thinker, and historian like himself, and, like himself, one of the
profoundest minds of the ancient world. the Egyptian priest had
said to Solon, "You have no antiquity of history, and no history of
antiquity;" and Solon doubtless realized fully the vast importance
of a record which carried human history back, not only thousands
of years before the era of Greek civilization, but many thousands
of years before even the establishment of the kingdom of Egypt; and
be was anxious to preserve for his half-civilized countrymen this
inestimable record of the past.

We know of no better way to commence a book about Atlantis than by
giving in full the record preserved by Plato.  It is as follows:

'Critias'. Then listen, Socrates, to a strange tale, which is, however,
certainly true, as Solon, who was the wisest of the seven sages,
declared.  He was a relative and great friend of my great-grandfather,
Dropidas, as be himself says in several of his poems; and Dropidas
told Critias, my grandfather, who remembered, and told us, that
there were of old great and marvellous actions of the Athenians,
which have passed into oblivion through time and the destruction
of the human race and one in particular, which was the greatest
of them all, the recital of which will be a suitable testimony of
our gratitude to you....

'Socrates'. Very good; and what is. this ancient famous action of
which Critias spoke, not as a mere legend, but as a veritable action
of the Athenian State, which Solon recounted!

'Critias'. I will tell an old-world story which I heard from an
aged man; for Critias was, as be said, at that time nearly ninety
years of age, and I was about ten years of age.  Now the day was that
day of the Apaturia which is called the registration of youth; at
which, according to custom, our parents gave prizes for recitations,
and the poems of several poets were recited by us boys, and many
of us sung the poems of Solon, which were new at the time.  One of
our tribe, either because this was his real opinion, or because he
thought that he would please Critias, said that, in his judgment,
Solon was not only the wisest of men but the noblest of poets.  The
old man, I well remember, brightened up at this, and said, smiling:
"Yes, Amynander, if Solon had only, like other poets, made poetry
the business of his life, and had completed the tale which he brought
with him from Egypt, and had not been compelled, by reason of the
factions and troubles which he found stirring in this country when
he came home, to attend to other matters, in my opinion be would
have been as famous as Homer, or Hesiod, or any poet."

"And what was that poem about, Critias?" said the person who
addressed him.

"About the greatest action which the Athenians ever did, and which
ought to have been most famous, but which, through the lapse of
time and the destruction of the actors, has not come down to us."

"Tell us," said the other, "the whole story, and bow and from whom
Solon heard this veritable tradition."

He replied:  "At the head of the Egyptian Delta, where the river Nile
divides, there is a certain district which is called the district
of Sais, and the great city of the district is also called Sais,
and is the city from which Amasis the king was sprung.  And the
citizens have a deity who is their foundress:  she is called in
the Egyptian tongue Neith, which is asserted by them to be the same
whom the Hellenes called Athene.  Now, the citizens of this city
are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some
way related to them.  Thither came Solon, who was received by them
with great honor; and be asked the priests, who were most skilful
in such matters, about antiquity, and made the discovery that neither
he nor any other Hellene knew anything worth mentioning about the
times of old.  On one occasion, when he was drawing them on to
speak of antiquity, he began to tell about the most ancient things
in our part of the world--about Phoroneus, who is called 'the
first,' and about Niobe; and, after the Deluge, to tell of the
lives of Deucalion and Pyrrha; and he traced the genealogy of their
descendants, and attempted to reckon bow many years old were the
events of which he was speaking, and to give the dates.  Thereupon,
one of the priests, who was of very great age; said, 'O Solon,
Solon, you Hellenes are but children, and there is never an old man
who is an Hellene.' Solon, bearing this, said, 'What do you mean?'
'I mean to say,' he replied, 'that in mind you are all young;
there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition,
nor any science which is hoary with age.  And I will tell you the
reason of this:  there have been, and there will be again, many
destructions of mankind arising out of many causes.  There is a
story which even you have preserved, that once upon a time Phaëthon,
the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot,
because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father,
burnt up all that was upon the earth, and was himself destroyed
by a thunderbolt.  Now, this has the form of a myth, but really
signifies a declination of the bodies moving around the earth and
in the heavens, and a great conflagration of things upon the earth
recurring at long intervals of time:  when this happens, those who
live upon the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable
to destruction than those who dwell by rivers or on the sea-shore;
and from this calamity the Nile, who is our never-failing savior,
saves and delivers us.  When, on the other hand, the gods purge the
earth with a deluge of water, among you herdsmen and shepherds on
the mountains are the survivors, whereas those of you who live in
cities are carried by the rivers into the sea; but in this country
neither at that time nor at any other does the water come from above
on the fields, having always a tendency to come up from below, for
which reason the things preserved here are said to be the oldest.
The fact is, that wherever the extremity of winter frost or of
summer sun does not prevent, the human race is always increasing
at times, and at other times diminishing in numbers.  And whatever
happened either in your country or in ours, or in any other region
of which we are informed--if any action which is noble or great,
or in any other way remarkable has taken place, all that has been
written down of old, and is preserved in our temples; whereas you
and other nations are just being provided with letters and the
other things which States require; and then, at the usual period,
the stream from heaven descends like a pestilence, and leaves only
those of you who are destitute of letters and education; and thus
you have to begin all over again as children, and know nothing of
what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves.
As for those genealogies of yours which you have recounted to us,
Solon, they are no better than the tales of children; for, in the
first place, you remember one deluge only, whereas there were many
of them; and, in the next place, you do not know that there dwelt
in your land the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived,
of whom you and your whole city are but a seed or remnant.  And
this was unknown to you, because for many generations the survivors
of that destruction died and made no sign.  For there was a time,
Solon, before that great deluge of all, when the city which now is
Athens was first in war, and was preeminent for the excellence of
her laws, and is said to have performed the noblest deeds, and to
have had the fairest constitution of any of which tradition tells,
under the face of heaven.' Solon marvelled at this, and earnestly
requested the priest to inform him exactly and in order about these
former citizens. 'You are welcome to hear about them, Solon,' said
the priest, 'both for your own sake and for that of the city; and,
above all, for the sake of the goddess who is the common patron and
protector and educator of both our cities.  She founded your city
a thousand years before ours, receiving from the Earth and Hephæstus
the seed of your race, and then she founded ours, the constitution
of which is set down in our sacred registers as 8000 years old.
As touching the citizens of 9000 years ago, I will briefly inform
you of their laws and of the noblest of their actions; and the
exact particulars of the whole we will hereafter go through at
our leisure. in the sacred registers themselves.  If you compare
these very laws with your own, you will find that many of ours are
the counterpart of yours, as they were in the olden time.  In the
first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from
all the others; next there are the artificers, who exercise their
several crafts by themselves, and without admixture of any other;
and also there is the class of shepherds and that of hunters, as
well as that of husbandmen; and you will observe, too, that the
warriors in Egypt are separated from all the other classes, and are
commanded by the law only to engage in war; moreover, the weapons
with which they are equipped are shields and spears, and this the
goddess taught first among you, and then in Asiatic countries, and
we among the Asiatics first adopted.

"'Then, as to wisdom, do you observe what care the law took from
the very first, searching out and comprehending the whole order
of things down to prophecy and medicine (the latter with a view to
health); and out of these divine elements drawing what was needful
for human life, and adding every sort of knowledge which was
connected with them.  All this order and arrangement the goddess
first imparted to you when establishing your city; and she chose
the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw that the
happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the
wisest of men.  Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war
and of wisdom, selected, and first of all settled that spot which
was the most likely to produce men likest herself.  And there you
dwelt, having such laws as these and still better ones, and excelled
all mankind in all virtue, as became the children and disciples
of the gods.  Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your
State in our histories; but one of them exceeds all the rest in
greatness and valor; for these histories tell of a mighty power
which was aggressing wantonly against the whole of Europe and Asia,
and to which your city put an end.  This power came forth out of
the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable;
and there was an island situated in front of the straits which you
call the Columns of Heracles:  the island was larger than Libya and
Asia put together, and was the way to other islands, and from the
islands you might pass through the whole of the opposite continent
which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the
Straits of Heracles is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance,
but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most
truly called a continent.  Now, in the island of Atlantis there was
a great and wonderful empire, which had rule over the whole island
and several others, as well as over parts of the continent; and,
besides these, they subjected the parts of Libya within the Columns
of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia.
The vast power thus gathered into one, endeavored to subdue at one
blow our country and yours, and the whole of the land which was
within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth,
in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind;
for she was the first in courage and military skill, and was the
leader of the Hellenes.  And when the rest fell off from her, being
compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity
of danger, she defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and
preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjected, and freely
liberated all the others who dwelt within the limits of Heracles.
But afterward there occurred violent earthquakes and floods, and
in a single day and night of rain all your warlike men in a body
sunk into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner
disappeared, and was sunk beneath the sea.  And that is the reason
why the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because
there is such a quantity of shallow mud in the way; and this was
caused by the subsidence of the island.' ("Plato's Dialogues," ii.,
617, Timæus.....

"But in addition to the gods whom you have mentioned, I would
specially invoke Mnemosyne; for all the important part of what I
have to tell is dependent on her favor, and if I can recollect and
recite enough of what was said by the priests, and brought hither
by Solon, I doubt not that I shall satisfy the requirements of this
theatre.  To that task, then, I will at once address myself.

"Let me begin by observing, first of all, that nine thousand was
the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to
have taken place between all those who dwelt outside the Pillars
of Heracles and those who dwelt within them:  this war I am now
to describe.  Of the combatants on the one side the city of Athens
was reported to have been the ruler, and to have directed the
contest; the combatants on the other side were led by the kings of
the islands of Atlantis, which, as I was saying, once had an extent
greater than that of Libya and Asia; and, when afterward sunk
by an earthquake, became an impassable barrier of mud to voyagers
sailing from hence to the ocean.  The progress of the history will
unfold the various tribes of barbarians and Hellenes which then
existed, as they successively appear on the scene; but I must begin
by describing, first of all, the Athenians as they were in that
day, and their enemies who fought with them; and I shall have to
tell of the power and form of government of both of them.  Let us
give the precedence to Athens....

Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years,
for that is the number of years which have elapsed since the time
of which I am speaking; and in all the ages and changes of things
there has never been any settlement of the earth flowing down from
the mountains, as in other places, which is worth speaking of; it
has always been carried round in a circle, and disappeared in the
depths below.  The consequence is that, in comparison of what then
was, there are remaining in small islets only the bones of the wasted
body, as they may be called, all the richer and softer parts of
the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of the country
being left....

"And next, if I have not forgotten what I heard when I was a child,
I will impart to you the character and origin of their adversaries;
for friends should not keep their stories to themselves, but have
them in common.  Yet, before proceeding farther in the narrative,
I ought to warn you that you must not be surprised if you should
bear Hellenic names given to foreigners.  I will tell you the
reason of this:  Solon, who was intending to use the tale for his
poem, made an investigation into the meaning of the names, and
found that the early Egyptians, in writing them down, had translated
them into their own language, and be recovered the meaning of the
several names and retranslated them, and copied them out again in
our language.  My great-grandfather, Dropidas, had the original
writing, which is still in my possession, and was carefully studied
by me when I was a child.  Therefore, if you bear names such as are
used in this country, you must not be surprised, for I have told
you the reason of them.

"The tale, which was of great length, began as follows:  I have
before remarked, in speaking of the allotments of the gods, that
they distributed the whole earth into portions differing in extent,
and made themselves temples and sacrifices.  And Poseidon, receiving
for his lot the island of Atlantis, begat children by a mortal woman,
and settled them in a part of the island which I will proceed to
describe.  On the side toward the sea, and in the centre of the
whole island, there was a plain which is said to have been the
fairest of all plains, and very fertile.  Near the plain again,
and also in the centre of the island, at a distance of about fifty
stadia, there was a mountain, not very high on any side.  In this
mountain there dwelt one of the earth-born primeval men of that
country, whose name was Evenor, and he had a wife named Leucippe,
and they had an only daughter, who was named Cleito.  The maiden was
growing up to womanhood when her father and mother died; Poseidon
fell in love with her, and had intercourse with her; and, breaking
the ground, enclosed the hill in which she dwelt all round, making
alternate zones of sea and land, larger and smaller, encircling
one another; there were two of land and three of water, which he
turned as with a lathe out of the centre of the island, equidistant
every way, so that no man could get to the island, for ships and
voyages were not yet heard of.  He himself, as be was a god, found
no difficulty in making special arrangements for the centre island,
bringing two streams of water under the earth, which he caused to
ascend as springs, one of warm water and the other of cold, and
making every variety of food to spring up abundantly in the earth.
He also begat and brought up five pairs of male children, dividing
the island of Atlantis into ten portions:  he gave to the first-born
of the eldest pair his mother's dwelling and the surrounding
allotment, which was the largest and best, and made him king over
the rest; the others he made princes, and gave them rule over many
men and a large territory.  And he named them all:  the eldest,
who was king, he named Atlas, and from him the whole island and
the ocean received the name of Atlantic.  To his twin-brother, who
was born after him, and obtained as his lot the extremity of the
island toward the Pillars of Heracles, as far as the country which
is still called the region of Gades in that part of the world, be
gave the name which in the Hellenic language is Eumelus, in the
language of the country which is named after him, Gadeirus.  Of the
second pair of twins, he called one Ampheres and the other Evæmon.
To the third pair of twins he gave the name Mneseus to the elder,
and Autochthon to the one who followed him.  Of the fourth pair
of twins he called the elder Elasippus and the younger Mestor, And
of the fifth pair be gave to the elder the name of Azaes, and to
the younger Diaprepes.  All these and their descendants were the
inhabitants and rulers of divers islands in the open sea; and also,
as has been already said, they held sway in the other direction
over the country within the Pillars as far as Egypt and Tyrrhenia.
Now Atlas had a numerous and honorable family, and his eldest branch
always retained the kingdom, which the eldest son handed on to his
eldest for many generations; and they had such an amount of wealth
as was never before possessed by kings and potentates, and is not
likely ever to be again, and they were furnished with everything
which they could have, both in city and country.  For, because of
the greatness of their empire, many things were brought to them
from foreign countries, and the island itself provided much of what
was required by them for the uses of life.  In the first place,
they dug out of the earth whatever was to be found there, mineral
as well as metal, and that which is now only a name, and was then
something more than a name--orichalcum--was dug out of the earth
in many parts of the island, and, with the exception of gold, was
esteemed the most precious of metals among the men of those days.
There was an abundance of wood for carpenters' work, and sufficient
maintenance for tame and wild animals.  Moreover, there were a
great number of elephants in the island, and there was provision
for animals of every kind, both for those which live in lakes and
marshes and rivers, and also for those which live in mountains and
on plains, and therefore for the animal which is the largest and
most voracious of them.  Also, whatever fragrant things there are
in the earth, whether roots, or herbage, or woods, or distilling
drops of flowers or fruits, grew and thrived in that land; and
again, the cultivated fruit of the earth, both the dry edible fruit
and other species of food, which we call by the general name of
legumes, and the fruits having a hard rind, affording drinks, and
meats, and ointments, and good store of chestnuts and the like,
which may be used to play with, and are fruits which spoil with
keeping--and the pleasant kinds of dessert which console us after
dinner, when we are full and tired of eating--all these that sacred
island lying beneath the sun brought forth fair and wondrous in
infinite abundance.  All these things they received from the earth,
and they employed themselves in constructing their temples, and
palaces, and harbors, and docks; and they arranged the whole country
in the following manner:  First of all they bridged over the zones
of sea which surrounded the ancient metropolis, and made a passage
into and out of they began to build the palace in the royal palace;
and then the habitation of the god and of their ancestors.  This
they continued to ornament in successive generations, every king
surpassing the one who came before him to the utmost of his power,
until they made the building a marvel to behold for size and for
beauty.  And, beginning from the sea, they dug a canal three hundred
feet in width and one hundred feet in depth, and fifty stadia in
length, which they carried through to the outermost zone, making a
passage from the sea up to this, which became a harbor, and leaving
an opening sufficient to enable the largest vessels to find ingress.
Moreover, they divided the zones of land which parted the zones of
sea, constructing bridges of such a width as would leave a passage
for a single trireme to pass out of one into another, and roofed
them over; and there was a way underneath for the ships, for the
banks of the zones were raised considerably above the water.  Now
the largest of the zones into which a passage was cut from the sea
was three stadia in breadth, and the zone of land which came next
of equal breadth; but the next two, as well the zone of water as
of land, were two stadia, and the one which surrounded the central
island was a stadium only in width.  The island in which the palace
was situated had a diameter of five stadia.  This, and the zones
and the bridge, which was the sixth part of a stadium in width,
they surrounded by a stone wall, on either side placing towers,
and gates on the bridges where the sea passed in.  The stone which
was used in the work they quarried from underneath the centre
island and from underneath the zones, on the outer as well as the
inner side.  One kind of stone was white, another black, and a
third red; and, as they quarried, they at the same time hollowed
out docks double within, having roofs formed out of the native
rock.  Some of their buildings were simple, but in others they put
together different stones, which they intermingled for the sake of
ornament, to be a natural source of delight.  The entire circuit
of the wall which went round the outermost one they covered with
a coating of brass, and the circuit of the next wall they coated
with tin, and the third, which encompassed the citadel flashed with
the red light of orichalcum.  The palaces in the interior of the
citadel were constructed in this wise:  In the centre was a holy
temple dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon, which remained inaccessible,
and was surrounded by an enclosure of gold; this was the spot in
which they originally begat the race of the ten princes, and thither
they annually brought the fruits of the earth in their season from
all the ten portions, and performed sacrifices to each of them.
Here, too, was Poiseidon's own temple, of a stadium in length and
half a stadium in width, and of a proportionate height, having
a sort of barbaric splendor.  All the outside of the temple, with
the exception of the pinnacles, they covered with silver, and the
pinnacles with gold.  In the interior of the temple the roof was
of ivory, adorned everywhere with gold and silver and orichalcum;
all the other parts of the walls and pillars and floor they lined
with orichalcum.  In the temple they placed statues of gold:  there
was the god himself standing in a chariot--the charioteer of six
winged horses--and of such a size that be touched the roof of the
building with his bead; around him there were a hundred Nereids
riding on dolphins, for such was thought to be the number of them
in that day.  There were also in the interior of the temple other
images which had been dedicated by private individuals.  And
around the temple on the outside were placed statues of gold of all
the ten kings and of their wives; and there were many other great
offerings, both of kings and of private individuals, coming both
from the city itself and the foreign cities over which they held
sway.  There was an altar, too, which in size and workmanship
corresponded to the rest of the work, and there were palaces in
like manner which answered to the greatness of the kingdom and the
glory of the temple.

"In the next place, they used fountains both of cold and hot springs;
these were very abundant, and both kinds wonderfully adapted to use
by reason of the sweetness and excellence of their waters.  They
constructed buildings about them, and planted suitable trees; also
cisterns, some open to the heaven, other which they roofed over, to
be used in winter as warm baths, there were the king's baths, and
the baths of private persons, which were kept apart; also separate
baths for women, and others again for horses and cattle, and to
them they gave as much adornment as was suitable for them.  The
water which ran off they carried, some to the grove of Poseidon,
where were growing all manner of trees of wonderful height and
beauty, owing to the excellence of the soil; the remainder was
conveyed by aqueducts which passed over the bridges to the outer
circles:  and there were many temples built and dedicated to many
gods; also gardens and places of exercise, some for men, and some
set apart for horses, in both of the two islands formed by the zones;
and in the centre of the larger of the two there was a race-course
of a stadium in width, and in length allowed to extend all round
the island, for horses to race in.  Also there were guard-houses
at intervals for the body-guard, the more trusted of whom had their
duties appointed to them in the lesser zone, which was nearer the
Acropolis; while the most trusted of all had houses given them
within the citadel, and about the persons of the kings.  The docks
were full of triremes and naval stores, and all things were quite
ready for use.  Enough of the plan of the royal palace.  Crossing
the outer harbors, which were three in number, you would come to a
wall which began at the sea and went all round:  this was everywhere
distant fifty stadia from the largest zone and harbor, and enclosed
the whole, meeting at the mouth of the channel toward the sea.  The
entire area was densely crowded with habitations; and the canal
and the largest of the harbors were full of vessels and merchants
coming from all parts, who, from their numbers, kept up a multitudinous
sound of human voices and din of all sorts night and day.  I have
repeated his descriptions of the city and the parts about the
ancient palace nearly as he gave them, and now I must endeavor to
describe the nature and arrangement of the rest of the country.
The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous
on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about
and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by
mountains which descended toward the sea; it was smooth and even,
but of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand
stadia, and going up the country from the sea through the centre
of the island two thousand stadia; the whole region of the island
lies toward the south, and is sheltered from the north.  The
surrounding mountains he celebrated for their number and size and
beauty, in which they exceeded all that are now to be seen anywhere;
having in them also many wealthy inhabited villages, and rivers and
lakes, and meadows supplying food enough for every animal, wild or
tame, and wood of various sorts, abundant for every kind of work.
I will now describe the plain, which had been cultivated during
many ages by many generations of kings.  It was rectangular, and
for the most part straight and oblong; and what it wanted of the
straight line followed the line of the circular ditch.  The depth
and width and length of this ditch were incredible and gave the
impression that such a work, in addition to so many other works,
could hardly have been wrought by the hand of man.  But I must
say what I have heard.  It was excavated to the depth of a hundred
feet, and its breadth was a stadium everywhere; it was carried
round the whole of the plain, and was ten thousand stadia in length.
It received the streams which came down from the mountains, and
winding round the plain, and touching the city at various points,
was there let off into the sea.  From above, likewise, straight
canals of a hundred feet in width were cut in the plain, and
again let off into the ditch, toward the sea; these canals were at
intervals of a Hundred stadia, and by them they brought, down the
wood from the mountains to the city, and conveyed the fruits of the
earth in ships, cutting transverse passages from one canal into
another, and to the city.  Twice in the year they gathered the
fruits of the earth--in winter having the benefit of the rains,
and in summer introducing the water of the canals.  As to the
population, each of the lots in the plain had an appointed chief
of men who were fit for military service, and the size of the lot
was to be a square of ten stadia each way, and the total number of
all the lots was sixty thousand.

"And of the inhabitants of the mountains and of the rest of the
country there was also a vast multitude having leaders, to whom
they were assigned according to their dwellings and villages.  The
leader was required to furnish for the war the sixth portion of
a war-chariot, so as to make up a total of ten thousand chariots;
also two horses and riders upon them, and a light chariot without
a seat, accompanied by a fighting man on foot carrying a small
shield, and having a charioteer mounted to guide the horses; also,
be was bound to furnish two heavy-armed men, two archers, two
slingers, three stone-shooters, and three javelin men, who were
skirmishers, and four sailors to make up a complement of twelve
hundred ships.  Such was the order of war in the royal city--that
of the other nine governments was different in each of them,
and would be wearisome to narrate.  As to offices and honors, the
following was the arrangement from the first:  Each of the ten
kings, in his own division and in his own city, had the absolute
control of the citizens, and in many cases of the laws, punishing
and slaying whomsoever be would.

"Now the relations of their governments to one another were regulated
by the injunctions of Poseidon as the law had handed them down.
These were inscribed by the first men on a column of orichalcum,
which was situated in the middle of the island, at the temple of
Poseidon, whither the people were gathered together every fifth and
sixth years alternately, thus giving equal honor to the odd and to
the even number.  And when they were gathered together they consulted
about public affairs, and inquired if any one had transgressed in
anything, and passed judgment on him accordingly--and before they
passed judgment they gave their pledges to one another in this wise:
There were bulls who had the range of the temple of Poseidon; and
the ten who were left alone in the temple, after they had offered
prayers to the gods that they might take the sacrifices which were
acceptable to them, hunted the bulls without weapons, but with
staves and nooses; and the bull which they caught they led up to
the column; the victim was then struck on the head by them, and
slain over the sacred inscription, Now on the column, besides the
law, there was inscribed an oath invoking mighty curses on the
disobedient.  When, therefore, after offering sacrifice according
to their customs, they had burnt the limbs of the bull, they mingled
a cup and cast in a clot of blood for each of them; the rest of the
victim they took to the fire, after having made a purification of
the column all round.  Then they drew from the cup in golden vessels,
and, pouring a libation on the fire, they swore t hat they would
judge according to the laws on the column, and would punish any
one who had previously transgressed, and that for the future they
would not, if they could help, transgress any of the inscriptions,
and would not command or obey any ruler who commanded them to act
otherwise than according to the laws of their father Poseidon.
This was the prayer which each of them offered up for himself and
for his family, at the same time drinking, and dedicating the vessel
in the temple of the god; and, after spending some necessary time
at supper, when darkness came on and the fire about the sacrifice
was cool, all of them put on most beautiful azure robes, and, sitting
on the ground at night near the embers of the sacrifices on which
they had sworn, and extinguishing all the fire about the temple,
they received and gave judgement, if any of them had any accusation
to bring against any one; and, when they had given judgment, at
daybreak they wrote down their sentences on a golden tablet, and
deposited them as memorials with their robes.  There were many special
laws which the several kings had inscribed about the temples, but
the most important was the following: That they were not to take up
arms against one another, and they were all to come to the rescue
if any one in any city attempted to over.  throw the royal house.
Like their ancestors, they were to deliberate in common about war
and other matters, giving the supremacy to the family of Atlas;
and the king was not to have the power of life and death over any
of his kinsmen, unless he had the assent of the majority of the
ten kings.

"Such was the vast power which the god settled in the lost island
of Atlantis; and this he afterward directed against our land on
the following pretext, as traditions tell:  For many generations,
as long as the divine nature lasted in them, they were obedient
to the laws, and well-affectioned toward the gods, who were their
kinsmen; for they possessed true and in every way great spirits,
practising gentleness and wisdom in the various chances of life,
and in their intercourse with one another.  They despised everything
but virtue, not caring for their present state of life, arid thinking
lightly on the possession of gold and other property, which seemed
only a burden to them; neither were they intoxicated by luxury;
nor did wealth deprive them of their self-control; but they were
sober, and saw clearly that all these goods are increased by virtuous
friendship with one another, and that by excessive zeal for them,
and honor of them, the good of them is lost, and friendship perishes
with them.

"By such reflections, and by the continuance in them of a divine
nature, all that which we have described waxed and increased in
them; but when this divine portion began to fade away in them, and
became diluted too often, and with too much of the mortal admixture,
and the human nature got the upper-hand, then, they being unable
to bear their fortune, became unseemly, and to him who had an eye
to see, they began to appear base, and had lost the fairest of
their precious gifts; but to those who had no eye to see the true
happiness, they still appeared glorious and blessed at the very time
when they were filled with unrighteous avarice and power.  Zeus,
the god of gods, who rules with law, and is able to see into such
things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a most wretched
state, and wanting to inflict punishment on them, that they might
be chastened and improved, collected all the gods into his most
holy habitation, which, being placed in the centre of the world,
sees all things that partake of generation.  And when he had called
them together he spake as follows:"

[Here Plato's story abruptly ends.]



There is nothing improbable in this narrative, so far as it describes
a great, rich, cultured, and educated people.  Almost every part
of Plato's story can be paralleled by descriptions of the people
of Egypt or Peru; in fact, in some respects Plato's account of
Atlantis falls short of Herodotus's description of the grandeur
of Egypt, or Prescott's picture of the wealth and civilization of
Peru.  For instance, Prescott, in his "Conquest of Peru" (vol. i.,
p. 95), says:

"The most renowned of the Peruvian temples, the pride of the
capital and the wonder of the empire, was at Cuzco, where, under
the munificence of successive sovereigns, it had become so enriched
that it received the name of 'Coricancha', or 'the Place of Gold.....
The interior of the temple was literally a mine of gold.  On the
western wall was emblazoned a representation of the Deity, consisting
of a human countenance looking forth from amid innumerable rays of
light, which emanated from it in every direction, in the same manner
as the sun is often personified with us.  The figure was engraved
on a massive plate of gold, of enormous dimensions, thickly powdered
with emeralds and precious stones....  The walls and ceilings
were everywhere incrusted with golden ornaments; every part of the
interior of the temple glowed with burnished plates and studs of
the precious metal; the cornices were of the same material."

There are in Plato's narrative no marvels; no myths; no tales of
gods, gorgons, hobgoblins, or giants.  It is a plain and reasonable
history of a people who built temples, ships, and canals; who lived
by agriculture and commerce:  who in pursuit of trade, reached
out to all the countries around them.  The early history of most
nations begins with gods and demons, while here we have nothing of
the kind; we see an immigrant enter the country, marry one of the
native women, and settle down; in time a great nation grows up
around him.  It reminds one of the information given by the Egyptian
priests to Herodotus. "During the space of eleven thousand three
hundred and fort years they assert," says Herodotus, "that no
divinity has appeared in human shape....  they absolutely denied
the possibility of a human being's descent from a god." If Plato
had sought to draw from his imagination a wonderful and pleasing
story, we should not have had so plain and reasonable a narrative.
He would have given us a history like the legends of Greek mythology,
full of the adventures of gods and goddesses, nymphs, fauns, and

Neither is there any evidence on the face of this history that
Plato sought to convey in it a moral or political lesson, in the
guise of a fable, as did Bacon in the "New Atlantis," and More in
the "Kingdom of Nowhere." There is no ideal republic delineated
here.  It is a straightforward, reasonable history of a people ruled
over by their kings, living and progressing as other nations have
lived and progressed since their day.

Plato says that in Atlantis there was "a great and wonderful
empire," which "aggressed wantonly against the whole of Europe and
Asia," thus testifying to the extent of its dominion.  It not only
subjugated Africa as far as Egypt, and Europe as far as Italy,
but it ruled "as well 'over parts of the continent'," to wit, "the
opposite continent" of America, "which surrounded the true ocean."
Those parts of America over which it ruled were, as we will show
hereafter, Central America, Peru, and the Valley of the Mississippi,
occupied by the "Mound Builders."

Moreover, be tells us that "this vast power was gathered into one;"
that is to say, from Egypt to Peru it was one consolidated empire.
We will see hereafter that the legends of the Hindoos as to Deva
Nahusha distinctly refer to this vast empire, which covered the
whole of the known world.

Another corroboration of the truth of Plato's narrative is found
in the fact that upon the Azores black lava rocks, and rocks red
and white in color, are now found.  He says they built with white,
red, and black stone.  Sir C. Wyville Thomson describes a narrow
neck of land between Fayal and Monte da Guia, called "Monte
Queimada" (the burnt mountain), as follows:  "It is formed partly
of stratified tufa of a dark chocolate color, and partly of lumps
of 'black' lava, porous, and each with a large cavity in the centre,
which must have been ejected as volcanic bombs in a glorious display
of fireworks at some period beyond the records of Acorean history,
but late in the geological annals of the island" ("Voyage of the
Challenger," vol. ii., p. 24). He also describes immense walls of
black volcanic rock in the island.

The plain of Atlantis, Plato tells us, "had been cultivated
during many ages by many generations of kings." If, as we believe,
agriculture, the domestication of the horse, ox, sheep, goat, and
bog, and the discovery or development of wheat, oats, rye, and barley
originated in this region, then this language of Plato in reference
to "the many ages, and the successive generations of kings," accords
with the great periods of time which were necessary to bring man
from a savage to a civilized condition.

In the great ditch surrounding the whole land like a circle, and
into which streams flowed down from the mountains, we probably see
the original of the four rivers of Paradise, and the emblem of the
cross surrounded by a circle, which, as we will show hereafter,
was, from the earliest pre-Christian ages, accepted as the emblem
of the Garden of Eden.

We know that Plato did not invent the name of Poseidon, for the
worship of Poseidon was universal in the earliest ages of Europe;
"Poseidon-worship seems to have been a peculiarity of all the
colonies previous to the time of Sidon" ("Prehistoric Nations," p.
148.) This worship "was carried to Spain, and to Northern Africa,
but most abundantly to Italy, to many of the islands, and to the
regions around the Ægean Sea; also to Thrace." ('Ibid'., p. 155.)

Poseidon, or Neptune, is represented in Greek mythology as a
sea-god; but he is figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn by
horses.  The association of the horse (a land animal) with a sea-god
is inexplicable, except with the light given by Plato.  Poseidon
was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea, and
was the national god of a maritime people; be is associated with
horses, because in Atlantis the horse was first domesticated; and,
as Plato shows, the Atlanteans had great race-courses for the
development of speed in horses; and Poseidon is represented as
standing in a war-chariot, because doubtless wheeled vehicles were
first invented by the same people who tamed the horse; and they
transmitted these war-chariots to their descendants from Egypt
to Britain.  We know that horses were the favorite objects chosen
for sacrifice to Poseidon by the nations of antiquity within the
Historical Period; they were killed, and cast into the sea from high
precipices.  The religious horse-feasts of the pagan Scandinavians
were a survival of this Poseidon-worship, which once prevailed along
all the coasts of Europe; they continued until the conversion of
the people to Christianity, and were then suppressed by the Church
with great difficulty.

We find in Plato's narrative the names of some of the Phoenician
deities among the kings of Atlantis.  Where did the Greek, Plato,
get these names if the story is a fable?

Does Plato, in speaking of "the fruits having a hard rind, affording
drinks and meats and ointments," refer to the cocoa nut?

Again:  Plato tells us that Atlantis abounded in both cold and hot
springs.  How did he come to hit upon the hot springs if be was
drawing a picture from his imagination? It is a singular confirmation
of his story that hot springs abound in the Azores, which are the
surviving fragments of Atlantis; and an experience wider than that
possessed by Plato has taught scientific men that hot springs are
a common feature of regions subject to volcanic convulsions.

Plato tells us, "The whole country was very lofty and precipitous
on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about
and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by
mountains which descended toward the sea." One has but to look at
the profile of the "Dolphin's Ridge," as revealed by the deep-sea
soundings of the Challenger, given as the frontispiece to this
volume, to see that this is a faithful description of that precipitous
elevation. "The surrounding mountains," which sheltered the plain
from the north, are represented in the present towering peaks of
the Azores.

Plato tells us that the destruction of Atlantis filled the sea
with mud, and interfered with navigation.  For thousands of years
the ancients believed the Atlantic Ocean to be "a muddy, shallow,
dark, and misty sea, 'Mare tenebrosum'." ("Cosmos," vol. ii., p.

The three-pronged sceptre or trident of Poseidon reappears constantly
in ancient history.  We find it in the hands of Hindoo gods, and
at the base of all the religious beliefs of antiquity.

"Among the numerals the sacred three has ever been considered the
mark of perfection, and was therefore exclusively ascribed to the
Supreme Deity, or to its earthly representative--a king, emperor,
or any sovereign.  For this reason triple emblems of various shapes
are found on the belts, neckties, or any encircling fixture, as can
be seen on the works of ancient art in Yucatan, Guatemala, Chiapas,
Mexico, etc., whenever the object has reference to divine supremacy."
(Dr.  Arthur Schott, "Smith.  Rep.," 1869, p. 391.)

We are reminded of the, "tiara," and the "triple round of sovereignty."

In the same manner the ten kingdoms of Atlantis are perpetuated in
all the ancient traditions.

"In the number given by the Bible for the Antediluvian patriarchs we
have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions
of various nations.  Ten are mentioned in the Book of Genesis.
Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors,
whether before or after the Deluge, whether the mythical or historical
character prevail, they are constant to this sacred number ten,
which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations
of later religious philosophers on the mystical value of numbers.
In Chaldea, Berosus enumerates ten Antediluvian kings whose fabulous
reign extended to thousands of years.  The legends of the Iranian
race commence with the.  reign of ten Peisdadien (Poseidon?) kings,
'men of the ancient law, who lived on pure Homa (water of life)'
(nectar?), 'and who preserved their sanctity.' In India we meet
with the nine Brahmadikas, who, with Brahma, their founder, make
ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers.  The Chinese
count ten emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn
of historical times.  The Germans believed in the ten ancestors
of Odin, and the Arabs in the ten mythical kings of the Adites."
(Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc.  Hist. of the East," vol. i., p.

The story of Plato finds confirmation from other sources.

An extract preserved in Proclus, taken from a work now lost, which
is quoted by Boeckh in his commentary on Plato, mentions islands
in the exterior sea, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and says it
was known that in one of these islands "the inhabitants preserved
from their ancestors a remembrance of Atlantis, all extremely large
island, which for a long time held dominion over all the islands
of the Atlantic Ocean."

Ælian, in his "Varia Historia" (book iii., chap. xviii.), tells us
that Theopompus (400 B.C.) related the particulars of an interview
between Midas, King of Phrygia, and Silenus, in which Silenus
reported the existence of a great continent beyond the Atlantic,
"larger than Asia, Europe, and Libya together." He stated that a
race of men called Meropes dwelt there, and had extensive cities.
They were persuaded that their country alone was a continent.  Out of
curiosity some of them crossed the ocean and visited the Hyperboreans.

"The Gauls possessed traditions upon the subject of Atlantis which
were collected by the Roman historian Timagenes, who lived in the
first century before Christ.  He represents that three distinct
people dwelt in Gaul:  1. The indigenous population, which I suppose
to be Mongoloids, who had long dwelt in Europe; 2. The invaders
from a distant island, which I understand to be Atlantis; 3. The
Aryan Gauls." ("Preadamites," p. 380.)

Marcellus, in a work on the Ethiopians, speaks of seven islands lying
in the Atlantic Ocean--probably the Canaries--and the inhabitants
of these islands, he says, preserve the memory of a much greater
island, Atlantis, "which had for a long time exercised dominion
over the smaller ones." (Didot Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum
Græcorum," vol. iv., p.  443.)

Diodorus Siculus relates that the Phoenicians discovered "a large
island in the Atlantic Ocean, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, several
days' sail from the coast of Africa.  This island abounded in all
manner of riches.  The soil was exceedingly fertile; the scenery was
diversified by rivers, mountains, and forests.  It was the custom
of the inhabitants to retire during the summer to magnificent
country-houses, which stood in the midst of beautiful gardens.  Fish
and game were found in great abundance; the climate was delicious,
and the trees bore fruit at all seasons of the year." Homer,
Plutarch, and other ancient writers mention islands situated in the
Atlantic, "several thousand stadia from the Pillars of Hercules."
Silenus tells Midas that there was another continent besides
Europe, Asia, and Africa--"a country where gold and silver are so
plentiful that they are esteemed no more than we esteem iron." St.
Clement, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, says that there were
other worlds beyond the ocean.

Attention may here be called to the extraordinary number of instances
in which allusion is made in the Old Testament to the "islands of
the sea," especially in Isaiah and Ezekiel.  What had an inland
people, like the Jews, to do with seas and islands? Did these
references grow out of vague traditions linking their race with
"islands in the sea?"

The Orphic Argonaut sings of the division of the ancient Lyktonia
into separate islands.  He says," When the dark-haired Poseidon, in
anger with Father Kronion, struck Lyktonia with the golden trident."

Plato states that the Egyptians told Solon that the destruction of
Atlantis occurred 9000 years before that date, to wit, about 9600
years before the Christian era.  This looks like an extraordinarily
long period of time, but it must be remembered that geologists
claim that the remains of man found in the caves of Europe date
back 500,000 years; and the fossil Calaveras skull was found deep
under the base of Table Mountain, California, the whole mountain
having been formed since the man to whom it belonged lived and

"M. Oppert read an essay at the Brussels Congress to show, from
the astronomical observations of the Egyptians and Assyrians,
that 11,542 years before our era man existed on the earth at such
a stage of civilization as to be able to take note of astronomical
phenomena, and to calculate with considerable accuracy the length
of the year.  The Egyptians, says he, calculated by cycles of 1460
years--zodiacal cycles, as they were called.  Their year consisted
of 365 days, which caused them to lose one day in every four
solar years, and, consequently, they would attain their original
starting-point again only after 1460 years (365 x 4). Therefore,
the zodiacal cycle ending in the year 139 of our era commenced in
the year 1322 B.C. On the other hand, the Assyrian cycle was 1805
years, or 22,325 lunations.  An Assyrian cycle began 712 B.C.  The
Chaldeans state that between the Deluge and their first historic
dynasty there was a period of 39,180 years.  Now, what means, this
number? It stands for 12 Egyptian zodiacal cycles 'plus' 12 Assyrian
lunar cycles.

| 12 X 1460 = 17,52.... ....
....  ....   ....  39,180 |
| 12 X 1805 = 21,66.... ....

"These two modes of calculating time are in agreement with each
other, and were known simultaneously to one people, the Chaldeans.
Let us now build up the series of both cycles, starting from our
era, and the result will be as follows:

| Zodiacal Cycle. | Lunar Cycle. |
| 1,46......  | 1,80....   |
| 1,82......  | 71.......
| ____......  | ____....   |
| 2,78......  | 2,51....   |
| 4,24......  | 4,32....   |
| 5,70......  | 6,12....   |
| 7,16......  | 7,93....   |
| 8,62......  | 9,73....   |
| 110,08....... 11,54....  |
| 11,54....   ....  ....   |

"At the year 11,542 B.C. the two cycles came together, and
consequently they had on that year their common origin in one and
the same astronomical observation."

That observation was probably made in Atlantis.

The wide divergence of languages which is found to exist among
the Atlanteans at the beginning of the Historical Period implies
a vast lapse of time.  The fact that the nations of the Old World
remembered so little of Atlantis, except the colossal fact of its
sudden and overwhelming destruction, would also seem to remove that
event into a remote past.

Herodotus tells us that he learned from the Egyptians that Hercules
was one of their most ancient deities, and that he was one of the
twelve produced from the eight gods, 17,000 years before the reign
of Amasis.

In short, I fail to see why this story of Plato, told as history,
derived from the Egyptians, a people who, it is known, preserved
most ancient records, and who were able to trace their existence
back to a vast antiquity, should have been contemptuously set aside
as a fable by Greeks, Romans, and the modern world.  It can only
be because our predecessors, with their limited knowledge of the
geological history of the world, did not believe it possible that
any large. part of the earth's surface could have been thus suddenly
swallowed up by the sea.

Let us then first address ourselves to that question.



All that is needed to answer this question is to briefly refer to
some of the facts revealed by the study of geology.

In the first place, the earth's surface is a record of successive
risings and fallings of the land.  The accompanying picture represents
a section of the anthracite coal-measures of Pennsylvania.  Each
of the coal deposits here shown, indicated by the black lines,
was created when the land had risen sufficiently above the sea
to maintain vegetation; each of the strata of rock, many of them
hundreds of feet in thickness, was deposited under water.  Here we
have twenty-three different changes of the level of the land during
the formation of 2000 feet of rock and coal; and these changes took
place over vast areas, embracing thousands of square miles.

All the continents which now exist were, it is well understood,
once, under water, and the rocks of which they are composed were
deposited beneath the water; more than this, most of the rocks so
deposited were the detritus or washings of other continents, which
then stood where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains
were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and
frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the
rocks upon which the nations now dwell; so that we have changed
the conditions of land and water:  that which is now continent was
once sea, and that which is now sea was formerly continent.  There
can be no question that the Australian Archipelago is simply the
mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from India
to South America.  Science has gone so far as to even give it a
name; it is called "Lemuria," and here, it is claimed, the human
race originated.  An examination of the geological formation of
our Atlantic States proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which
the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud--aggregating a
thickness of 45,000 feet--are deposited, that they came from the
north and east. "They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands,
the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies
of erosion; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely
have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is
reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must
have occupied the region now covered by the North Atlantic before
America began to be, and onward at least through the palæozoic
ages of American history.  The proof of this fact is that the great
strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source
in the east:  the maximum thickness of the palæozoic rocks of the
Appalachian formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in Pennsylvania and
Virginia, while their minimum thickness in Illinois and Missouri
is from 3000 to 4000 feet; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks
predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the
deposits were of which the rocks are composed; the finer materials
were carried farther west by the water." ("New Amer.  Cyclop.,"
art. 'Coal'.)


The history of the growth of the European Continent, as recounted
by Professor Geikie, gives an instructive illustration of the
relations of geology to geography.  The earliest European land, he
says, appears to have existed in the north and north-west, comprising
Scandinavia, Finland, and the northwest of the British area, and
to have extended thence through boreal and arctic latitudes into
North America.  Of the height and mass of this primeval land some
idea may be formed by considering the enormous bulk of the material
derived from its disintegration.  In the Silurian formations of
the British Islands alone there is a mass of rock, worn from the
land, which would form a mountain-chain extending from Marseilles
to the North Cape (1800 miles), with a mean breadth of over
thirty-three miles, and an average height of 16,000 feet.

As the great continent which stood where the Atlantic Ocean now is
wore away, the continents of America and Europe were formed; and
there seems to have been from remote times a continuous rising,
still going on, of the new lands, and a sinking of the old ones.
Within five thousand years, or since the age of the "polished
stone," the shores of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway have risen from
200 to 600 feet.

Professor Winchell says ("The Preadamites," p. 437):

We are in the midst of great, changes, and are scarcely conscious of
it.  We have seen worlds in flames, and have felt a cornet strike
the earth.  We have seen the whole coast of South America lifted up
bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour.  We have
seen the Andes sink 220 feet in seventy years... Vast transpositions
have taken place in the coast-line of China.  The ancient capital,
located, in all probability, in an accessible position near the
centre of the empire, has now become nearly surrounded by water,
and its site is on the peninsula of Corea....  There was a time
when the rocky barriers of the Thracian Bosphorus gave way and the
Black Sea subsided.  It had covered a vast area in the north and
east.  Now this area became drained, and was known as the ancient
Lectonia:  it is now the prairie region of Russia, and the granary
of Europe."

There is ample geological evidence that at one time the entire area
of Great Britain was 'submerged to the depth of at least seventeen
hundred feet'. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick
beds of sand, gravel, and clay, termed by geologists "the Northern
Drift." The British Islands rose again from the sea, bearing these
water-deposits on their bosom.  What is now Sicily once lay deep
beneath the sea:  A subsequently rose 3000 feet above the sea-level.
The Desert of Sahara was once under water, and its now burning
sands are a deposit of the sea.

Geologically speaking, the submergence of Atlantis, within the
historical period, was simply the last of a number of vast changes,
by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the
Atlantic had gradually sunk under the ocean, while the new lands
were rising on both sides of it.

We come now to the second question, Is it possible that Atlantis
could have been suddenly destroyed by such a convulsion of nature
as is described by Plato? The ancients regarded this part of
his story as a fable.  With the wider knowledge which scientific
research has afforded the modern world, we can affirm that such an
event is not only possible, but that the history of even the last
two centuries has furnished us with striking parallels for it.
We now possess the record of numerous islands lifted above the
waters, and others sunk beneath the waves, accompanied by storms
and earthquakes similar to those which marked the destruction of

In 1783 Iceland was visited by convulsions more tremendous than
any recorded in the modern annals of that country.  About a month
previous to the eruption on the main-land a submarine volcano burst
forth in the sea, at a distance of thirty miles from the shore.
It ejected so much pumice that the sea was covered with it for a
distance of 150 miles, and ships were considerably impeded in their
course.  A new island was thrown up, consisting of high cliffs,
which was claimed by his Danish Majesty, and named "Nyöe," or the
New Island; but before a year had elapsed it sunk beneath the sea,
leaving a reef of rocks thirty fathoms under water.

The earthquake of 1783 in Iceland destroyed 9000 people out of
a population of 50,000; twenty villages were consumed by fire or
inundated by water, and a mass of lava thrown out greater than the
entire bulk of Mont Blanc."

On the 8th of October, 1822, a great earthquake occurred on the
island of Java, near the mountain of Galung Gung. "A loud explosion
was heard, the earth shook, and immense columns of hot water and
boiling mud, mixed with burning brimstone, ashes, and lapilli, of
the size of nuts, were projected from the mountain like a water-spout,
with such prodigious violence that large quantities fell beyond the
river Tandoi, which is forty miles distant....  The first eruption
lasted nearly five hours; and on the following days the rain fell
ill torrents, and the rivers, densely charged with mud, deluged
the country far and wide.  At the end of four days (October 12th),
a second eruption occurred, more violent than the first, in which
hot water and mud were again vomited, and great blocks of basalt
were thrown to the distance of seven miles from the volcano.  There
was at the same time a violent earthquake, the face of the mountain
was utterly changed, its summits broken down, and one side, which
had been covered with trees, became an enormous gulf in the form
of a semicircle.  Over 4000 persons were killed and 114 villages
destroyed." (Lyell's "Principles of Geology," p. 430.)

In 1831 a new island was born in the Mediterranean, near the coast
of Sicily.  It was called Graham's Island.  It came up with an
earthquake, and "a water-spout sixty feet high and eight hundred
yards in circumference rising from the sea." In about a month the
island was two hundred feet high and three miles in circumference;
it soon, however, stink beneath the sea.

The Canary Islands were probably a part of the original empire of
Atlantis.  On the 1st of September, 1730, the earth split open near
Year, in the island of Lancerota.  In one night a considerable hill
of ejected matter was thrown up; in a few days another vent opened
and gave out a lava stream which overran several villages.  It
flowed at first rapidly, like water, but became afterward heavy and
slow, like honey.  On the 11th of September more lava flowed out,
covering up a village, and precipitating itself with a horrible
roar into the sea.  Dead fish floated on the waters in indescribable
multitudes, or were thrown dying on the shore; the cattle throughout
the country dropped lifeless to the ground, suffocated by putrid
vapors, which condensed and fell down in drops.  These manifestations
were accompanied by a storm such as the people of the country had
never known before.  These dreadful commotions lasted for 'five
years'. The lavas thrown out covered 'one-third of the whole island
of Lancerota'.


The Gulf of Santorin, in the Grecian Archipelago, has been for
two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations.  Pliny
informs us that in the year 186 B.C. the island of "Old Kaimeni,"
or the Sacred Isle, was lifted up from the sea; and in A.D. 19 the
island of "Thia" (the Divine) made its appearance.  In A.D. 1573
another island was created, called "the small sunburnt island."
In 1848 a volcanic convulsion of three months' duration created a
great shoal; an earthquake destroyed many houses in Thera, and the
sulphur and hydrogen issuing from the sea killed 50 persons and
1000 domestic animals.  A recent examination of these islands shows
that the whole mass of Santorin 'has sunk, since its projection
from the sea, over' 1200 'feet'.

The fort and village of Sindree, on the eastern arm of the Indus,
above Luckput, was submerged in 1819 by an earthquake, together
with a tract of country 2000 square miles in extent.

"In 1828 Sir A. Burnes went in a boat to the ruins of Sindree, where
a single remaining tower was seen in the midst of a wide expanse of
sea.  The tops of the ruined walls still rose two or three feet
above the level of the water; and, standing on one of these, he could
behold nothing in the horizon but water, except in one direction,
where a blue streak of land to the north indicated the Ullah Bund.
This scene," says Lyell ("Principles of Geology," p. 462), "presents
to the imagination a lively picture of the revolutions now in
progress on the earth-a waste of waters where a few years before all
was land, and the only land visible consisting of ground uplifted
by a recent earthquake."

We give from Lyell's great work the following curious pictures of
the appearance of the Fort of Sindree before and after the inundation.


In April, 1815, one of the most frightful eruptions recorded
in history occurred in the province of Tomboro, in the island
of Sumbawa, about two hundred miles from the eastern extremity of
Java.  It lasted from April 5th to July of that year; but was most
violent on the 11th and 12th of July.  The sound of the explosions
was heard for nearly one thousand miles. 'Out of a population of'
12,000', in the province of Tombora, only twenty-six individuals
escaped'. "Violent whirlwinds carried up men, horses, and cattle
into the air, tore tip the largest trees by the roots, and covered
the whole sea with floating timber." (Raffles's "History of Java,"
vol. i., p. 28.) 'The ashes darkened the air'; "the floating cinders
to the westward of Sumatra formed, on the 12th of April, a mass two
feet thick and several miles in extent, 'through which ships with
difficulty forced their way'." The darkness in daytime was more
profound than the blackest night. "The town called Tomboro, on the
west side of Sumbawa, was overflowed by the sea, which encroached
upon the shore, 'so that the water remained permanently eighteen
feet deep in places where there was land before'. The area covered
by the convulsion was 1000 English miles in circumference. "'In the
island of Amboyna, in the same month and year, the ground opened,
threw out water and then closed again'." (Raffles's "History of
Java," vol. i., p. 25.)


But it is at that point of the European coast nearest to the site
of Atlantis at Lisbon that the most tremendous earthquake of modern
times has occurred.  On the 1st of November, 1775, a sound of
thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterward a violent
shock threw down the greater part of the city. 'In six minutes
60,000 persons perished'. A great concourse of people had collected
for safety upon a new quay, built entirely of marble; but suddenly
it sunk down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead
bodies ever floated to the surface.  A great number of small boats
and vessels anchored near it, and, full of people, were swallowed
up as in a whirlpool.  No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again
to the surface; the water where the quay went down is now 600 feet
deep.  The area covered by this earthquake was very great.  Humboldt
says that a portion of 'the earth's surface, four times as great as
the size of Europe, was simultaneously shaken'. It extended from
the Baltic to the West Indies, and from Canada to Algiers.  At eight
leagues from Morocco the ground opened and swallowed a village of
10,000 inhabitants, and closed again over them.

It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the
bed of the Atlantic, at or near the buried island of Atlantis, and
that it was a successor of the great earth throe which, thousands
of years before, had brought destruction upon that land.


Ireland also lies near the axis of this great volcanic area,
reaching from the Canaries to Iceland, and it has been many times
in the past the seat of disturbance.  The ancient annals contain
numerous accounts of eruptions, preceded by volcanic action.  In
1490, at the Ox Mountains, Sligo, one occurred by which one hundred
persons and numbers of cattle were destroyed; and a volcanic
eruption in May, 1788, on the hill of Knocklade, Antrim, poured a
stream of lava sixty yards wide for thirty-nine hours, and destroyed
the village of Ballyowen and all the inhabitants, save a man and
his wife and two children. ("Amer.  Cyclop.," art. 'Ireland'.)

While we find Lisbon and Ireland, east of Atlantis, subjected to
these great earthquake shocks, the West India Islands, west of the
same centre, have been repeatedly visited in a similar manner.  In
1692 Jamaica suffered from a violent earthquake.  The earth opened,
and great quantities of water were cast out; many people were
swallowed up in these rents; the earth caught some of them by the
middle and squeezed them to death; the heads of others only appeared
above-ground.  A tract of land near the town of Port Royal, about
a thousand acres in extent, sunk down in less than one minute, and
the sea immediately rolled in.

The Azore Islands are undoubtedly the peaks of the mountains of
Atlantis.  They are even yet the centre of great volcanic activity.
They have suffered severely from eruptions and earthquakes.  In
1808 a volcano rose suddenly in San Jorge to the height of 3500
feet, and burnt for six days, desolating the entire island.  In 1811
a volcano rose from the sea, near San Miguel, creating an island
300 feet high, which was named Sambrina, but which soon sunk beneath
the sea.  Similar volcanic eruptions occurred in the Azores in 1691
and 1720.

Along a great line, a mighty fracture in the surface of the globe,
stretching north and south through the Atlantic, we find a continuous
series of active or extinct volcanoes.  In Iceland we have Oerafa,
Hecla, and Rauda Kamba; another in Pico, in the Azores; the peak
of Teneriffe; Fogo, in one of the Cape de Verde Islands:  while of
extinct volcanoes we have several in Iceland, and two in Madeira;
while Fernando de Noronha, the island of Ascension, St.  Helena,
and Tristan d'Acunha are all of volcanic origin. ("Cosmos," vol.
v., p. 331.)

The following singular passage we quote entire from Lyell's Principles
of Geology," p. 436:

"In the 'Nautical Magazine' for 1835, p. 642, and for 1838, p. 361,
and in the 'Comptes Rendus', April, 1838, accounts are given of a
series of volcanic phenomena, earthquakes, troubled water, floating
scoria, and columns of smoke, which have been observed at intervals
since the middle of the last century, in a space of open sea between
longitudes 20° and 22' W., about half a degree south of the equator.
These facts, says Mr.  Darwin, seem to show that an island or
archipelago is in process of formation in the middle of the Atlantic.
A line joining St.  Helena and Ascension would, if prolonged,
intersect this slowly nascent focus of volcanic action.  Should
land be eventually formed here, it will not be the first that has
been produced by igneous action in this ocean since it was inhabited
by the existing species of testacea.  At Porto Praya, in St.
Jago, one of the Azores, a horizontal, calcareous stratum occurs,
containing shells of recent marine species, covered by a great sheet
of basalt eighty feet thick.  It would be difficult to estimate
too highly the commercial and political importance which a group of
islands might acquire if, in the next two or three thousand years,
they should rise in mid-ocean between St.  Helena and Ascension."

These facts would seem to show that the great fires which destroyed
Atlantis are still smouldering in the depths of the ocean; that the
vast oscillations which carried Plato's continent beneath the sea
may again bring it, with all its buried treasures, to the light;
and that even the wild imagination of Jules Verne, when he described
Captain Nemo, in his diving armor, looking down upon the temples and
towers of the lost island, ht by the fires of submarine volcanoes,
had some groundwork of possibility to build upon.

But who will say, in the presence of all the facts here enumerated,
that the submergence of Atlantis, in some great world-shaking
cataclysm, is either impossible or improbable? As will be shown
hereafter, when we come to discuss the Flood legends, every particular
which has come down to us of the destruction of Atlantis has been
duplicated in some of the accounts just given.

We conclude, therefore:  1. That it is proven beyond question, by
geological evidence, that vast masses of land once existed in the
region where Atlantis is located by Plato, and that therefore such
an island must have existed; 2. That there is nothing improbable
or impossible in the statement that it was destroyed suddenly by
an earthquake "in one dreadful night and day."



Suppose we were to find in mid-Atlantic, in front of the Mediterranean,
in the neighborhood of the Azores, the remains of an immense island,
sunk beneath the sea--one thousand miles in width, and two or three
thousand miles long--would it not go far to confirm the statement
of Plato that, "beyond the strait where you place the Pillars of
Hercules, there was an island larger than Asia (Minor) and Libya
combined," called Atlantis? And suppose we found that the Azores
were the mountain peaks of this drowned island, and were torn and
rent by tremendous volcanic convulsions; while around them, descending
into the sea, were found great strata of lava; and the whole face
of the sunken land was covered for thousands of miles with volcanic
débris, would we not be obliged to confess that these facts furnished
strong corroborative proofs of the truth of Plato's statement, that
"in one day and one fatal night there came mighty earthquakes and
inundations which ingulfed that mighty people? Atlantis disappeared
beneath the sea; and then that sea became inaccessible on account
of the quantity of mud which the ingulfed island left in its place."


And all these things recent investigation has proved conclusively.
Deep-sea soundings have been made by ships of different nations;
the United States ship 'Dolphin', the German frigate 'Gazelle', and
the British ships 'Hydra', 'Porcupine', and 'Challenger' have mapped
out the bottom of the Atlantic, and the result is the revelation
of a great elevation, reaching from a point on the coast of the
British Islands southwardly to the coast of South America, at Cape
Orange, thence south-eastwardly to the coast of Africa, and thence
southwardly to Tristan d'Acunha.  I give one map showing the profile
of this elevation in the frontispiece, and another map, showing
the outlines of the submerged land, on page 47. It rises about 9000
feet above the great Atlantic depths around it, and in the Azores,
St.  Paul's Rocks, Ascension, and Tristan d'Acunha it reaches the
surface of the ocean.

Evidence that this elevation was once dry land is found in the fact
that "the inequalities, the mountains and valleys of its surface,
could never have been produced in accordance with any laws for the
deposition of sediment, nor by submarine elevation; but, on the
contrary, must have been carved by agencies 'acting above the water
level'." ('Scientific American', July 28th, 1877.)

Mr.  J. Starke Gardner, the eminent English geologist, is of the
opinion that in the Eocene Period a great extension of land existed
to the west of Cornwall.  Referring to the location of the "Dolphin"
and "Challenger" ridges, he asserts that "a great tract of land
formerly existed where the sea now is, and that Cornwall, the Scilly
and Channel Islands, Ireland and Brittany, are the remains of its
highest summits." ('Popular Science Review', July, 1878.)

Here, then, we have the backbone of the ancient continent which once
occupied the whole of the Atlantic Ocean, and from whose washings
Europe and America were constructed; the deepest parts of the ocean,
3500 fathoms deep, represent those portions which sunk first, to
wit, the plains to the east and west of the central mountain range;
some of the loftiest peaks of this range--the Azores, St.  Paul's,
Ascension, Tristan d'Acunba--are still above the ocean level; while
the great body of Atlantis lies a few hundred fathoms beneath the
sea.  In these "connecting ridges" we see the pathway which once
extended between the New World and the Old, and by means of which
the plants and animals of one continent travelled to the other;
and by the same avenues black men found their way, as we will show
hereafter, from Africa to America, and red men from America to

And, as I have shown, the same great law which gradually depressed
the Atlantic continent, and raised the lands east and west of it,
is still at work:  the coast of Greenland, which may be regarded as
the northern extremity of the Atlantic continent, is still sinking
"so rapidly that ancient buildings on low rock-islands are now
submerged, and the Greenlander has learned by experience never to
build near the water's edge," ("North Amer. of Antiq.," p. 504.)
The same subsidence is going on along the shore of South Carolina
and Georgia, while the north of Europe and the Atlantic coast of
South America are rising rapidly.  Along the latter raised beaches,
1180 miles long and from 100 to 1300 feet high, have been traced.

When these connecting ridges extended from America to Europe and
Africa, they shut off the flow of the tropical waters of the ocean
to the north: there was then no "Gulf Stream;" the land-locked
ocean that laved the shores of Northern Europe was then intensely
cold; and the result was the Glacial Period.  When the barriers of
Atlantis sunk sufficiently to permit the natural expansion of the
heated water of the tropics to the north, the ice and snow which
covered Europe gradually disappeared; the Gulf Stream flowed around
Atlantis, and it still retains the circular motion first imparted
to it by the presence of that island.

The officers of the Challenger found the entire ridge of Atlantis
covered with volcanic deposits; these are the subsided mud which,
as Plato tells us, rendered the sea impassable after the destruction
of the island.

It does not follow that, at the time Atlantis was finally ingulfed,
the ridges connecting it with America and Africa rose above the
water-level; these may have gradually subsided into the sea, or
have gone down in cataclysms such as are described in the Central
American books.  The Atlantis of Plato may have been confined to
the "Dolphin Ridge" of our map.


The United States sloop 'Gettysburg' has also made some remarkable
discoveries in a neighboring field.  I quote from John James Wild
(in 'Nature', March 1st, 1877, p. 377):

"The recently announced discovery by Commander Gorringe, of the
United States sloop 'Gettysburg', of a bank of soundings bearing
N. 85° W., and distant 130 miles from Cape St.  Vincent, during the
last voyage of the vessel across the Atlantic, taken in connection
with previous soundings obtained in the same region of the North
Atlantic, suggests the probable existence of a submarine ridge or
plateau connecting the island of Madeira with the coast of Portugal,
and the probable subaerial connection in prehistoric times of that
island with the south-western extremity of Europe.....  "These
soundings reveal the existence of a channel of an average depth of
from 2000 to 3000 fathoms, extending in a northeasterly direction
from its entrance between Madeira and the Canary Islands toward
Cape St.  Vincent....  Commander Gorringe, when about 150 miles
from the Strait of Gibraltar, found that the soundings decreased
from 2700 fathoms to 1600 fathoms in the distance of a few miles.
The subsequent soundings (five miles apart) gave 900, 500, 400,
and 100 fathoms; and eventually a depth of 32 fathoms was obtained,
in which the vessel anchored.  The bottom was found to consist of
live pink coral, and the position of the bank in lat. 36° 29' N.,
long. 11° 33' W."

The map on page 51 shows the position of these elevations.  They
must have been originally islands;--stepping-stones, as it were,
between Atlantis and the coast of Europe.

Sir C. Wyville Thomson found that the specimens of the fauna of the
coast of Brazil, brought up in his dredging-machine, are similar to
those of the western coast of Southern Europe.  This is accounted
for by the connecting ridges reaching from Europe to South America.

A member of the 'Challenger' staff, in a lecture delivered in
London, soon after the termination of the expedition, gave it as
his opinion that the great submarine plateau is the remains of "the
lost Atlantis."



Proofs are abundant that there must have been at one time uninterrupted
land communication between Europe and America.  In the words of a
writer upon this subject,

"When the animals and plants of the Old and New World are compared,
one cannot but be struck with their identity; all or nearly all
belong to the same genera, while many, even of the species, are
common to both continents.  This is most important in its bearing
on our theory, as indicating that they radiated from a common centre
'after the Glacial Period'....  The hairy mammoth, woolly-haired
rhinoceros, the Irish elk, the musk-ox, the reindeer, the glutton,
the lemming, etc., more or less accompanied this flora, and their
remains are always found in the post-glacial deposits of Europe
as low down as the South of France.  In the New World beds of the
same age contain similar remains, indicating that they came from
a common centre, and were spread out over both continents alike."
('Westminster Review', January, 1872, p. 19.)

Recent discoveries in the fossil beds of the Bad Lands of Nebraska
prove that the horse originated in America.  Professor Marsh, of
Yale College, has identified the several preceding forms from which
it was developed, rising, in the course of ages, from a creature
not larger than a fox until, by successive steps, it developed into
the true horse.  How did the wild horse pass from America to Europe
and Asia if there was not continuous land communication between
the two continents? He seems to have existed in Europe in a wild
state prior to his domestication by man.

The fossil remains of the camel are found in India, Africa, South
America, and in Kansas.  The existing alpacas and llamas of South
America are but varieties of the camel family.

The cave bear, whose remains are found associated with the hones of
the mammoth and the bones and works of man in the caves of Europe,
was identical with the grizzly bear of our Rocky Mountains.  The
musk-ox, whose relics are found in the same deposits, now roams
the wilds of Arctic America.  The glutton of Northern Europe, in
the Stone Age, is identical with the wolverine of the United States.
According to Rutimeyer, the ancient bison ('Bos priscus') of Europe
was identical with the existing American buffalo. "Every stage
between the ancient cave bison and the European aurochs can be
traced." The Norway elk, now nearly extinct, is identical with the
American moose.  The 'Cervus Americanus' found in Kentucky was as
large as the Irish elk, which it greatly resembled.  The lagomys,
or tailless hare, of the European eaves, is now found in the colder
regions of North America.  The reindeer, which once occupied Europe
as far down as France, was the same as the reindeer of America.
Remains of the cave lion of Europe ('Felix speloæ'), a larger
beast than the largest of the existing species, have been found at
Natchez, Mississippi.  The European cave wolf was identical with
the American wolf.

Cattle were domesticated among the people of Switzerland during
the earliest part of the Stone Period (Darwin's "Animals Under
Domestication," vol. i., p. 103), that is to say, before the
Bronze Age and the Age of Iron.  Even at that remote period they
had already, by long-continued selection, been developed out of
wild forms akin to the American buffalo.  M. Gervais ("Hist.  Nat.
des Mammifores," vol. xi., p.  191) concludes that the wild race
from which our domestic sheep was derived is now extinct.  The
remains of domestic sheep are found in the debris of the Swiss
lake-dwellings during the Stone Age.  The domestic horse, ass,
lion, and goat also date back to a like great antiquity.  We have
historical records 7000 years old, and during that time no similar
domestication of a wild animal has been made.  This fact speaks
volumes as to the vast period,, of time during which man must have
lived in a civilized state to effect the domestication of so many
and such useful animals.

And when we turn from the fauna to the flora, we find the same
state of things.

An examination of the fossil beds of Switzerland of the Miocene Age
reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species
of flower-bearing plants, besides mosses, ferns, etc.  The total
number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds, cryptogamous
as well as phænogamous, is upward of three thousand. 'The majority
of these species have migrated to America'. There were others that
passed into Asia, Africa, and even to Australia.  The American types
are, however, in the largest proportion.  The analogues of the flora
of the Miocene Age of Europe now grow in the forests of Virginia,
North and South Carolina, and Florida; they include such familiar
examples as magnolias, tulip-trees, evergreen oaks, maples, plane-trees,
robinas, sequoias, etc.  It would seem to be impossible that these
trees could have migrated from Switzerland to America unless there
was unbroken land communication between the two continents.

It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora
of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there
communication by land, over which the plants of one continent could
extend to another, but that man must have existed, and have helped
this transmigration, in the case of certain plants that were
incapable of making the journey unaided.

Otto Kuntze, a distinguished German botanist, who has spent many
years in the tropics, announces his conclusion that "In America and
in Asia the principal domesticated tropical plants 'are represented
by the same species'." He instances the 'Manihot utilissima',
whose roots yield a fine flour; the tarro ('Colocasia esculenta'),
the Spanish or red pepper, the tomato, the bamboo, the guava, the
mango-fruit, and especially the banana.  He denies that the American
origin of tobacco, maize, and the cocoa-nut is proved.  He refers
to the 'Paritium tiliaceum', a malvaceous plant, hardly noticed
by Europeans, but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics,
and cultivated everywhere in the East and West Indies; it supplies to
the natives of these regions so far apart their ropes and cordage.
It is always seedless in a cultivated state.  It existed in America
before the arrival of Columbus.

But Professor Kuntze pays especial attention to the banana, or
plantain.  The banana is seedless.  It is found throughout tropical
Asia and Africa.  Professor Kuntze asks, "In what way was this
plant, which cannot stand a voyage through the temperate zone,
carried to America?" And yet it was generally cultivated in America
before 1492. Says Professor Kuntze, "It must be remembered that
the plantain is a tree-like, herbaceous plant, possessing no easily
transportable bulbs, like the potato or the dahlia, nor propagable
by cuttings, like the willow or the poplar.  It has only a perennial
root, which, once planted, needs hardly any care, and yet produces the
most abundant crop of any known tropical plant." He then proceeds
to discuss how it could have passed from Asia to America.  He admits
that the roots must have been transported from one country to the
other by civilized man.  He argues that it could not have crossed
the Pacific from Asia to America, because the Pacific is nearly
thrice or four times as wide as the Atlantic.  The only way he can
account for the plantain reaching America is to suppose that it
was carried there when the North Pole had a tropical climate! Is
there any proof that civilized man existed at the North Pole when
it possessed the climate of Africa?

Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the plantain, or banana,
was cultivated by the people of Atlantis, and carried by their
civilized agricultural colonies to the east and the west? Do
we not find a confirmation of this view in the fact alluded to by
Professor Kuntze in these words:  "A cultivated plant which does not
possess seeds must have been under culture for a very long period--we
have not in Europe a single exclusively seedless, berry-bearing,
cultivated plant--and hence it is perhaps fair to infer that these
plants 'were cultivated as early as the beginning of the middle of
the Diluvial Period'."

Is it possible that a plant of this kind could have been cultivated
for this immense period of time in both Asia and America? Where
are the two nations, agricultural and highly civilized, on those
continents by whom it was so cultivated? What has become of them?
Where are the traces of their civilization? All the civilizations
of Europe, Asia, and Africa radiated from the Mediterranean; the
Hindoo-Aryans advanced from the north-west; they were kindred to
the Persians, who were next-door neighbors to the Arabians (cousins
of the Phoenicians), and who lived along-side of the Egyptians,
who had in turn derived their civilization from the Phoenicians.

It would be a marvel of marvels if 'one' nation, on 'one' continent,
had cultivated the banana for such a vast period of time until
it became seedless; the nation retaining a peaceful, continuous,
agricultural civilization during all that time.  But to suppose that
two nations could have cultivated the same plant, under the same
circumstances, on two different continents, for the same unparalleled
lapse of time, is supposing an impossibility.

We find just such a civilization as was necessary, according to
Plato, and under just such a climate, in Atlantis and nowhere else.
We have found it reaching, by its contiguous islands, within one
hundred and fifty miles of the coast of Europe on the one side,
and almost touching the West India Islands on the other, while, by
its connecting ridges, it bound together Brazil and Africa.

But it may be said these animals and plants may have passed from
Asia to America across the Pacific by the continent of Lemuria; or
there may have been continuous land communication at one time at
Behring's Strait.  True; but an examination of the flora of the
Pacific States shows that very many of the trees and plants common
to Europe and the Atlantic States are not to be seen west of the
Rocky Mountains.  The magnificent magnolias, the tulip-trees, the
plane-trees, etc., which were found existing in the Miocene Age in
Switzerland, and are found at the present day in the United States,
are altogether lacking on the Pacific coast.  The sources of supply
of that region seem to have been far inferior to the sources of
supply of the Atlantic States.  Professor Asa Gray tells us that,
out of sixty-six genera and one hundred and fifty-five species
found in the forests cast of the Rocky Mountains, only thirty-one
genera and seventy-eight species are found west of the mountains.
The Pacific coast possesses no papaw, no linden or basswood, no
locust-trees, no cherry-tree large enough for a timber tree, no
gum-trees, no sorrel-tree, nor kalmia; no persimmon-trees, not a
holly, only one ash that may be called a timber tree, no catalpa
or sassafras, not a single elm or hackberry, not a mulberry, not
a hickory, or a beech, or a true chestnut.  These facts would seem
to indicate that the forest flora of North America entered it from
the east, and that the Pacific States possess only those fragments
of it that were able to struggle over or around the great dividing

We thus see that the flora and fauna of America and Europe testify
not only to the existence of Atlantis, but to the fact that in an
earlier age it must have extended from the shores of one continent
to those of the other; and by this bridge of land the plants and
animals of one region passed to the other.

The cultivation of the cotton-plant and the manufacture of its product
was known to both the Old and New World.  Herodotus describes it
(450 B.C.) as the tree of India that bears a fleece more beautiful
than that of the sheep.  Columbus found the natives of the West
Indies using cotton cloth.  It was also found in Mexico and Peru.
It is a significant fact that the cotton-plant has been found
growing wild in many parts of America, but never in the Old World.
This would seem to indicate that the plant was a native of America;
and this is confirmed by the superiority of American cotton, and the
further fact that the plants taken from America to India constantly
degenerate, while those taken from India to America as constantly

There is a question whether the potato, maize, and tobacco were
not cultivated in China ages before Columbus discovered America.
A recent traveller says, "The interior of China, along the course
of the Yang-tse-Kiang, is a land full of wonders.  In one place
piscicultural nurseries line the banks for nearly fifty miles.  All
sorts of inventions, the cotton-gin included, claimed by Europeans
and Americans, are to be found there forty centuries old.  Plants,
yielding drugs of great value, without number, the familiar tobacco
and potato, maize, white and yellow corn, and other plants 'believed
to be indigenous to America, have been cultivated there from time

Bonafous ("Histoire Naturelle du Mais," Paris, 1826) attributes a
European or Asiatic origin to maize.  The word maize, (Indian corn)
is derived from 'mahiz' or 'mahis', the name of the plant in the
language of the Island of Hayti.  And yet, strange to may, in the
Lettish and Livonian languages, in the north of Europe, 'mayse'
signifies bread; in Irish, 'maise' is food, and in the Old High German,
'maz' is meat.  May not likewise the Spanish 'maiz' have antedated
the time of Columbus, and borne testimony to early intercommunication
between the people of the Old and New Worlds?

It is to Atlantis we must look for the origin of nearly all our
valuable plants.  Darwin says ("Animals and Plants under Domestication,"
vol. i., p. 374), "It has often been remarked that we do not owe a
single useful plant to Australia, or the Cape of Good Hope--countries
abounding to an unparalleled degree with endemic species--or to New
Zealand, or to America south of the Plata; and, according to some
authors, not to America north of Mexico." In other words, the
domesticated plants are only found within the limits of what I
shall show hereafter was the Empire of Atlantis and its colonies;
for only here was to be found an ancient, long-continuing civilization,
capable of developing from a wild state those plants which were
valuable to man, including all the cereals on which to-day civilized
man depends for subsistence.  M. Alphonse de Candolle tells us that
we owe 33 useful plants to Mexico, Peru, and Chili.  According to
the same high authority, of 157 valuable cultivated plants 85 can
be traced back to their wild state; as to 40, there is doubt as
to their origin; while 32 are utterly unknown in their aboriginal
condition. ("Geograph.  Botan.  Raisonnée," 1855, pp. 810-991.)
Certain roses--the imperial lily, the tuberose and the lilac--are
said to have been cultivated from such a vast antiquity that they
are not known in their wild state. (Darwin, "Animals and Plants,"
vol. i., p.  370.) And these facts are the more remarkable because,
as De Candolle has shown, all the plants historically known to
have been first cultivated in Europe still exist there in the wild
state. ('Ibid'.) The inference is strong that the great cereals--wheat,
oats, barley, rye, and maize--must have been first domesticated in
a vast antiquity, or in some continent which has since disappeared,
carrying the original wild plants with it.


Darwin quotes approvingly the opinion of Mr.  Bentham (Hist.  Notes
Cult.  Plants"), "as the result of all the most reliable evidence
that none of the Ceralia--wheat, rye, barley, and oats--exist or
have existed truly wild in their present state." In the Stone Age
of Europe five varieties of wheat and three of barley were cultivated.
(Darwin, "Animals and Plants," vol. i., p. 382.) He says that
it may be inferred, from the presence in the lake habitations of
Switzerland of a variety of wheat known as the Egyptian wheat, and
from the nature of the weeds that grew among their crops, "that the
lake inhabitants either still kept up commercial intercourse with
some southern people, or had originally proceeded as colonists from
the south." I should argue that they were colonists from the land
where wheat and barley were first domesticated, to wit, Atlantis.
And when the Bronze Age came, we find oats and rye making their
appearance with the weapons of bronze, together with a peculiar kind
of pea.  Darwin concludes ('Ibid'., vol. i., p. 385) that wheat,
barley, rye, and oats were either descended from ten or fifteen
distinct species, "most of which are now unknown or extinct," or
from four or eight species closely resembling our present forms,
or so "widely different as to escape identification;" in which
latter case, he says, "man must have cultivated the cereals at an
'enormously remote period'," and at that time practised "some degree
of selection."

Rawlinson ("Ancient Monarchies," vol. i., p. 578) expresses the
opinion that the ancient Assyrians possessed the pineapple. "The
representation on the monuments is so exact that I can scarce]
doubt the pineapple being intended." (See Layard's "Nineveh and
Babylon," p. 338.) The pineapple ('Bromelia ananassa') is supposed
to be of American origin, and unknown to Europe before the time
of Columbus; and yet, apart from the revelations of the Assyrian
monuments, there has been some dispute upon this point. ("Amer.
Cyclop.," vol. xiii., p. .528.)


It is not even certain that the use of tobacco was not known to
the colonists from Atlantis settled in Ireland in an age long prior
to Sir Walter Raleigh.  Great numbers of pipes have been found in
the raths and tumuli of Ireland, which, there is every reason to
believe, were placed there by men of the Prehistoric Period.  The
illustration on p. 63 represents some of the so-called "Danes'
pipes" now in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy.  The Danes
entered Ireland many centuries before the time of Columbus, and if
the pipes are theirs, they must have used tobacco, or some substitute
for it, at that early period.  It is probable, however, that the
tumuli of Ireland antedate the Danes thousands of years.


Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of Ireland with the
accompanying picture of an Indian pipe of the Stone Age of New
Jersey.  ("Smithsonian Rep.," 1875, p. 342.)

Recent Portuguese travellers have found the most remote tribes of
savage negroes in Africa, holding no commercial intercourse with
Europeans, using strangely shaped pipes, in which they smoked a plant
of the country.  Investigations in America lead to the conclusion
that tobacco was first burnt as an incense to the gods, the priest
alone using the pipe; and from this beginning the extraordinary
practice spread to the people, and thence over all the world.  It
may have crossed the Atlantic in a remote age, and have subsequently
disappeared with the failure of retrograding colonists to raise
the tobacco-plant.




Having demonstrated, as we think successfully, that there is no
improbability in the statement of Plato that a large island, almost
a continent, existed in the past in the Atlantic Ocean, nay, more,
that it is a geological certainty that it did exist; and having
further shown that it is not improbable but very possible that it
may have sunk beneath the sea in the manner described by Plato,
we come now to the next question, Is the memory of this gigantic
catastrophe preserved among the traditions of mankind? We think
there can be no doubt that an affirmative answer must be given to
this question.

An event, which in a few hours destroyed, amid horrible convulsions,
an entire country, with all its vast population-that Population the
ancestors of the great races of both continents, and they themselves
the custodians of the civilization of their age-could not fail
to impress with terrible force the minds of men, and to project
its gloomy shadow over all human history.  And hence, whether we
turn to the Hebrews, the Aryans, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the
Cushites, or the inhabitants of America, we find everywhere traditions
of the Deluge; and we shall see that all these traditions point
unmistakably to the destruction of Atlantis.

François Lenormant says ('Contemp.  Rev'., Nov., 1879):

"The result authorizes us to affirm the story of the Deluge to be
a universal tradition among all branches of the human race, with
the one exception, however, of the black.  Now, a recollection thus
precise and concordant cannot be a myth voluntarily invented.  No
religious or cosmogonic myth presents this character of universality.
It must arise from the reminiscence of a real and terrible event,
so powerfully impressing the imagination of the first ancestors
of our race as never to have been forgotten by their descendants.
This cataclysm. must have occurred near the first cradle of mankind,
and before the dispersion of the families from which the principal
races were to spring; for it would be at once improbable and
uncritical to admit that, at as many different points of the globe
as we should have to assume in order to explain the wide spread
of these traditions, local phenomena so exactly alike should
have occurred, their memory having assumed an identical form, and
presenting circumstances that need not necessarily have occurred
to the mind in such cases.

"Let us observe, however, that probably the diluvian tradition is
not primitive, but imported in America; that it undoubtedly wears
the aspect of an importation among the rare populations of the yellow
race where it is found; and lastly, that it is doubtful among the
Polynesians of Oceania.  There will still remain three great races
to which it is undoubtedly peculiar, 'who have not borrowed it from
each other', but among whom the tradition is primitive, and goes
back to the most ancient times, and these three races are precisely
the only ones of which the Bible speaks as being 'descended
from Noah'--those of which it gives the ethnic filiation in the
tenth chapter of Genesis.  This observation.  which I hold to be
undeniable, attaches a singularly historic and exact value to the
tradition as recorded by the Sacred Book, even if, on the other
hand, it may lead to giving it a 'more limited geographical and
ethnological significance'....

"But, as the case now stands, we do not hesitate to declare that,
far from being a myth, the Biblical Deluge 'is a real and historical
fact', having, to say the least, left its impress on the ancestors
of three races--Aryan, or Indo-European, Semitic, or Syro-Arabian,
Chamitic, or Cushite--that is to say, on the 'three great civilized
races of the ancient world', those which constitute the higher
humanity--before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated,
and in the part of Asia they together inhabited."

Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as M. Schwoebel
(Paris, 1858), and M. Omalius d'Halloy (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the
universality of the Deluge, and claim that "it extended only to
the principal centre of humanity, to those who remained near its
primitive cradle, without reaching the scattered tribes who had
already spread themselves far away in almost desert regions.  It
is certain that the Bible narrative commences by relating facts
common to the whole human species, confining itself subsequently
to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of
Providence." (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc.  Hist. of the East,"
p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on
anthropology, M. de Quatrefages, as well as by Cuvier; the Rev.  R.
p.  Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed
to orthodoxy.

Plato identifies "the great deluge of all" with the destruction
of Atlantis.  The priest of Sais told Solon that before "the great
deluge of all" Athens possessed a noble race, who performed many
noble deeds, the last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts
of Atlantis to subjugate them; and after this came the destruction
of Atlantis, and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that
island destroyed a number of the Greeks.  So that the Egyptians,
who possessed the memory of many partial deluges, regarded this as
"the great deluge of all."



We give first the Bible history of the Deluge, as found in Genesis
(chap. vi. to chap. viii.):

"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of
the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God
saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them
wives of all which they chose.

"And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for
that he also is flesh:  yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty

"There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that,
when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they
bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of
old, men of renown.

"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and
that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil
continually.  And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the
earth, and it grieved him at his heart.  And the Lord said, I will
destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both
man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air;
for it repenteth me that I have made them.  But Noah found grace
in the eyes of the Lord.

["These are the generations of Noah:  Noah was a just man and
perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God.  And Noah
begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.]

"The earth also was corrupt before God; and the earth was filled
with violence.  And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was
corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.  And
God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for
the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will
destroy them with the earth.  Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms
shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without
with pitch.  And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of:
The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth
of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.  A window
shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it
above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof;
with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.  And,
behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to
destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven;
and everything that is in the earth shall die.  But with thee will
I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou,
and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.  And
of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou
bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be
male and female.  Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after
their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind;
two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.  And
take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather
it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.

"Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did

"And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the
ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male
and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male
and his female.  Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and
the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.  For
yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty
days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made
will I destroy from off the face of the earth.

"And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him.  And
Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon
the earth.

"And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives
with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.  Of
clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and
of everything that creepeth upon the earth, there went in two and
two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had
commanded Noah.

"And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood
were upon the earth.  In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in
the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day
were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows
of heaven were opened.  And the rain was upon the earth forty days
and forty nights.  In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and
Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three
wives of his sons with them, into the ark; they, and every beast
after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every
creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and
every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.  And they
went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein
is the breath of life.  And they that went in, went in male and
female of all flesh, as God had commanded him:  and the Lord shut
him in.

"And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters
increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lifted up above the
earth.  And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon
the earth; and the ark went Upon the face of the waters.  And the
waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high bills,
that were under the whole heaven, were covered.  Fifteen cubits
upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and
of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth
upon the earth, and every man:  all in whose nostrils was the breath
of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.  And every living
substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground,
both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of
the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth:  and Noah only
remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.  And the
waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.

"And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the
cattle that was with him in the ark:  and God made a wind to pass
over the earth, and the waters assuaged.  The fountains also of
the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from
heaven was restrained.  And the waters returned from off the earth
continually:  and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the
waters were abated.  And the ark rested in the seventh mouth, on
the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month:  in
the tenth month, on the first day of the mouth, were the tops of
the mountains seen.

"And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the
window of the ark which he had made:  and be sent forth a raven,
which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from
off the earth.  Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the
waters were abated from off the face of the ground.  But the dove
found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him
into the ark; for the waters were on the face of the whole earth.
Then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto
him into the ark.  And he stayed yet other seven days; and again
he sent forth the dove out of the ark.  And the dove came in to
him in the evening, and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked
off:  so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.
And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent forth the dove, which
returned not again unto him any more.

"And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the
first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up
from off the earth:  and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and
looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.  And in the
second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the
earth dried.

"And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark, thou, and
thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.  Bring forth
with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both
of fowl and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth
upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly it) the earth, and
be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.

"And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and big sons'
wives with him:  every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl,
and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went
forth out of the ark.

"And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean
beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the
altar.  And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in
his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's
sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth:
neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have
done.  While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold
and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."

Let us briefly consider this record.

It shows, taken in connection with the opening chapters of Genesis:

1. That the land destroyed by water was the country in which the
civilization of the human race originated.  Adam was at first naked
(Gen., chap. iii., 7); then he clothed himself in leaves; then in
the skins of animals (chap. iii., 21):  be was the first that tilled
the earth, having emerged from a more primitive condition in which
be lived upon the fruits of the forest (chap. ii., 16); his son
Abel was the first of those that kept flocks of sheep (chap. iv.,
2); his son Cain was the builder of the first city (chap. iv., 17);
his descendant, Tubal-cain, was the first metallurgist (chap. iv.,
22); Jabal was the first that erected tents and kept cattle (chap.
iv., 20); Jubal was the first that made musical instruments.  We
have here the successive steps by which a savage race advances to
civilization.  We will see hereafter that the Atlanteans passed
through precisely similar stages of development.

2. The Bible agrees with Plato in the statement that these Antediluvians
had reached great populousness and wickedness, and that it was on
account of their wickedness God resolved to destroy them.

3. In both cases the inhabitants of the doomed land were destroyed
in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; they were drowned.

4. The Bible tells us that in an earlier age, before their destruction,
mankind had dwelt in a happy, peaceful, sinless condition in a
Garden of Eden.  Plato tells us the same thing of the earlier ages
of the Atlanteans.

6. In both the Bible history and Plato's story the destruction of
the people was largely caused by the intermarriage of the superior
or divine race, "the sons of God," with an inferior stock, "the
children of men," whereby they were degraded and rendered wicked.

We will see hereafter that the Hebrews and their Flood legend
are closely connected with the Phoenicians, whose connection with
Atlantis is established in many ways.

It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given
in tho Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true
negro races, or the Chinese, the Japanese, the Finns or Lapps, the
Australians, or the American red men.  It refers altogether to the
Mediterranean races, the Aryans, the Cushites, the Phoenicians,
the Hebrews, and the Egyptians. "The sons of Ham" were not true
negroes, but the dark-brown races. (See Winchell's "Preadamites,"
chap. vii.)

If these races (the Chinese, Australians, Americans, etc.) are
not descended from Noah they could not have been included in the
Deluge.  If neither China, Japan, America, Northern Europe, nor
Australia were depopulated by the Deluge, the Deluge could not have
been universal.  But as it is alleged that it did destroy a country,
and drowned all the people thereof except Noah and his family,
the country so destroyed could not have been Europe, Asia, Africa,
America, or Australia, for there has been no universal destruction
of the people of those regions; or, if there had been, how can we
account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents
whose descent Genesis does not trace back to Noah, and, in fact,
about whom the writer of Genesis seems to have known nothing?

We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions:  either
the Deluge record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates
to some land other than Europe, Asia, Africa, or Australia, some
land that 'was' destroyed by water.  It is not fabulous; and the
land it refers to is not Europe, Asia, Africa, or Australia--but
Atlantis.  No other land is known to history or tradition that was
overthrown in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; that was
civilized, populous, powerful, and given over to wickedness.

That high and orthodox authority, François Lenormant, says ("Ancient
Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 64), "The descendants of Shem, Ham,
and Japhet, so admirably catalogued by Moses, include one only of
the races of humanity, the white race, whose three chief divisions
he gives us as now recognized by anthropologists.  The other three
races--yellow, black, and red--have no place in the Bible list of
nations sprung from Noah." As, therefore, the Deluge of the Bible
destroyed only the land and people of Noah, it could not have been
universal.  The religious world does not pretend to fix the location
of the Garden of Eden.  The Rev.  George Leo Haydock says, "The
precise situation cannot be ascertained; bow great might be its
extent we do not know;" and we will see hereafter that the unwritten
traditions of the Church pointed to a region in the west, beyond
the ocean which bounds Europe in that direction, as the locality
in which "mankind dwelt before the Deluge."

It will be more and more evident) as we proceed in the consideration.
of the Flood legends of other nations, that the Antediluvian World
was none other than Atlantis,



We have two versions of the Chaldean story--unequally developed,
indeed, but exhibiting a remarkable agreement.  The one most
anciently known, and also the shorter, is that which Berosus took
from the sacred books of Babylon, and introduced into the history
that he wrote for the use of the Greeks.  After speaking of the
last nine antediluvian kings, the Chaldean priest continues thus.

"Obartès Elbaratutu being dead, his son Xisuthros (Khasisatra)
reigned eighteen sares (64,800 years). It was under him that the
Great Deluge took place, the history of which is told in the sacred
documents as follows:  Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep,
and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the
Assyrian month Sivan--a little before the summer solstice) all men
should perish by a flood.  He therefore commanded him to take the
beginning, the middle, and the end of whatever was consigned to
writing, and to bury it in the City of the Sun, at Sippara; then
to build a vessel, and to enter it with his family and dearest
friends; to place in this vessel provisions to eat and drink, and
to cause animals, birds, and quadrupeds to enter it; lastly, to
prepare everything, for navigation.  And when Xisuthros inquired in
what direction he should steer his bark, be was answered, 'toward
the gods,' and enjoined to pray that good might come of it for men.

"Xisuthros obeyed, and constructed a vessel five stadia long and
five broad; he collected all that had been prescribed to him, and
embarked his wife, his children, and his intimate friends.

"The Deluge having come, and soon going down, Xisuthros loosed
some of the birds.  These, finding no food nor place to alight on,
returned to the ship.  A few days later Xisuthros again let them
free, but they returned again to the vessel, their feet fall of
mud.  Finally, loosed the third time, the birds came no more back.
Then Xisuthros understood that the earth was bare.  He made an
opening in the roof of the ship, and saw that it had grounded on the
top of a mountain.  He then descended with his wife, his daughter,
and his pilot, who worshipped the earth, raised an altar, and there
sacrificed to the gods; at the same moment he vanished with those
who accompanied him.

"Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel, not seeing Xisutbros
return, descended too, and began to seek him, calling him by his
name.  They saw Xisuthros no more; but a voice from heaven was
heard commanding them piety toward the gods; that he, indeed, was
receiving the reward of his piety in being carried away to dwell
thenceforth in the midst of the gods, and that his wife, his daughter,
and the pilot of the ship shared the same honor.  The voice further
said that they were to return to Babylon, and, conformably to the
decrees of fate, disinter the writings buried at Sippara in order
to transmit them to men.  It added that the country in which
they found themselves was Armenia.  These, then, having heard the
voice, sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to Babylon.  Of
the vessel of Xisuthros, which had finally landed in Armenia, a
portion is still to be found in the Gordyan Mountains in Armenia,
and pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its
fragments.  It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft.  As
to the companions of Xisuthros, they came to Babylon, disinterred
the writings left at Sippara, founded numerous cities, built temples,
and restored Babylon."

"By the side of this version," says Lenormant, "which, interesting
though it be, is, after all, second-hand, we are now able to place
an original Chaldeo-Babylonian edition, which the lamented George
Smith was the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed
at Nineveh, and now in the British Museum.  Here the narrative of
the Deluge appears as an episode in the eleventh tablet, or eleventh
chant of the great epic of the town of Uruk.  The hero of this
poem, a kind of Hercules, whose name has not as yet been made out
with certainty, being attacked by disease (a kind of leprosy),
goes, with a view to its cure, to consult the patriarch saved from
the Deluge, Khasisatra, in the distant land to which the gods have
transported him, there to enjoy eternal felicity.  He asks Khasisatra
to reveal the secret of the events which led to his obtaining the
privilege of immortality, and thus the patriarch is induced to
relate the cataclysm.

"By a comparison of the three copies of the poem that the library
of the palace of Nineveh contained, it has been possible to restore
the narrative with hardly any breaks.  These three copies were,
by order of the King of Assyria, Asshurbanabal, made in the eighth
century B.C., from a very ancient specimen in the sacerdotal library
of the town of Uruk, founded by the monarchs of the first Chaldean
empire.  It is difficult precisely to fix the date of the original,
copied by Assyrian scribes, but it certainly goes back to the
ancient empire, seventeen centuries at least before our era, and
even probably beyond; it was therefore much anterior to Moses,
and nearly contemporaneous with Abraham.  The variations presented
by the three existing copies prove that the original was in the
primitive mode of writing called the 'hieratic', a character which
must have already become difficult to decipher in the eighth century
B.C., as the copyists have differed as to the interpretation to be
given to certain signs, and in other cases have simply reproduced
exactly the forms of such as they did not understand.  Finally, it
results from a comparison of these variations, that the original,
transcribed by order of Asshurbanabal, must itself have been a copy
of some still more ancient manuscript, it, which the original text
had already received interlinear comments.  Some of the copyists
have introduced these into their text, others have omitted them.
With these preliminary observations, I proceed to give integrally
the narrative ascribed ill the poem to Khasisatra:

"'I will reveal to thee, O Izdhubar, the history of my preservation--and
tell to thee the decision of the gods.

"'The town of Shurippak, a town which thou knowest, is situated on
the Euphrates--it was ancient, and in it [men did not honor] the
gods. [I alone, I was] their servant, to the great gods--[The gods
took counsel on the appeal of] Ann--[a deluge was proposed by]
Bel--[and approved by Nabon, Nergal and] Adar.

"'And the god [Ea], the immutable lord, repeated this command in
a dream.--I listened to the decree of fate that he announced, and
he said to me:--" Man of Shurippak, son of Ubaratutu--thou, build
a vessel and finish it [quickly].--[By a deluge] I will destroy
substance and life.--Cause thou to go up into the vessel the
substance of all that has life.--The vessel thou shall build-600
cubits shall be the measure of its length--and 60 cubits the amount
of its breadth and of its height.  [Launch if] thus on the ocean,
and cover it with a roof."--I understood, and I said to Ea, my
lord:--"The vessel] that thou commandest me to build thus--[when]
I shall do it,--young and old [shall laugh at me.]"--[Ea opened
his mouth and] spoke.--He said to me, his servant:--"[If they laugh
at thee] thou shalt say to them:--[shall be punished] he who has
insulted me, [for the protection of the gods] is over me.-....  like
to cavern....  -....  I will exercise my judgment on that which is
on high and that which is belo....  .--. . .  Close the vesse....
-....  At a given moment that I shall cause thee to know,--enter
into it, and draw the door of the ship toward thee.--Within it, thy
grains, thy furniture, thy provisions, thy riches, thy men-servants,
and thy maid-servants, and thy young people--the cattle of the
field, and the wild beasts of the plain that I will assemble-and
that I will send thee, shall be kept behind thy door."--Khasisatra
opened his mouth and spoke;--he said to Ea, his lord:--"No one has
made [such a] ship.--On the prow I will fi....  --1 shall se....  and
the vesse....  --the vessel thou commandest me to build [thus]which
i... ."

"'On the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised.--In its
covering fourteen in all were its rafters--fourteen in all did it
count above.--I placed its roof, and I covered it.--I embarked in
it on the sixth day; I divided its floors on the seventh;--I divided
the interior compartments on the eighth. 1 stopped up the chinks
through which the water entered in;--I visited the chinks, and
added what was wanting.--I poured on the exterior three times 3600
measures of asphalte,--and three times 3600 measures of asphalte
within.--Three times 3600 men, porters, brought on their beads the
chests of provisions.--I kept 3600 chests for the nourishment of
my family,--and the mariners divided among themselves twice 3600
chests.--For [provisioning] I had oxen slain;--I instituted [rations]
for each day.--In anticipation of the need of] drinks, of barrels,
and of wine--[I collected in quantity] like to the waters of a
river, [of provisions] in quantity like to the dust of the earth.-[To
arrange them in] the chests I set my hand to.--... of the su....
the vessel was completed.-....  strong and--I had carried above and
below the furniture of the ship.--[This lading filled the two-thirds.]

'All that I possessed I gathered together; all I possessed of silver
I gathered together; all that I possessed of gold I gathered--all
that I possessed of the substance of life of every kind I gathered
together.--I made all ascend into the vessel; my servants, male and
female,--the cattle of the fields, the wild beasts of the plains,
and the sons of the people, I made them all ascend.

"'Shamash (the sun) made the moment determined, and he announced it
in these terms:--"In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly
from heaven; enter into the vessel and close the door."--The fixed
Moment had arrived, which he announced in these terms:--"In the
evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from heaven."--When
the evening of that day arrived, I was afraid,--I entered into the
vessel and shut my door.--In shutting the vessel, to Buzur-shadi-rabi,
the pilot,--I confided this dwelling, with all that it contained.

"'Mu-sheri-ina-namari--rose from the foundations of heaven in
a black cloud;--Ramman thundered in the midst of the cloud,--and
Nabon and Sharru marched before;--they marched, devastating the
mountain and the plain;--Nergal the powerful dragged chastisements
after him;--Adar advanced, overthrowing;--before him;--the archangels
of the abyss brought destruction,--in their terrors they agitated
the earth.--The inundation of Ramman swelled up to the sky,--and
[the earth] became without lustre, was changed into a desert.

'They brok....  of the surface of the earth lik....  ;--[they
destroyed] the living beings of the surface of the earth.--The
terrible [Deluge] on men swelled up to [heaven].The brother no longer
saw his brother; men no longer knew each other.  In heaven--the
gods became afraid of the water-spout, and--sought a refuge; they
mounted up to the heaven of Anu.--The gods were stretched out
motionless, pressing one against another like dogs.--Ishtar wailed
like a child, the great goddess pronounced her discourse:--"Here
is humanity returned into mud, and--this is the misfortune that
I have announced in the presence of the gods.--So I announced the
misfortune in the presence of the gods,--for the evil I announced
the terrible [chastisement] of men who are mine.--I am the mother
who gave birth to men, and--like to the race of fishes, there they
are filling the sea;--and the gods, by reason of that--which the
archangels of the abyss are doing, weep with me."--The gods on
their seats were seated in tears,--and they held their lips closed,
[revolving] future things.

"'Six days and as many nights passed; the wind, the water-spout,
and the diluvian rain were in all their strength.  At the approach
of the seventh day the diluvian rain grew weaker, the terrible
water-spout-which had assailed after the fashion of an earthquake--grew
calm, the sea inclined to dry up, and the wind and the water-spout
came to an end.  I looked at the sea, attentively observing--and
the whole of humanity had returned to mud; like unto sea-weeds the
corpses floated.  I opened the window, and the light smote on my
face.  I was seized with sadness; I sat down and I wept;-and my
tears came over my face.

"'I looked at the regions bounding the sea:  toward the twelve
points of the horizon; not any continent.--The vessel was borne
above the land of Nizir,--the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel,
and did not permit it to pass over.--A day and a second day the
mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to
pass over;--the third and fourth day the mountain of Nizir arrested
the vessel, and did not permit it to pass over;--the fifth and sixth
day the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel, and did not permit
it to pass over.  At the approach of the seventh day, I sent out
and loosed a dove.  The dove went, turned, and--found no place to
light on, and it came back.  I sent out and loosed a swallow; the
swallow went, turned, and--found no place to light on, and it came
back.  I sent out and loosed a raven; the raven went and saw the
corpses on the waters; it ate, rested, turned, and came not back.

"'1 then sent out (what was in the vessel) toward the four winds,
and I offered a sacrifice.  I raised the pile of my burnt-offering
on the peak of the mountain; seven by seven I disposed the measured
vases,--and beneath I spread rushes, cedar, and juniper-wood.  The
gods were seized with the desire of it--the gods were seized with
a benevolent desire of it;--and the gods assembled like flies above
the master of the sacrifice.  From afar, in approaching, the great
goddess raised the great zones that Anu has made for their glory
(the gods). These gods, luminous crystal before me, I will never
leave them; in that day I prayed that I might never leave them.
"Let the gods come to my sacrificial pile!--but never may Bel come
to my sacrificial pile! for he did not master himself, and he has
made the water-spout for the Deluge, and he has numbered my men
for the pit."

"'From far, in drawing near, Bel--saw the vessel, and Bel stopped;--he
was filled with anger against the gods and the celestial archangels:--

"'"No one shall come out alive! No man shall be preserved from the
abyss!"--Adar opened his mouth and said; he said to the warrior
Bel:--"What other than Ea should have formed this resolution?--for
Ea possesses knowledge, and [he foresees] all."--Ea opened his
mouth and spake; he said to the warrior Bel:--"O thou, herald of
the gods, warrior,--as thou didst not master thyself, thou hast
made the water-spout of the Deluge.--Let the sinner carry the weight
of his sins, the blasphemer the weight of his blasphemy.--Please
thyself with this good pleasure, and it shall never be infringed;
faith in it never [shall be violated].--Instead of thy making a new
deluge, let lions appear and reduce the number of men;--instead of
thy making a new deluge, let hyenas appear and reduce the number
of men;--instead of thy making a new deluge, let there be famine,
and let the earth be [devastated];--instead of thy making a new
deluge, let Dibbara appear, and let men be [mown down]. I have
not revealed the decision of the great gods;--it is Khasisatra who
interpreted a dream and comprehended what the gods had decided."

"'Then, when his resolve was arrested, Bel entered into the vessel.-He
took my hand and made me rise.--He made my wife rise, and made her
place herself at my side-.-He turned around us and stopped short;
he approached our group.--"Until now Khasisatra has made part of
perishable humanity;--but lo, now Khasisatra and his wife are going
to be carried away to live like the gods,--and Khasisatra will
reside afar at the mouth of the rivers."--They carried me away,
and established me in a remote place at the mouth of the streams.'

"This narrative," says Lenormant, "follows with great exactness
the same course as that, or, rather, as those of Genesis; and the
analogies are, on both sides, striking."

When we consider these two forms of the same legend, we see many
points wherein the story points directly to Atlantis.

1. In the first place, Berosus tells us that the god who gave
warning of the coming of the Deluge was Chronos.  Chronos, it is
well known, was the same as Saturn.  Saturn was an ancient king
of Italy, who, far anterior to the founding of Rome, introduced
civilization from some other country to the Italians.  He established
industry and social order, filled the land with plenty, and created
the golden age of Italy.  He was suddenly removed to the abodes
of the gods.  His name is connected, in the mythological legends,
with "a great Saturnian continent" in the Atlantic Ocean, and a
great kingdom which, in the remote ages, embraced Northern Africa
and the European coast of the Mediterranean as far as the peninsula
of Italy, and "certain islands in the sea;" agreeing, in this
respect, with the story of Plato as to the dominions of Atlantis.
The Romans called the Atlantic Ocean "Chronium Mare," the Sea of
Chronos, thus identifying Chronos with that ocean.  The pillars of
Hercules were also called by the ancients "the pillars of Chronos."

Here, then, we have convincing testimony that the country referred
to in the Chaldean legends was the land of Chronos, or Saturn--the
ocean world, the dominion of Atlantis.

2. Hea or Ea. the god of the Nineveh tablets, was a fish-god:  he
was represented in the Chaldean monuments as half man and half
fish; he was described as the god, not of the rivers and seas, but
of "the abyss"--to wit, the ocean.  He it was who was said to have
brought civilization and letters to the ancestors of the Assyrians.
He clearly represented an ancient, maritime, civilized nation; he
came from the ocean, and was associated with some land and people
that had been destroyed by rain and inundations.  The fact that
the scene of the Deluge is located on the Euphrates proves nothing,
for we will see hereafter that almost every nation had its especial
mountain on which, according to its traditions, the ark rested; just
as every Greek tribe had its own particular mountain of Olympos.
The god Bel of the legend was the Baal of the Phoenicians, who,
as we shall show, were of Atlantean origin.  Bel, or Baal, was
worshipped on the western and northern coasts of Europe, and gave
his name to the Baltic, the Great and Little Belt, Balesbaugen,
Balestranden, etc.; and to many localities, in the British Islands,
as, for instance, Belan and the Baal hills in Yorkshire.

3. In those respects wherein the Chaldean legend, evidently the
older form of the tradition, differs from the Biblical record,
we see that in each instance we approach nearer to Atlantis.  The
account given in Genesis is the form of the tradition that would
be natural to an inland people.  Although there is an allusion to
"the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep" (about which
I shall speak more fully hereafter), the principal destruction
seems to have been accomplished by rain; hence the greater period
allowed for the Deluge, to give time enough for the rain to fall,
and subsequently drain off from the land.  A people dwelling in
the midst of a continent could not conceive the possibility of a
whole world sinking beneath the sea; they therefore supposed the
destruction to have been, caused by a continuous down-pour of rain
for forty days and forty nights.

In the Chaldean legend, on the contrary, the rain lasted but seven
days; and we see that the writer had a glimpse of the fact that the
destruction occurred in the midst of or near the sea.  The ark of
Genesis ('têbâh') was simply a chest, a coffer, a big box, such as
might be imagined by an inland people.  The ark of the Chaldeans
was a veritable ship; it had a prow, a helm, and a pilot, and men
to manage it; and it navigated "the sea."

4. The Chaldean legend represents not a mere rain-storm, but a
tremendous cataclysm.  There was rain, it is true, but there was
also thunder, lightning, earthquakes, wind, a water-spout, and a
devastation of mountain and land by the war of the elements.  All
the dreadful forces of nature were fighting together over the doomed
land:  "the archangel of the abyss brought destruction," "the water
rose to the sky," "the brother no longer saw his brother; men no
longer knew each other;" the men "filled the sea like fishes;" 'the
sea was filled with mud', and "the corpses floated like sea-weed."
When the storm abated the land had totally disappeared-there was
no longer "'any continent'." Does not all this accord with "that
dreadful day and night" described by Plato?

5. In the original it appears that Izdhubar, when he started to find
the deified Khasisatra, travelled first, for nine days' journey,
to the sea; then secured the services of a boatman, and, entering
a ship, sailed for fifteen days before finding the Chaldean Noah.
This would show that Khasisatra dwelt in a far country, one
only attainable by crossing the water; and this, too, seems like
a reminiscence of the real site of Atlantis.  The sea which a
sailing-vessel required fifteen days to cross must have been a very
large body of water; in fact, an ocean.



A collection of the Deluge legends of other nations will throw
light upon the Biblical and Chaldean records of that great event.

The author of the treatise "On the Syrian Goddess" acquaints us
with the diluvian tradition of the Arameans, directly derived from
that of Chaldea, as it was narrated in the celebrated Sanctuary of
Hierapolis, or Bambyce.

"The generality of people," be says, "tells us that the founder
of the temple was Deucalion Sisythes--that Deucalion in whose time
the great inundation occurred.  I have also heard the account given
by the Greeks themselves of Deucalion; the myth runs thus:  The
actual race of men is not the first, for there was a previous one,
all the members of which perished.  We belong to a second race,
descended from Deucalion, and multiplied in the course of time.
As to the former men, they are said to have been full of insolence
and pride, committing many crimes, disregarding their oath, neglecting
the rights of hospitality, unsparing to suppliants; accordingly,
they were punished by an immense disaster.  All on a sudden enormous
volumes of water issued from the earth, and rains of extraordinary
abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds, and the 'sea
overflowed its shores'; the whole earth was covered with water,
and all men perished.  Deucalion alone, because of his virtue and
piety, was preserved alive to give birth to a new race.  This is
how he was saved:  He placed himself, his children, and his wives
in a great coffer that he had, in which pigs, horses, lions,
serpents, and all other terrestrial animals came to seek refuge
with him.  He received them all; and while they were in the coffer
Zeus inspired them with reciprocal amity, which prevented their
devouring one another.  In this manner, shut up within one single
coffer, they floated as long as the waters remained in force.  Such
is the account given by the Greeks of Deucalion.

"But to this, which they equally tell, the people of Hierapolis
add a marvellous narrative:  That in their country a great chasm
opened, into which all the waters of the Deluge poured.  Then Deucalion
raised an altar, and dedicated a temple to Hera (Atargatis) close
to this very chasm.  I have seen it; it is very narrow, and situated
under the temple.  Whether it was once large, and has now shrunk,
I do not know; but I have seen it, and it is quite small.  In memory
of the event the following is the rite accomplished:  Twice a year
sea-water is brought to the temple.  This is not only done by the
priests, but numerous pilgrims come from the whole of Syria and
Arabia, and even from beyond the Euphrates, bringing water.  It is
poured out in the temple and goes into the cleft, which, narrow as
it is, swallows up a considerable quantity.  This is said to be in
virtue of a religious law instituted by Deucalion to preserve the
memory of the catastrophe, and of the benefits that he received
from the gods.  Such is the ancient tradition of the temple."

"It appears to me difficult," says Lenormant, "not to recognize an
echo of fables popular in all Semitic countries about this chasm of
Hierapolis, and the part it played in the Deluge, in the enigmatic
expressions of the Koran respecting the oven ('tannur') which
began to bubble and disgorge water all around at the commencement
of the Deluge.  We know that this 'tannur' has been the occasion of
most grotesque imaginings of Mussulman commentators, who had lost
the tradition of the story to which Mohammed made allusion.  And,
moreover, the Koran formally states that the waters of the Deluge
were absorbed in the bosom of the earth."

Here the Xisuthros of Berosus becomes Deucalion-'Sisythes'. The
animals are not collected together by Deucalion, as in the case
of Noah and Khasisatra, but they crowded into the vessel of their
own accord, driven by the terror with which the storm had inspired
them; as in great calamities the creatures of the forest have been
known to seek refuge in the houses of men.

India affords us art account of the Deluge which, by its poverty,
strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the Chaldeans.  Its
most simple and ancient form is found in the 'Çatapatha Brâhmana'
of the Rig-Veda.  It has been translated for the first time by Max

"One morning water for washing was brought to Manu, and when he
had washed himself a fish remained in his hands, and it addressed
these words to him:  'Protect me, and I will save thee.' 'From
what wilt thou save me?' 'A deluge will sweep all creatures away;
it is from that I will save thee.' 'How shall I protect thee?' The
fish replied, 'While we are small we run great dangers, for fish
swallow fish.  Keep me at first in a vase; when I become too large
for it, dig a basin to put me into.  When I shall have grown still
more, throw me into the ocean; then I shall be preserved from
destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish.  It said to Mann, 'The very
year I shall have reached my full growth the Deluge will happen.
Then build a vessel and worship me.  When the waters rise, enter
the vessel, and I will save thee.'

"After keeping him thus, Mann carried the fish to the sea.  In the
year indicated Mann built a vessel and worshipped the fish.  And
when the Deluge came he entered the vessel.  Then the fish came
swimming up to him, and Mann fastened the cable of the ship to the
horn of the fish, by which means the latter made it pass over the
Mountain of the North.  The fish said, 'I have saved thee; fasten
the vessel to a tree, that the water may not sweep it away while
thou art on the mountain; and in proportion as the waters decrease
thou shalt descend.' Manu descended with the waters, and this is
what is called the 'descent of Manu' on the Mountain of the North.
The Deluge had carried away all creatures, and Mann remained alone."

There is another form of the Hindoo legend in the 'Purânas'.
Lenormant says:

"We must also 'remark that in the 'Purânas' it is no longer Manu
Vaivasata that the divine fish saves from the Deluge, but a different
personage, the King of the Dâstas--'i. e.', fisher--Satyravata,'
the man who loves justice and truth,' strikingly corresponding to
the Chaldean Khasisatra.  Nor is the Puranic version of the Legend
of the Deluge to be despised, though it be of recent date, and full
of fantastic and often puerile details.  In certain aspects it is
less Aryanized than that of Brâhmana or than the 'Mahâbhârata';
and, above all, it gives some circumstances omitted in these earlier
versions, which must yet have belonged to the original foundation,
since they appear in the Babylonian legend; a circumstance preserved,
no doubt, by the oral tradition--popular, and not Brahmanic--with
which the 'Purânas' are so deeply imbued.  This has already been
observed by Pictet, who lays due stress on the following passage of
the 'Bhâgavata-Purâna':  'In seven days,' said Vishnu to Satyravata,
'the three worlds shall be submerged.' There is nothing like this
in the Brâhmana nor the 'Mahâbhârata', but in Genesis the Lord
says to Noah, 'Yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the
earth;' and a little farther we read, 'After seven days the waters
of the flood were upon the earth.'... Nor must we pay less attention
to the directions given by the fish-god to Satyravata for the placing
of the sacred Scriptures in a safe place, in order to preserve
them from Hayagriva, a marine horse dwelling in the abyss....  We
recognize in it, under an Indian garb, the very tradition of the
interment of the sacred writings at Sippara by Khasisatra, such as
we have seen it in the fragment of Berosus."

The references to "the three worlds" and the "fish-god" in these
legends point to Atlantis.  The "three worlds" probably refers to the
great empire of Atlantis, described by Plato, to wit, the western
continent, America, the eastern continent, Europe and Africa,
considered as one, and the island of Atlantis.  As we have seen,
Poseidon, the founder of the civilization of Atlantis, is identical
with Neptune, who is always represented riding a dolphin, bearing
a trident, or three-pronged symbol, in his hand, emblematical probably
of the triple kingdom.  He is thus a sea-god, or fish-god, and be
comes to save the representative of his country.

And we have also a new and singular form of the legend in the
following.  Lenormant says:

"Among the Iranians, in the sacred books containing the fundamental
Zoroastrian doctrines, and dating very far back, we meet with a
tradition which must assuredly be looked upon as a variety of that
of the Deluge, though possessing a special character, and diverging
in some essential particulars from those we have been examining.
It relates how Yima, who, in the original and primitive conception,
was the father of the human race, was warned by Ahuramazda, the
good deity, of the earth being about to be devastated by a flood.
The god ordered Yima to construct a refuge, a square garden, 'vara',
protected by an enclosure, and to cause the germs of men, beasts,
and plants to enter it, in order to escape annihilation.  Accordingly,
when the inundation occurred, the garden of Yima, with all that it
contained, was alone spared, and the message of safety was brought
thither by the bird Karshipta, the envoy of Ahuramazda." ("Vendûdid,"
vol. ii., p. 46.)

This clearly signifies that, prior to the destruction of Atlantis,
a colony had been sent out to some neighboring country.  These
emigrants built a walled town, and brought to it the grains and
domestic animals of the mother country; and when the island of
Atlantis sunk in the ocean, a messenger brought the terrible tidings
to them in a ship.

"The Greeks had two principal legends as to the cataclysm by which
primitive humanity was destroyed.  The first was connected with
the name of Ogyges, the most ancient of the kings of Boeotia or
Attica--a quite mythical personage, lost in the night of ages, his
very name seemingly derived from one signifying deluge in Aryan
idioms, in Sanscrit 'Angha'.  It is said that in his time the whole
land was covered by a flood, whose waters reached the sky, and from
which he, together with some companions, escaped in a vessel.

"The second tradition is the Thessalian legend of Deucalion.  Zeus
having worked to destroy the men of the age of bronze, with whose
crimes be was wroth, Deucalion, by the advice of Prometheus, his
father, constructed a coffer, in which he took refuge with his
wife, Pyrrha.  The Deluge came; the chest, or coffer, floated at the
mercy of the waves for nine days and nine nights, and was finally
stranded on Mount Parnassus.  Deucalion and Pyrrha leave it, offer
sacrifice, and, according to the command of Zeus, repeople the world
by throwing behind them 'the bones of the earth'--namely, stones,
which change into men.  This Deluge of Deucalion is, in Grecian
tradition, what most resembles a universal deluge.  Many authors
affirm that it extended to the whole earth, and that the whole human
race perished.  At Athens, in memory of the event, and to appease
the manes of its victims, a ceremony called 'Hydrophoria' was observed,
having so close a resemblance to that in use at Hierapolis, in
Syria, that we can hardly fail to look upon it as a Syro-Phoenician
importation, and the result of an assimilation established in remote
antiquity between the Deluge of Deucalion and that of Khasisatra,
as described by the author of the treatise 'On the Syrian Goddess.'
Close to the temple of the Olympian Zeus a fissure in the soil
was shown, in length but one cubit, through which it was said the
waters of the Deluge had been swallowed tip.  Thus,, every year, on
the third day of the festival of the Anthestéria, a day of mourning
consecrated to the dead--that is, on the thirteenth of the month
of Anthestérion, toward the beginning of March-it was customary,
as at Bambyce, to pour water into the fissure, together with flour
mixed with honey, poured also into the trench dug to the west of
the tomb, in the funeral sacrifices of the Athenians."

In this legend, also, there are passages which point to Atlantis.
We will see hereafter that the Greek god Zeus was one of the kings
of Atlantis. "The men of the age of bronze" indicates the civilization
of the doomed people; they were the great metallurgists of their
day, who, as we will see, were probably the source of the great
number of implements and weapons of bronze found all over Europe.
Here, also, while no length of time is assigned to the duration of
the storm, we find that the ark floated but nine days and nights.
Noah was one year and ten days in the ark, Khasisatra was not half
that time, while Deucalion was afloat only nine days.

At Megara, in Greece, it was the eponym of the city, Megaros, son
of Zeus and one of the nymphs, Sithnides, who, warned by the cry
of cranes of the imminence of the danger of the coming flood, took
refuge on Mount Geranien.  Again, there was the Thessalian Cerambos,
who was said to have escaped the flood by rising into the air on
wings given him by the nymphs; and it was Perirrhoos, son of Eolus,
that Zeus Naios had preserved at Dodona.  For the inhabitants of
the Isle of Cos the hero of the Deluge was 'Merops', son of Hyas,
who there assembled under his rule the remnant of humanity preserved
with him.  The traditions of Rhodes only supposed the Telchines,
those of Crete Sasion, to have escaped the cataclysm.  In Samothracia
the same character was attributed to Saon, said to be the son of
Zeus or of Hermes.

It will be observed that in all these legends the name of Zeus,
King of Atlantis, reappears.  It would appear probable that many
parties had escaped from the catastrophe, and had landed at the
different points named in the traditions; or else that colonies
had already been established by the Atlanteans at those places.
It would appear impossible that a maritime people could be totally
destroyed; doubtless many were on shipboard in the harbors, and
others going and coming on distant voyages.

"The invasion of the East," says Baldwin ('Prehistoric Nations,' p.
396), "to which the story of Atlantis refers, seems to have given
rise to the Panathenæ, the oldest, greatest, and most splendid
festivals in honor of Athena celebrated in Attica.  These festivals
are said to have been established by Erichthonis in the most ancient
times remembered by the historical traditions of Athens.  Boeckh
says of them, in his 'Commentary on Plato:'

"'In the greater Panathenæ there was carried in procession a 'peplum'
of Minerva, representing the war with the giants and the victory of
the gods of Olympus.  In the lesser Panathenæ they carried another
'peplum' (covered with symbolic devices), which showed how the
Athenians, supported by Minerva, had the advantage in the war with
the Atlantes.' A scholia quoted from Proclus by Humboldt and Boeckh
says:  'The historians who speak of the islands of the exterior sea
tell us that in their time there were seven islands consecrated, to
Proserpine, and three others of immense extent, of which the first
was consecrated to Pluto, the second to Ammon, and the third to
Neptune.  The inhabitants of the latter had preserved a recollection
(transmitted to them by their ancestors) of the island of Atlantis,
which was extremely large, and for a long time held sway over all
the islands of the Atlantic Ocean.  Atlantis was also consecrated
to Neptune."' (See Humboldt's "Histoire de la Géographie du Nouveau
Continent," vol. i.)

No one can read these legends and doubt that the Flood watt an
historical reality.  It is impossible that in two different places
in the Old World, remote from each other, religious ceremonies should
have been established and perpetuated from age to age in memory
of an event which never occurred.  We have seen that at Athens and
at Hierapolis, in Syria, pilgrims came from a distance to appease
the god of the earthquake, by pouring offerings into fissures of
the earth said to have been made at the time Atlantis was destroyed.

More than this, we know from Plato's history that the Athenians
long preserved in their books the memory of a victory won over
the Atlanteans in the early ages, and celebrated it by national
festivals, with processions and religious ceremonies.

It is too much to ask us to believe that Biblical history, Chaldean,
Iranian, and Greek legends signify nothing, and that even religious
pilgrimages and national festivities were based upon a myth.

I would call attention to the farther fact that in the Deluge
legend of the Isle of Cos the hero of the affair was Merops.  Now
we have seen that, according to Theopompus, one of the names of
the people of Atlantis was "Meropes."

But we have not reached the end of our Flood legends.  The Persian
Magi possessed a tradition in which the waters issued from the oven
of an old woman.  Mohammed borrowed this story, and in the Koran he
refers to the Deluge as coming from an oven. "All men were drowned
save Noah and his family; and then God said, 'O earth, swallow up
thy waters; and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain;' and immediately
the waters abated."

In the bardic poems of Wales we have a tradition of the Deluge
which, although recent, under the concise forms of the triads, is
still deserving of attention.  As usual, the legend is localized in
the country, and the Deluge counts among three terrible catastrophes
of the island of Prydian, or Britain, the other two consisting of
devastation by fire and by drought.

"The first of these events," it is said, "was the eruption of
Llyn-llion, or 'the lake of waves,' and the inundation ('bawdd')
of the whole country, by which all mankind was drowned with the
exception of Dwyfam and Dwyfach, who saved themselves in a vessel
without rigging, and it was by them that the island of Prydian was

Pictet here observes:

"Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than
the thirteenth or fourteenth century, some of them are undoubtedly
connected with very ancient traditions, and nothing here points to
a borrowing from Genesis.

"But it is not so, perhaps, with another triad, speaking of the
vessel 'Nefyddnaf-Neifion', which at the time of the overflow of
Llyon-llion, bore a pair of all living creatures, and rather too
much resembles the ark of Noah.  The very name of the patriarch
may have suggested this triple epithet, obscure as to its meaning,
but evidently formed on the principle of Cymric alliteration.  In
the same triad we have the enigmatic story of the horned oxen
('ychain banog') of Hu the mighty, who drew out of Llyon-llion the
'avanc' (beaver or crocodile?), in order that the lake should not
overflow.  The meaning of these enigmas could only be hoped from
deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the Welsh middle
age; but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the Cymri possessed an
indigenous tradition of the Deluge."

We also find a vestige of the same tradition in the Scandinavian
Ealda.  Here the story is combined with a cosmogonic myth.  The
three sons of Borr--Othin, Wili, and We--grandsons of Buri, the
first man, slay Ymir, the father of the Hrimthursar, or ice giants,
and his body serves them for the construction of the world.  Blood
flows from his wounds in such abundance that all the race of
giants is drowned in it except Bergelmir, who saves himself, with
his wife, in a boat, and reproduces the race.

In the 'Edda' of 'Soemund', "The Vala's Prophecy" (stz. 48-56, p.
9), we seem to catch traditional glimpses of a terrible catastrophe,
which reminds us of the Chaldean legend:

"Then trembles Yggdrasil's ash yet standing, groans that ancient
tree, and the Jötun Loki is loosed.  The shadows groan on the ways
of Hel (the goddess of death), until the fire of Surt has consumed
'the tree'. 'Hyrm steers from the east, the waters rise', the
mundane snake is coiled in jötun-rage.  The worm beats the water
and the eagle screams; the pale of beak tears carcasses; (the ship)
Naglfar is loosed.  Surt from the south comes with flickering flame;
shines from his sword the Valgod's sun.  The stony hills are dashed
together, the giantesses totter; men tread the path of Hel, and
heaven is cloven.  The sun darkens, 'earth in ocean sinks', fall from
heaven the bright stars, fire's breath assails the all-nourishing,
towering fire plays against heaven itself."

Egypt does not contain a single allusion to the Flood.  Lenormant

"While the tradition of the Deluge holds so considerable a place
in the legendary memories of all branches of the Aryan race, the
monuments and original texts of Egypt, with their many cosmogonic
speculations, have not afforded one, even distant, allusion to
this cataclysm.  When the Greeks told the Egyptian priests of the
Deluge of Deucalion, their reply was that they had been preserved
from it as well as from the conflagration produced by Phaëthon; they
even added that the Hellenes were childish in attaching so much
importance to that event, as there had been several other local
catastrophes resembling it.  According to a passage in Manetho, much
suspected, however, of being an interpolation, Thoth, or Hermes
Trismegistus, had himself, before the cataclysm, inscribed on
stelæ, in hieroglyphical and sacred language, the principles of all
knowledge.  After it the second Thoth translated into the vulgar
tongue the contents of these stelæ. This would be the only Egyptian
mention of the Deluge, the same Manetho not speaking of it in what
remains to us of his 'Dynasties,' his only complete authentic work.
The silence of all other myths of the Pharaonic religion on this
head render it very likely that the above is merely a foreign
tradition, recently introduced, and no doubt of Asiatic and Chaldean

To my mind the explanation of this singular omission is very plain.
The Egyptians had preserved in their annals the precise history of
the destruction of Atlantis, out of which the Flood legends grew;
and, as they told the Greeks, there had been no universal flood,
but only local catastrophes.  Possessing the real history of the
local catastrophe which destroyed Atlantis, they did not indulge
in any myths about a universal deluge covering the mountain-tops
of all the world.  They had no Ararat in their neighborhood.

The traditions of the early Christian ages touching the Deluge
pointed to the quarter of the world in which Atlantis was situated.

There was a quaint old monk named Cosmos, who, about one thousand
years ago, published a book, "Topographia Christiana," accompanied
by a map, in which he gives his view of the world as it was
then understood.  It was a body surrounded by water, and resting
on nothing. "The earth," says Cosmos, "presses downward, but the
igneous parts tend upward," and between the conflicting forces the
earth hangs suspended,, like Mohammed's coffin in the old story.
The accompanying illustration (page 95) represents the earth
surrounded by the ocean, and beyond this ocean was "the land where
men dwelt before the Deluge."

He then gives us a more accurate map, in detail, of the known world
of his day.

I copy this map, not to show how much more we know than poor
Cosmos, but because be taught that all around this habitable world
there was yet another world, adhering closely on all sides to the
circumscribing walls of heaven. "Upon the eastern side of this
transmarine land he judges man was created; and that there the
paradise of gladness was located, such as here on the eastern edge
is described, where it received our first parents, driven out of
Paradise to that extreme point of land on the sea-shore.  Hence,
upon the coming of the Deluge, Noah and his sons were borne by the
ark to the earth we now inhabit.  The four rivers he supposes to
be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on the
above map:  O is the Mediterranean Sea; P, the Arabian Gulf; L, the
Caspian Sea; Q, the Tigris; M, the river Pison; "and J, the land
where men dwelt before the Flood."

It will be observed that, while he locates Paradise in the east,
he places the scene of the Deluge in the west; and he supposes that
Noah came from the scene of the Deluge to Europe.

This shows that the traditions in the time of Cosmos looked to the
west as the place of the Deluge, and that after the Deluge Noah
came to the shores of the Mediterranean.  The fact, too, that there
was land in the west beyond the ocean is recognized by Cosmos, and
is probably a dim echo from Atlantean times.


The following rude cut, from Cosmos, represents the high mountain
in the north behind which the sun hid himself at night, thus
producing the alternations of day and night.  His solar majesty is
just getting behind the mountain, while Luna looks calmly on at the
operation.  The mountain is as crooked as Culhuacan, the crooked
mountain of Atzlan described by the Aztecs.




"It is a very remarkable fact," says Alfred Maury, "that we find in
America traditions of the Deluge coming infinitely nearer to that
of the Bible and the Chaldean religion than among any people of
the Old World.  It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that
certainly took place from Asia into North America by the Kourile
and Aleutian Islands, and still does so in our day, should have
brought in these memories, since no trace is found of them among
those Mongol or Siberian populations which were fused with the
natives of the New World....  The attempts that have been made to
trace the origin of Mexican civilization to Asia have not as vet
led to any sufficiently conclusive facts.  Besides, had Buddhism,
which we doubt, made its way into America, it could not have
introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures.  The cause of
these similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations
of the New World and that of the Bible remains therefore unexplained."

The cause of these similarities can be easily explained:  the
legends of the Flood did not pass into America by way of the Aleutian
Islands, or through the Buddhists of Asia, but were derived from
an actual knowledge of Atlantis possessed by the people of America.

Atlantis and the western continent had from an immemorial age held
intercourse with each other:  the great nations of America were
simply colonies from Atlantis, sharing in its civilization, language,
religion, and blood.  From Mexico to the peninsula of Yucatan, from
the shores of Brazil to the heights of Bolivia and Peru, from the
Gulf of Mexico to the head-waters of the Mississippi River, the
colonies of Atlantis extended; and therefore it is not strange to
find, as Alfred Maury says, American traditions of the Deluge coming
nearer to that of the Bible and the Chaldean record than those of
any people of the Old World.

"The most important among the American traditions are the Mexican,
for they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and
mnemonic paintings before any contact with Europeans.  According
to these documents, the Noah of the Mexican cataclysm was Coxcox,
called by certain peoples Teocipactli or Tezpi.  He had saved
himself, together with his wife Xochiquetzal, in a bark, or, according
to other traditions, on a raft made of cypress-wood ('Cupressus
disticha').  Paintings retracing the deluge of Coxcox have been
discovered among the Aztecs, Miztecs, Zapotecs, Tlascaltecs, and
Mechoacaneses.  The tradition of the latter is still more strikingly
in conformity with the story as we have it in Genesis, and in
Chaldean sources.  It tells how Tezpi embarked in a spacious vessel
with his wife, his children, and several animals, and grain, whose
preservation was essential to the subsistence of the human race.
When the great god Tezcatlipoca decreed that the waters should
retire, Tezpi sent a vulture from the bark.  The bird, feeding on
the carcasses with which the earth was laden, did not return.  Tezpi
sent out other birds, of which the humming-bird only came back with
a leafy branch in its beak.  Then Tezpi, seeing that the country
began to vegetate, left his bark on the mountain of Colhuacan.

"The document, however, that gives the most valuable information,"
says Lenormant, "as to the cosmogony of the Mexicans is one known
as 'Codex Vaticanus,' from the library where it is preserved.  It
consists of four symbolic pictures, representing the four ages of
the world preceding the actual one.  They were copied at Chobula
from a manuscript anterior to the conquest, and accompanied by
the explanatory commentary of Pedro de los Rios, a Dominican monk,
who, in 1566, less than fifty years after the arrival of Cortez,
devoted himself to the research of indigenous traditions as being
necessary to his missionary work."

There were, according to this document, four ages of the world.  The
first was an age of giants (the great mammalia?) who were destroyed
by famine; the second age ended in a conflagration; the third age
was an age of monkeys.

"Then comes the fourth age, 'Atonatiuh', 'Sun of Water,' whose
number is 10 X 400 + 8, or 4008. It ends by a great inundation,
a veritable deluge.  All mankind are changed into fish, with
the exception of one man and his wife, who save themselves in a
bark made of the trunk of a cypress-tree.  The picture represents
Matlalcueye, goddess of waters, and consort of Tlaloc, god of
rain, as darting down toward earth.  Coxcox and Xochiquetzal, the
two human beings preserved, are seen seated on a tree-trunk and
floating in the midst of the waters.  This flood is represented as
the last cataclysm that devastates the earth."

The learned Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg translates from the Aztec
language of the "Codex Chimalpopoca" the following Flood legend:

"This is the sun called 'Nahui-atl', '4 water.' Now the water was
tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third
and fourth times.  When the sun 'Nahui-atl' came there had passed
away four hundred years, plus two ages, plus seventy-six years.
Then all mankind was lost and drowned, and found themselves changed
into fish.  The sky came nearer the water.  In a single day all
was lost, and the day 'Nahui-xochitl', '4 flower,' destroyed all
our flesh.

"And that year was that of 'cé-calli', '1 house,' and the day
'Nahui-atl' all was lost.  Even the mountains 'sunk into the water',
and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs.

"Now at the end of the year the god Titlacahuan had warned Nata
and his spouse Nena, saying, 'Make no more wine of Agave, but begin
to hollow out a great cypress, and you will enter into it when in
the month Tozontli the water approaches the sky.'

"Then they entered in, and when the god had closed the door, he
said, 'Thou shalt eat but one ear of maize, and thy wife one also.'

"But as soon as they had finished they went out, and the water
remained calm, for the wood no longer moved, and, on opening it,
they began to see fish.

"Then they lit a fire, by rubbing together pieces of wood, and they
roasted fish.

The gods Citlallinicué and Citlalatonac, instantly looking down
said: 'Divine Lord, what is that fire that is making there? Why do
they thus smoke the sky?' At once Titlacahuan-Tezcatlipoca descended.
He began to chide, saying, 'Who has made this fire here?' And,
seizing hold of the fish, he shaped their loins and heads, and they
were transformed into dogs ('chichime')."

Here we note a remarkable approximation to Plato's account of the
destruction of Atlantis. "In one day and one fatal night," says
Plato, "there came mighty earthquakes and inundations that ingulfed
that warlike people." "In a single day all was lost," says the
Aztec legend.  And, instead of a rainfall of forty days and forty
nights, as represented in the Bible, here we see "in a single
day... 'even the mountains sunk into the water';" not only the land
on which the people dwelt who were turned into fish, but the very
mountains of that land sunk into the water.  Does not this describe
the fate of Atlantis? In the Chaldean legend "the great goddess
Ishtar wailed like a child," saying, "I am the mother who gave
birth to men, and, 'like to the race of fishes', they are filling
the sea."

In the account in Genesis, Noah "builded an altar unto the Lord,
and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered
burnt offerings on the altar.  And the Lord smelled a sweet savor;
and the Lord said in his heart, 'I will not again curse the ground
any more for man's sake.'" In the Chaldean legend we are told that
Khasisatra also offered a sacrifice, a burnt offering, "and the
gods assembled like flies above the master of the sacrifice." But
Bel came in a high state of indignation, just as the Aztec god did,
and was about to finish the work of the Deluge, when the great god
Ea took ''pity in his heart and interfered to save the remnant of

These resemblances cannot be accidental; neither can they be the
interpolations of Christian missionaries, for it will be observed
the Aztec legends differ from the Bible in points where they resemble on
the one hand Plato's record, and on the other the Chaldean legend.

The name of the hero of the Aztec story, 'Nata', pronounced with
the broad sound of the 'a', is not far from the name of Noah or
Noe.  The Deluge of Genesis is a Phoenician, Semitic, or Hebraic
legend, and yet, strange to say, the name of Noah, which occurs in
it, bears no appropriate meaning in those tongues, but is derived
from Aryan sources; its fundamental root is 'Na', to which in all
the Aryan language is attached the meaning of water--{Greek} na'ein,
to flow; {Greek} na~ma, water; Nympha, Neptunus, water deities.
(Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc.  Hist. of the East," vol. i., p.
15.) We find the root 'Na' repeated in the name of this Central
American Noah, 'Na-ta', and probably in the word "'Na'-hui-atl"--the
age of water.

But still more striking analogies exist between the Chaldean legend
and the story of the Deluge as told in the "Popul Vuh" (the Sacred
Book) of the Central Americans:

"Then the waters were agitated by the will of the Heart of Heaven
(Hurakan), and a great inundation came upon the heads of these
creatures....  They were ingulfed, and a resinous thickness descended
from heaven....  the face of the earth was obscured, and a heavy
darkening rain commenced-rain by day and rain by night....  There
was beard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire.
Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair;
they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling
down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and
the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes
(eaves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them....  Water
and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last
great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."

Observe the similarities here to the Chaldean legend.  There is the
same graphic description of a terrible event.  The "black cloud"
is referred to in both instances; also the dreadful noises. the
rising water, the earthquake rocking the trees, overthrowing the
houses, and crushing even the mountain caverns; "the men running
and pushing each other, filled with despair," says the "Popul Vuh;"
"the brother no longer saw his brother," says the Assyrian legend.

And here I may note that this word 'hurakan'--the spirit of the
abyss, the god of storm, the hurricane--is very suggestive, and
testifies to an early intercourse between the opposite shores of
the Atlantic.  We find in Spanish the word 'huracan'; in Portuguese,
'furacan'; in French, 'ouragan'; in German, Danish, and Swedish,
'orcan'--all of them signifying a storm; while in Latin 'furo', or
'furio', means to rage.  And are not the old Swedish 'hurra', to
be driven along; our own word hurried; the Icelandic word 'hurra',
to be rattled over frozen ground, all derived from the same root
from which the god of the abyss, Hurakan, obtained his name? The
last thing a people forgets is the name of their god; we retain to
this day, in the names of the days of the week, the designations
of four Scandinavian gods and one Roman deity.

It seems to me certain the above are simply two versions of the same
event; that while ships from Atlantis carried terrified passengers
to tell the story of the dreadful catastrophe to the people of the
Mediterranean shores, other ships, flying from the tempest, bore
similar awful tidings to the civilized races around the Gulf of

The native Mexican historian, Ixtlilxochitl, gave this as the Toltec
legend of the Flood:

It is found in the histories of the Toltecs that this age and
'first world', as they call it, lasted 1716 years; that men were
destroyed by tremendous rains and lightning from the sky, and even
all the land, without the exception of anything, and the highest
mountains, were covered up and submerged in water 'fifteen cubits'
(caxtolmolatli); and here they added other fables of how men came
to multiply from the few who escaped from this destruction in a
"toptlipetlocali;" that this word nearly signifies a close chest;
and how, after men had multiplied, they erected a very high "zacuali,"
which is to-day a tower of great height, in order to take refuge
in it should the second world (age) be destroyed.  Presently their
languages were confused, and, not being able to understand each
other, they went to different parts of the earth.

"The Toltecs, consisting of seven friends, with their wives, who
understood the same language, came to these parts, having first
passed great land and seas, having lived in caves, and having endured
great hardships in order to reach this land....  they wandered 104
years through different parts of the world before they reached Hue
Hue Tlapalan, which was in Ce Tecpatl, 520 years after the Flood."
("Ixtlilxochitl Relaciones," in Kingsborough's "Mex.  Ant.," vol.
ix., pp. 321, 322.)

It will of course be said that this account, in those particulars
where it agrees with the Bible, was derived from the teachings of
the Spanish priests; but it must be remembered that Ixtlilxochitl
was an Indian, a native of Tezeuco, a son of the queen, and that
his "Relaciones" were drawn from the archives of his family and
the ancient writings of his nation:  he had no motive to falsify
documents that were probably in the hands of hundreds at that time.

Here we see that the depth of the water over the earth, "fifteen
cubits," given in the Toltec legend, is precisely the same as that
named in the Bible:  "fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail."
(Gen., chap. vii., 20.)

In the two curious picture-histories of the Aztecs preserved in the
Boturini collection, and published by Gamelli Careri and others,
there is a record of their migrations from their original location
through various parts of the North American continent until their
arrival in Mexico.  In both cases their starting-point is an island,
from which they pass in a boat; and the island contains in one case
a mountain, and in the other a high temple in the midst thereof.
These things seem to be reminiscences of their origin in Atlantis.

In each case we see the crooked mountain of the Aztec legends, the
Calhuacan, looking not unlike the bent mountain of the monk, Cosmos.

In the legends of the Chibchas of Bogota we seem to have distinct
reminiscences of Atlantis.  Bochica was their leading divinity.
During two thousand years he employed himself in elevating his
subjects.  He lived in the sun, while his wife Chia occupied the
moon.  This would appear to be an allusion to the worship of the
sun and moon.  Beneath Bochica in their mythology was Chibchacum.
In an angry mood he brought a deluge on the people of the table-land.
Bochica punished him for this act, and obliged him ever after, like
Atlas, to bear the burden of the earth on his back.  Occasionally
be shifts the earth from one shoulder to another, and this causes

Here we have allusions to an ancient people who, during thousands
of years, were elevated in the scale of civilization, and were
destroyed by a deluge; and with this is associated an Atlantean god
bearing the world on his back.  We find even the rainbow appearing
in connection with this legend.  When Bochica appeared in answer to
prayer to quell the deluge he is seated on a rainbow.  He opened a
breach in the earth at Tequendama, through which the waters of the
flood escaped, precisely as we have seen them disappearing through
the crevice in the earth near Bambyce, in Greece.

The Toltecs traced their migrations back to a starting-point called
"Aztlan," or "Atlan." This could be no other than , Atlantis.
(Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 221.) "The original home
of the Nahuatlacas was Aztlan, the location of which has been the
subject of much discussion.  The causes that led to their exodus
from that country can only be conjectured; but they may be supposed
to have been driven out by their enemies, for Aztlan is described
as a land too fair and beautiful to be left willingly in the mere
hope of finding a better." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p.
.306.) The Aztecs also claimed to have come originally from Aztlan.
('Ibid'., p. 321.) Their very name, Aztecs, was derived from Aztlan.
('Ibid'., vol. ii., p. 125). They were Atlanteans.

The "Popul Vuh" tells us that after the migration from Aztlan three
sons of the King of the Quiches, upon the death of their father,
"determined to go as their fathers had ordered to the East, on the
shores of the sea whence their fathers had come, to receive the
royalty, 'bidding adieu to their brothers and friends, and promising
to return.' Doubtless they passed over the sea when they went to
the East to receive the royalty.  Now this is the name of the lord,
of the monarch of the people of the East where they went.  And when
they arrived before the lord Nacxit, the name of the great lord,
the only judge, whose power was without limit, behold he granted
them the sign of royalty and all that represents it .  . . and the
insignia of royalt....  all the things, in fact, which they brought
on their return, and which they went to receive from the other side
of the sea--the art of painting from Tulan, a system of writing,
they said, 'for the things recorded in their histories'." (Bancroft's
"Native Races," vol. v., p. 553 "Popul Vuh," p. 294.)

This legend not only points to the East as the place of origin
of these races, but also proves that this land of the East, this
Aztlan, this Atlantis, exercised dominion over the colonies in Central
America, and furnished them with the essentials of civilization.
How completely does this agree with the statement of Plato that the
kings of Atlantis held dominion over parts of "the great opposite

Professor Valentini ("Maya Archæol.," p. 23) describes an Aztec
picture in the work of Gemelli ("Il giro del mondo," vol. vi.) of
the migration of the Aztecs from Aztlan:

"Out of a sheet of water there projects the peak of a mountain; on
it stands a tree, and on the tree a bird spreads its .wings.  At
the foot of the mountain-peak there comes out of the water the
heads of a man and a woman.  The one wears on his head the symbol
of his name, 'Coxcox', a pheasant.  The other head bears that of
a hand with a bouquet ('xochitl', a flower, and 'quetzal', shining
in green gold). In the foreground is a boat, out of which a naked
man stretches out his hand imploringly to heaven.  Now turn to the
sculpture in the Flood tablet (on the great Calendar stone). There
you will find represented the Flood, and with great emphasis, by the
accumulation of all those symbols with which the ancient Mexicans
conveyed the idea of water:  a tub of standing water, drops springing
out--not two, as heretofore in the symbol for 'Atl', water--but
four drops; the picture for moisture, a snail; above, a crocodile,
the king of the rivers.  In the midst of these symbols you notice
the profile of a man with a fillet, and a smaller one of a woman.
There can be doubt these are the Mexican Noah, 'Coxcox', and
his wife, 'Xochiquetzal'; and at the same time it is evident (the
Calendar stone, we know, was made in A.D., 1478) that the story
of them, and the pictures representing the story, have not been
invented by the Catholic clergy, but really existed among these
nations long before the Conquest."

The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar

When we turn to the uncivilized Indians of America, while we still
find legends referring to the Deluge, they are, with one exception,
in such garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of
the truth shining through a mass of fable.

The following tradition was current among the Indians of the Great

"In former times the father of the Indian tribes dwelt 'toward the
rising sun'. Having been warned in a dream that a deluge was coming
upon the earth, be built a raft, on which be saved himself, with
his family and all the animals.  He floated thus for several months.
The animals, who at that time spoke, loudly complained and murmured
against him.  At last a new earth appeared, on which he landed with
all the animals, who from that time lost the power of speech, as
a punishment for their murmurs against their deliverer."

According to Father Charlevoix, the tribes of Canada and the valley
of the Mississippi relate in their rude legends that all mankind
was destroyed by a flood, and that the Good Spirit, to repeople
the earth, had changed animals into men.  It is to J. S. Kohl we
owe our acquaintance with the version of the Chippeways--full of
grotesque and perplexing touches--in which the man saved from the
Deluge is called Menaboshu.  To know if the earth be drying, he
sends a bird, the diver, out of his bark; then becomes the restorer
of the human race and the founder of existing society.

A clergyman who visited the Indians north-west of the Ohio in 1764
met, at a treaty, a party of Indians from the west of the Mississippi.

"They informed him that one of their most ancient traditions was
that, a great while ago, they had a common father, who lived toward
the rising of the sun, and governed the whole world; that all the
white people's heads were under his feet; that he had twelve sons,
by whom he administered the government; that the twelve sons behaved
very bad, and tyrannized over the people, abusing their power; that
the Great Spirit, being thus angry with them, suffered the white
people to introduce spirituous liquors among them, made them drunk,
stole the special gift of the Great Spirit from them, and by this
means usurped power over them; and ever since the Indians' heads
were under the white people's feet." (Boudinot's "Star in the West,"
p. 111.)

Here we note that they looked "toward the rising sun"--toward
Atlantis--for the original home of their race; that this region
governed "the whole world;" that it contained white people, who were
at first a subject race, but who subsequently rebelled, and acquired
dominion over the darker races.  We will see reason hereafter to
conclude that Atlantis had a composite population, and that the
rebellion of the Titans in Greek mythology was the rising up of a
subject population.

In 1836 C. S. Rafinesque published in Philadelphia, Pa., a work
called "The American Nations," in which he gives the historical
songs or chants of the Lenni-Lenapi, or Delaware Indians, the tribe
that originally dwelt along, the Delaware River.  After describing
a time "when there was nothing but sea-water on top of the land,"
and the creation of sun, moon, stars, earth, and man, the legend
depicts the Golden Age and the Fall in these words:  "All were willingly
pleased, all were easy-thinking, and all were well-happified.  But
after a while a snake-priest, 'Powako', brings on earth secretly
the snake-worship ('Initako') of the god of the snakes, 'Wakon'.
And there came wickedness, crime, and unhappiness.  And bad weather
was coming, distemper was coming, with death was coming.  All this
happened 'very long ago, at the first land, Netamaki', beyond the
great 'ocean Kitahikau'." Then follows the Song of the Flood:

"There was, long ago, a powerful snake, 'Maskanako', when the men
had become bad beings, 'Makowini'. This strong snake had become
the foe of the Jins, and they became troubled, hating each other.
Both were fighting, both were, spoiling, both were never peaceful.
And they were fighting, least man 'Mattapewi' with dead-keeper
'Nihaulowit'. And the strong snake readily resolved to destroy or
fight the beings or the men.  The dark snake he brought, the monster
('Amanyam') he brought, snake-rushing water he brought (it). 'Much
water is rushing, much go to hills, much penetrate, much destroying'.
Meanwhile at 'Tula' (this is the same Tula referred to in the Central
American legends), at THAT ISLAND, Nana-Bush (the great hare Nana)
becomes the ancestor of beings and men.  Being born creeping, he
is ready to move and dwell at 'Tula'.  The beings and men all go
forth from the flood creeping in shallow water or swimming afloat,
asking which is the way to the turtle-back, 'Tula-pin'. But there
are many monsters in the way, and some men were devoured by them.
But the daughter of a spirit helped them in a boat, saying, 'Come,
come;' they were coming and were helped.  The name of the boat
or raft is 'Mokol'....  Water running off, it is drying; in the
plains and the mountains, at the path of the cave, elsewhere went
the powerful action or motion." Then follows Song 3, describing
the condition of mankind after the Flood.  Like the Aryans, they
moved into a cold country:  "It freezes was there; it snows was
there; it is cold was there." They move to a milder region to hunt
cattle; they divided their forces into tillers and hunters. "The
good and the holy were the hunters;" they spread themselves north,
south, east, and west." Meantime all the snakes were afraid in their
huts, and the Snake-priest 'Nakopowa' said to all, 'Let us go.'
'Eastwardly' they go forth at Snakeland ('Akhokink'), and they went
away earnestly grieving." Afterward the fathers of the Delawares,
who "were always boating and navigating," find that the Snake-people
have taken possession of a fine country; and they collect together
the people from north, south, east, and west, and attempt "to pass
over the waters of the frozen sea to possess that land." They seem
to travel in the dark of an Arctic winter until they come to a gap
of open sea.  They can go no farther; but some tarry at Firland,
while the rest return to where they started from, "the old turtle

Here we find that the land that was destroyed was the "first land;"
that it was an island "beyond the great ocean." In all early age
the people were happy and peaceful; they became wicked; "snake
worship" was introduced, and was associated, as in Genesis, with
the "fall of man;" Nana-Bush became the ancestor of the new race;
his name reminds us of the Toltec 'Nata' and the Hebrew 'Noah'.
After the flood came a dispersing of the people, and a separation
into hunters and tillers of the soil.

Among the Mandan Indians we not only find flood legends, but, more
remarkable still, we find an 'image of the ark preserved' from
generation to generation, and a religious ceremony performed which
refers plainly to the destruction of Atlantis, and to the arrival
of one of those who escaped from the Flood, bringing the dreadful
tidings of the disaster.  It must be remembered, as we will show
hereafter, that many of these Mandan Indians were white men, with
hazel, gray, and blue eyes, and all shades of color of the hair
from black to pure white; that they dwelt in houses in fortified
towns, and manufactured earthen-ware pots in which they could boil
water--an art unknown to the ordinary Indians, who boiled water by
putting heated stones into it.

I quote the very interesting account of George Catlin, who visited
the Mandans nearly fifty years ago, lately republished in London
in the "North American Indians," a very curious and valuable work.
He says (vol. i., p. 88):

"In the centre of the village is an open space, or public square,
150 feet in diameter and circular in form, which is used for all
public games and festivals, shows and exhibitions.  The lodges around
this open space front in, with their doors toward. the centre; and
in the middle of this stands an object of great religious veneration,
on account of the importance it has in connection with the annual
religious ceremonies.  This object is in the form of a large hogshead,
some eight or ten feet high, made of planks and hoops, containing
within it some of their choicest mysteries or medicines.  They call
it the 'Big Canoe.'"

This is a representation of the ark; the ancient Jews venerated
a similar image, and some of the ancient Greek States followed
in processions a model of the ark of Deucalion.  But it is indeed
surprising to find this practice perpetuated, even to our own times,
by a race of Indians in the heart of America.  On page 158 of the
first volume of the same work Catlin describes the great annual
mysteries and religious ceremonials of which this image of the ark
was the centre.  He says:

"On the day set apart for the commencement of the ceremonies a
solitary figure is seen approaching the village.

"During the deafening din and confusion within the pickets of the
village the figure discovered on the prairie continued to approach
with a dignified step, and in a right line toward the village; all
eyes were upon him, and he at length made his appearance within
the pickets, and proceeded toward the centre of the village, where
all the chiefs and braves stood ready to receive him, which they
did in a cordial manner by shaking hands, recognizing him as an old
acquaintance, and pronouncing his name, Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah ('the
first or only man'). The body of this strange personage, which was
chiefly naked, was painted with white clay, so as to resemble at
a distance a white man.  He enters the medicine lodge, and goes
through certain mysterious ceremonies.

"During the whole of this day Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (the first or
only man) travelled through the village, stopping in front of each
man's lodge, and crying until the owner of the lodge came out and
asked who he was, and what was the matter? To which be replied by
narrating 'the sad catastrophe which had happened on the earth's
surface by the overflowing of the waters', saying that 'he was the
'only person saved from the universal calamity'; that he landed
his big canoe on a high mountain in the west, where he now resides;
that be has come to open the medicine lodge, which must needs
receive a present of an edged tool from the owner of every wigwam,
that it may be sacrificed to the water; for,' he says, 'if this is
not done there will be another flood, and no one will be saved, as
it was with such tools that the big canoe was made.'

"Having visited every lodge in the village during the day, and
having received such a present from each as a hatchet, a knife,
etc. (which is undoubtedly always prepared ready for the occasion),
be places them in the medicine lodge; and, on the last day of the
ceremony, they are thrown into a deep place in the river--'sacrificed
to the Spirit of the Waters."'

Among the sacred articles kept in the great medicine lodge are four
sacks of water, called 'Eeh-teeh-ka', sewed together, each of them
in the form of a tortoise lying on its back, with a bunch of eagle
feathers attached to its tail. "These four tortoises," they told
me, "contained the waters from the four quarters of the world--that
those waters had been contained therein 'ever since the settling
down of the waters'," "I did not," says Catlin, who knew nothing
of an Atlantis theory, "think it best to advance anything against
such a ridiculous belief." Catlin tried to purchase one of these
water-sacks, but could not obtain it for any price; he was told
they were "a society property."

He then describes a dance by twelve men around the ark:  "They
arrange themselves according to 'the four cardinal points'; two
are painted perfectly 'black', two are vermilion color, some were
painted partially white.  They dance a dance called Bel-lohck-na-pie,'"
with horns on their heads, like those used in Europe as symbolical
of Bel, or Baal.

Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies
with the destruction of Atlantis? Here we have the image of the
ark; here we have a white man coming with the news that "the waters
had overflowed the land," and that all the people were destroyed
except himself; here we have the sacrifice to appease the spirit
that caused the Flood, just as we find the Flood terminating, in the
Hebrew, Chaldean, and Central American legends, with a sacrifice.
Here, too, we have the image of the tortoise, which we find in other
flood legends of the Indians, and which is a very natural symbol
for an island.  As one of our own poets has expressed it,

"Very fair and full of promise
Lay the island of St.  Thomas;
Like a great green turtle slumbered
On the sea which it encumbered."

Here we have, too, the four quarters of Atlantis, divided by its
four rivers, as we shall see a little farther on, represented in a
dance, where the dancers arrange themselves according to the four
cardinal points of the compass; the dancers are painted to represent
the black and red races, while "the first and only man" represents
the white race; and the name of the dance is a reminiscence of
Baal, the ancient god of the races derived from Atlantis.

But this is not all.  The Mandans were evidently of the race of
Atlantis.  They have another singular legend, which we find in the
account of Lewis and Clarke:

"Their belief in a future state is connected with this theory
of their origin:  The whole nation resided in one large village,
underground, near a subterranean lake.  A grape-vine extended its
roots down to their habitation, and gave them a view of the light.
Some of the most adventurous climbed up the vine, and were delighted
with the sight of the earth, which they found covered with buffalo,
and rich with every kind of fruit.  Returning with the grapes they
had gathered, their countrymen were so pleased with the taste of
them that the whole nation resolved to leave their dull residence
for the charms of the upper region.  Men, women, and children ascended
by means of the vine, but, when about half the nation had reached
the surface of the earth, a corpulent woman, who was clambering
up the vine, broke it with her weight, and closed upon herself and
the rest of the nation the light of the sun."

This curious tradition means. that the present nation dwelt in a
large settlement underground, that is, beyond the land, in the sea;
the sea being represented by "the subterranean lake." At one time
the people had free intercourse between this "large village" and
the American continent, and they founded extensive colonies on
this continent; whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother
country.  This explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the
legends of the Iowa Indians, who were a branch of the Dakotas, or
Sioux Indians, and relatives of the Mandans (according to Major
James W. Lynd), "all the tribes of Indians were formerly one, and
all dwelt together on an island, or at least across a large water
toward the east or sunrise.  They crossed this water in skin canoes,
or by swimming; but they know not how long they were in crossing,
or whether the water was salt or fresh." While the Dakotas, according
to Major Lynd, who lived among them for nine years, possessed
legends of "huge skiffs, in which the Dakotas of old floated for
weeks, finally gaining dry land"--a reminiscence of ships and long

The Mandans celebrated their great religious festival above described
in the season when the willow is first in leaf, and a dove is mixed
up in the ceremonies; and they further relate a legend that "the
world was once a great tortoise, borne on the waters, and covered
with earth, and that when one day, in digging the soil, a tribe of
white men, who had made holes in the earth to a great depth digging
for badgers, at length pierced the shell of the tortoise, it sank,
and the water covering it drowned all men with the exception of
one, who saved himself in a boat; and when the earth re-emerged,
sent out a dove, who returned with a branch of willow in its beak."

The holes dug to find badgers were a savage's recollection of mining
operations; and when the great disaster came, and the island sunk
in the sea amid volcanic convulsions, doubtless men said it was due
to the deep mines, which had opened the way to the central fires.
But the recurrence of "white men" as the miners, and of a white man
as "the last and only man," and the presence of white blood in the
veins of the people, all point to the same conclusion--that the
Mandans were colonists from Atlantis.

And here I might add that Catlin found the following singular
resemblances between the Mandan tongue and the Welsh:

| English....  ....  Mandan.....  Welsh....  | Pronounced. |
....  ....   ....  Me...... | Mi...... | Me....    |
| You....  ....... Ne...... | Chwi...... Chwe....  |
| He....  ...... | E......  | A......  | A.......
| She....  ....... Ea...... | E......  | A.......
| It....  ...... | Ount...... Hwynt....  | Hooynt....
| We....  ...... | Noo....... Ni...... | Ne....    |
| They....  ...... Eonah....  | Hona, 'fem'. | Hona....  |
| No; or there is not. | Megosh.....  Nagoes.....  Nagosh....
| No....  ....   ....  ...... Na....   ....  ....  |
| Head....  ...... Pan....... Pen....... Pan....   |
| The Great Spirit.... Maho Peneta. | Maw....... Mosoor....
....  ....   ....  ......   | Penæthir.... Panæther.   |

Major Lynd found the following resemblances between the Dakota
tongue and the languages of the Old World:


| Latin. | English. | Saxo... Sanscrit. | German. | Danish.  | Sioux.... Other....  Primar....   |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Languages. | Signification. |
...... See....  Seon....  ....  | Sehe... Sig....  Si....  ......   | Appearing....
...... see....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  ...... visible....  |
| Pinso  | Pound... Punian....  ....  ....  ...... | Pa....  | 'W.....  | Beatin....   |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Pwynian....  .... ....
| Vad... Wen....  Wendan....  ....  ....  ...... | Wint....  ...... | Passage....  |
...... Wen....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  ....   ....  ....   |
...... Tow....  Tu....  ....... Zaun... Tun....  Tonw....  'Gaelic....  .... ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Dun....  ....  ....   |
| Qui... Who....  Hw....  Kwas....  Wi....  ...... Tuwe....  ....   ....  .......
...... Weapo... Wepn....  ....  | Wape... Vaape... Wipe....  ...... | Sioux dimin.   |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  ......   | Wipen....    |
| Ego....   ....  Ic....  Agam....  Ic....  Jeg....  Mish....  ....   ....  .......
| Cor... Cor....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ...... C...... 'Gr.,....  Centre, heart  |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Kea....  ....  ....   |
...... Eight... Acht... Aute....  Acht... Ott....  Shaktogan | 'Gr.,....  ....   ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Okt....  ....  ....   |
| Canna  | Can....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ...... Ca....  | 'Heb., Can | Reed, weed,    |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | W., Cawn'  | wood.......
| Poc... Poc....  Po....  ....... Pock... Pukke... Poka....  'Dutch,... Swelling.....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Poca'....  ....   ....
...... Wit....  With....  ....  | Wide....   ....  Wita....  'Goth.,....  .... ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Gewithan.....  .......
...... Doughty  | Dohtig....  ....  Taugen  | Digti... Dita....  ...... | Hot, brave,    |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ......   | Ditaya....  ...... daring....   |
...... Tight... Tian....  ....  | Dich... Dig....  Tita....  ...... | Strain....   |
| Tango  | Touch... Taecan....  ....  Ticken  | Tekka... Ta....  ......   | Touch, take.   |
| Tactus | Tak....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ...... Htak....  ....   ....  .......
...... Child... Cild....  ....  | Kind... Kul....  Ci....  ......   | Progeny....  |
...... Wor....  Wercan....  ....  ....  ...... | Woccas... 'Dutch,... Labor, motion. |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ......   | Heco....  Wer....  ....  ....   |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Span.....  ....   ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Hecho....  ....   ....
...... Shackle  | Seoacu....  ....  ....  ...... | Shka....  'Ar.,....  to bind (....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Schakala,  | link)....    |
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Dutch....  ....   ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Schakel....  .... ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Teton....  ....   ....
....   ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  | Shakalan'....  .......
| Query....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....  Kuiv....  ....   ....  .......
| Shabb....   ....  ....  ....... Schabig | Schabbig | Shabya....  ....   ....  ....   |

According to Major Lynd, the Dakotas, or Sioux, belonged to the
same race as the Mandans; hence the interest which attaches to
these verbal similarities.

"Among the Iroquois there is a tradition that the sea and waters
infringed upon the land, so that all human life was destroyed.  The
Chickasaws assert that the world was once destroyed by water, but
that one family was saved, and two animals of every kind.  The
Sioux say there was a time when there was no dry land, and all men
had disappeared from existence." (See Lynd's "MS. History of the
Dakotas," Library of Historical Society of Minnesota.)

"The Okanagaus have a god, Skyappe, and also one called Chacha, who
appear to be endowed with omniscience; but their principal divinity
is their great mythical ruler and heroine, Scomalt.  Long ago,
when the sun was no bigger than a star, this strong medicine-woman
ruled over what appears to have now become a 'lost island'. At
last the peace of the island was destroyed by war, and the noise of
battle was heard, with which Scomalt was exceeding wroth, whereupon
she rose up in her might and drove her rebellious subjects to one
end of the island, and broke off the piece of land on which they
were huddled and pushed it out to sea, to drift whither it would.
This floating island was tossed to and fro and buffeted by the
winds till all but two died.  A man and woman escaped in a canoe,
and arrived on the main-land; and from these the Okanagaus are
descended." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 149.)

Here we have the Flood legend clearly connected with a lost island.

The Nicaraguans believed "that ages ago the world was destroyed
by a flood, in which the most part of mankind perished.  Afterward
the 'teotes', or gods, restored the earth as at the beginning."
('Ibid'., p.  75.) The wild Apaches, "wild from their natal hour,"
have a legend that "the first days of the world were happy and
peaceful days;" then came a great flood, from which Montezuma and
the coyote alone escaped.  Montezuma became then very wicked, and
attempted to build a house that would reach to heaven, but the
Great Spirit destroyed it with thunderbolts. (Bancroft's "Native
Races," vol. iii., p. 76.)

The Pimas, an Indian tribe allied to the Papagos, have a peculiar
flood legend.  The son of the Creator was called Szeu-kha (Ze-us?).
An eagle prophesied the deluge to the prophet of the people
three times in succession, but his warning was despised; "then in
the twinkling of an eye there came a peal of thunder and an awful
crash, and a green mound of water reared itself over the plain.
It seemed to stand upright for a second, then, cut incessantly by
the lightning, goaded on like a great beast, it flung itself upon
the prophet's hut.  When the morning broke there was nothing to
be seen alive but one man--if indeed be were a man; Szeu-kha, the
son of the Creator, had saved himself by floating on a ball of gum
or resin." This instantaneous catastrophe reminds one forcibly of
the destruction of Atlantis.  Szeu-kha killed the eagle, restored
its victims to life, and repeopled the earth with them, as Deucalion
repeopled the earth with the stones.



'The Fountains of the Great Deep.'--As Atlantis perished in a volcanic
convulsion, it must have possessed volcanoes.  This is rendered the
more probable when we remember that the ridge of land of which it
was a part, stretching from north to south, from Iceland to St.
Helena, contains even now great volcanoes--as in Iceland, the
Azores, the Canaries, etc.--and that the very sea-bed along the
line of its original axis is, to this day, as we have shown, the
scene of great volcanic disturbances.

If, then, the mountains of Atlantis contained volcanoes, of which
the peaks of the Azores are the surviving representatives, it is
not improbable that the convulsion which drowned it in the sea was
accompanied by great discharges of water.  We have seen that such
discharges occurred in the island of Java, when four thousand people
perished. "Immense columns of hot water and boiling mud were thrown
out" of the volcano of Galung Gung; the water was projected from the
mountain "like a water-spout." When a volcanic island was created
near Sicily in 1831, it was accompanied by "a waterspout sixty feet

In the island of Dominica, one of the islands constituting the Leeward
group of the West Indies, and nearest to the site of Atlantis, on
the 4th of January, 1880, occurred a series of convulsions which
reminds us forcibly of the destruction of Plato's island; and the
similarity extends to another particular:  Dominica contains, like
Atlantis, we are told, numerous hot and sulphur springs.  I abridge
the account given by the 'New York Herald' of January 28th, 1880:

"A little after 11 o'clock A.M., soon after high-mass in the Roman
Catholic cathedral, and while divine service was still going on
in the Anglican and Wesleyan chapels, all the indications of an
approaching thunder-storm suddenly showed themselves; the atmosphere,
which just previously had been cool and pleasant--slight showers
falling since early morning--became at once nearly stifling hot;
the rumbling of distant thunder was heard, and the light-blue and
fleecy white of the sky turned into a heavy and lowering black.
Soon the thunder-peals came near and loud, the lightning flashes,
of a blue and red color, more frequent and vivid; and the rain, first
with a few heavy drops, commenced to pour as if the floodgates of
heaven were open.  In a moment it darkened, as if night had come;
a strong, nearly overpowering smell of sulphur announced itself;
and people who happened to be out in the streets felt the rain-drops
failing on their heads, backs, and shoulders like showers of
hailstones.  The cause of this was to be noted by looking at the
spouts, from which the water was rushing like so many cataracts of
molten lead, while the gutters below ran swollen streams of thick
gray mud, looking like nothing ever seen in them before.  In the
mean time the Roseau River had worked itself into a state of mad
fury, overflowing its banks, carrying down rocks and large trees,
and threatening destruction to the bridges over it and the houses
in its neighborhood.  When the storm ceased--it lasted till twelve,
mid-day--the roofs and walls of the buildings in town, the street
pavement, the door-steps and back-yards were found covered with a
deposit of volcanic débris, holding together like clay, dark-gray
in color, and in some places more than an inch thick, with small,
shining metallic particles on the surface, which could be easily
identified as iron pyrites.  Scraping up some of the stuff,
it required only a slight examination to determine its main
constituents--sandstone and magnesia, the pyrites being slightly
mixed, and silver showing itself in even smaller quantity.  This
is, in fact, the composition of the volcanic mud thrown up by the
'soufrières' at Watton Waven and in the Boiling Lake country, and
it is found in solution as well in the lake water.  The Devil's
Billiard-table, within half a mile of the Boiling Lake, is composed
wholly of this substance, which there assumes the character of stone
in formation.  Inquiries instituted on Monday morning revealed the
fact that, except on the south-east, the mud shower had not extended
beyond the limits of the town.  On the north-west, in the direction
of Fond Colo and Morne Daniel, nothing but pure rain-water had
fallen, and neither Loubière nor Pointe Michel had seen
any signs of volcanic disturbance. .  . .

"But what happened at Pointe Mulâtre enables us to spot the locale
of the eruption.  Pointe Mulâtre lies at the foot of the range of
mountains on the top of which the Boiling Lake frets and seethes.
The only outlet of the lake is a cascade which falls into one of
the branches of the Pointe Mulâtre River, the color and temperature
of which, at one time and another, shows the existence or otherwise
of volcanic activity in the lake-country.  We may observe, 'en
passant', that the fall of the water from the lake is similar in
appearance to the falls on the sides of Roairama, in the interior
of British Guiana; there, is no continuous stream, but the water
overleaps its basin. like a kettle boiling over, and comes down in
detached cascades from the top.  May there not be a boiling lake
on the unapproachable summit of Roairama? The phenomena noted
at Pointe Mulâtre on Sunday were similar to what we witnessed in
Roseau, but with every feature more strongly marked.  The fall of
mud was heavier, covering all the fields; the atmospheric disturbance
was greater, and the change in the appearance of the running water
about the place more surprising.  The Pointe Mulâtre River suddenly
began to run volcanic mud and water; then the mud predominated, and
almost buried the stream under its weight, and the odor of sulphur
in the air became positively oppressive.  Soon the fish in the
water--brochet, camoo, meye, crocro, mullet, down to the eel, the
crawfish, the loche, the tétar, and the dormer--died, and were
thrown on the banks.  The mud carried down by the river has formed
a bank at the month which nearly dams up the stream, and threatens
to throw it back over the low-lying lands of the Pointe Mulâtre
estate.  The reports from the Laudat section of the Boiling Lake
district are curious.  The Bachelor and Admiral rivers, and the
numerous mineral springs which arise in that part of the island,
are all running a thick white flood, like cream milk.  The face of
the entire country, from the Admiral River to the Solfatera Plain,
has undergone some portentous change, which the frightened peasants
who bring the news to Roseau seem unable clearly and connectedly
to describe, and the volcanic activity still continues."

From this account it appears that the rain of water and mud came
from a boiling lake on the mountains; it must have risen to a great
height, "like a water-spout," and then fallen in showers over the
face of the country.  We are reminded, in this Boiling Lake of
Dominica, of the Welsh legend of the eruption of the Llyn-llion,
"the Lake of Waves," which "inundated the whole country." On the
top of a mountain in the county of Kerry, Ireland, called Mangerton,
there is a deep lake known as Poulle-i-feron, which signifies
Hell-hole; it frequently overflows, and rolls down the mountain in
frightful torrents.  On Slieve-donart, in the territory of Mourne,
in the county of Down, Ireland, a lake occupies the mountain-top,
and its overflowings help to form rivers.

If we suppose the destruction of Atlantis to have been, in like
manner, accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water from one or
more of its volcanoes, thrown to a great height, and deluging the
land, we can understand the description in the Chaldean legend of
"'the terrible water-spout'," which even "the gods grew afraid of,"
and which "rose to the sky," and which seems to have been one of
the chief causes, together with the earthquake, of the destruction
of the country.  And in this view we are confirmed by the Aramæan
legend of the Deluge, probably derived at an earlier age from the
Chaldean tradition.  In it we are told, "All on a sudden 'enormous
volumes of water issued from the earth', and rains of extraordinary
abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds, and the ocean
overflowed its banks." The disturbance in Dominica duplicates this
description exactly:  "In a moment" the water and mud burst from
the mountains, "the floodgates of heaven were opened," and "the
river overflowed its banks."

And here, again, we are reminded of the expression in Genesis,
"the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up"
(chap. vii., 11). That this does not refer to the rain is clear
from the manner in which it is stated:  "The same day were all the
fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven
were opened.  And the rain was upon the earth," etc.  And when
the work of destruction is finished, we are told "the fountains
also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped." This is
a reminiscence by an inland people, living where such tremendous
volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown, of "the terrible
water-spout which "rose to the sky," of the Chaldean legend, and
of "the enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the
Aramæan tradition.  The Hindoo legend of the Flood speaks of "the
marine god Hayagriva, who dwelt in the abyss," who produced the
cataclysm.  This is doubtless "the archangel of the abyss" spoken
of in the Chaldean tradition.

'The Mountains of the North.'--We have in Plato the following
reference to the mountains of Atlantis:

"The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous
on the side of the sea....  The whole region of the island lies
toward the south, and is sheltered from the north....  The surrounding
mountains exceeded all that are to be seen now anywhere."

These mountains were the present Azores.  One has but to contemplate
their present elevation, and remember the depth to which they
descend in the ocean, to realize their tremendous altitude and the
correctness of the description given by Plato.

In the Hindoo legend we find the fish-god, who represents Poseidon,
father of Atlantis, helping Mann. over "the Mountain of the North."
In the Chaldean legend Khasisatra's vessel is stopped by "the
Mountain of Nizir" until the sea goes down.

'The Mud which Stopped Navigation.'--We are told by Plato, "Atlantis
disappeared beneath the sea, and then that sea became inaccessible,
so that navigation on it ceased, on account of the quantity of mud
which the ingulfed island left in its place." This is one of the
points of Plato's story which provoked the incredulity and ridicule
of the ancient, and even of the modern, world.  We find in the
Chaldean legend something of the same kind:  Khasisatra says, "I
looked at the sea attentively, observing, and the whole of humanity
had returned to mud." In the "Popol Vuh" we are told that a "resinous
thickness descended from heaven," even as in Dominica the rain was
full of "thick gray mud," accompanied by an "overpowering smell of

The explorations of the ship 'Challenger' show that the whole of
the submerged ridge of which Atlantis 'is a part is to this day
thickly covered with volcanic débris'.

We have but to remember the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, which
were covered with such a mass of volcanic ashes from the eruption
of A.D. 79 that for seventeen centuries they remained buried at a
depth of from fifteen to thirty feet; a new population lived and
labored above them; an aqueduct was constructed over their heads;
and it was only when a farmer, in digging for a well, penetrated
the roof of a house, that they were once more brought to the light
of day and the knowledge of mankind.

We have seen that, in 1783, the volcanic eruption in Iceland covered
the sea with pumice for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles,
"and 'ships were considerably impeded in their course'."

The eruption in the island of Sumbawa, in April, 1815, threw out
such masses of ashes as to darken the air. "The floating cinders
to the west of Sumatra formed, on the 12th of April, a mass 'two
feet thick' and several miles in extent, 'through which ships with
difficulty forced their way'."

It thus appears that the very statement of Plato which has provoked
the ridicule of scholars is in itself one of the corroborating
features of his story.  It is probable that the ships of the
Atlanteans, when they returned after the tempest to look for their
country, found the sea impassable from the masses of volcanic
ashes and pumice.  They returned terrified to the shores of Europe;
and the shock inflicted by the destruction of Atlantis upon the
civilization of the world probably led to one of those retrograde
periods in the history of our race in which they lost all intercourse
with the Western continent.

'The Preservation of a Record.'--There is a singular coincidence
in the stories of the Deluge in another particular.

The legends of the Phoenicians, preserved by Sanchoniathon, tell
us that Taautos, or Taut, was the inventor of the alphabet and of
the art of writing.

Now, we find in the Egyptian legends a passage of Manetho, in
which Thoth (or Hermes Trismegistus), before the Deluge, inscribed
on stelæ, or tablets, in hieroglyphics, or sacred characters, the
principles of all knowledge.  After the Deluge the second Thoth
translated the contents of these stelæ into the vulgar tongue.

Josephus tells us that "The patriarch Seth, in order that wisdom
and astronomical knowledge should not perish, erected, in prevision
of the double destruction by fire and water predicted by Adam, two
columns, one of brick, the other of stone, on which this knowledge
was engraved, and which existed in the Siriadic country."

In the Chaldean legends the god Ea ordered Khasisatra to inscribe
the divine learning, and the principles of all sciences, on tables
of terra-cotta, and bury them, before the Deluge, "in the City of
the Sun at Sippara."

Berosus, in his version of the Chaldean flood, says:

"The deity, Chronos, appeared to him (Xisuthros) in a vision, and
warned him that, upon the 15th day of the month Doesius, there
would be a flood by which mankind would be destroyed.  He therefore
enjoined him to write a history of the beginning, procedure, and
conclusion of all things, and to bury it in the City of the Sun at
Sippara, and to build a vessel," etc.

The Hindoo Bhâgavata-Purâna tells us that the fish-god, who warned
Satyravata of the coming of the Flood, directed him to place the
sacred Scriptures in a safe place, "in order to preserve them from
Hayagriva, a marine horse dwelling in the abyss."

Are we to find the original of these legends in the following
passage from Plato's history of Atlantis?

"Now, the relations of their governments to one another were regulated
by the injunctions of Poseidon, as the law had handed them down.
These were inscribed by the first then on a column of orichalcum,
which was situated in the middle of the island, at the Temple
of Poseidon, whither the people were gathered together....  They
received and gave judgments, and at daybreak they wrote down their
sentences on a golden tablet, and deposited them as memorials with
their robes.  There were many special laws which the several kings
had inscribed about the temples." (Critias, p. 120.)

'A Succession of Disasters.'--The Central American books, translated
by De Bourbourg, state that originally a part of the American
continent extended far into the Atlantic Ocean.  This tradition is
strikingly confirmed by the explorations of the ship 'Challenger',
which show that the "Dolphin's Ridge" was connected with the shore
of South America north of the mouth of the Amazon.  The Central
American books tell us that this region of the continent was
destroyed by a succession of frightful convulsions, probably at
long intervals apart; three of these catastrophes are constantly
mentioned, and sometimes there is reference to one or two more.

"The land," in these convulsions, "was shaken by frightful earthquakes,
and the waves of the sea combined with volcanic fires to overwhelm
and ingulf it....  Each convulsion swept away portions of the land
until the whole disappeared, leaving the line of coast as it now is.
Most of the inhabitants, overtaken amid their regular employments,
were destroyed; but some escaped in ships, and some fled for safety
to the summits of high mountains, or to portions of the land which
for a time escaped immediate destruction." (Baldwin's "Ancient
America," p. 176.)

This accords precisely with the teachings of geology.  We know that
the land from which America and Europe were formed once covered
nearly or quite the whole space now occupied by the Atlantic between
the continents; and it is reasonable to believe that it went down
piecemeal, and that Atlantis was but the stump of the ancient
continent, which at last perished from the same causes and in the
same way.

The fact that this tradition existed among the inhabitants of
America is proven by the existence of festivals, "especially one
in the month 'Izcalli', which were instituted to commemorate this
frightful destruction of land and people, and in which, say the
sacred books, 'princes and people humbled themselves before the
divinity, and besought him to withhold a return of such terrible

Can we doubt the reality of events which we thus find confirmed
by religious ceremonies at Athens, in Syria, and on the shores of
Central America?

And we find this succession of great destructions of the Atlantic
continent in the triads of Wales, where traditions are preserved
of "three terrible catastrophes." We are told by the explorations
of the ship 'Challenger' that the higher lands reach in the direction
of the British Islands; and the Celts had traditions that a part
of their country once extended far out into the Atlantic, and was
subsequently destroyed.

And the same succession of destructions is referred to in the Greek
legends, where a deluge of Ogyges--"the most ancient of the kings
of Boeotia or Attica, a quite mythical person, lost in the night
of ages"--preceded that of Deucalion.

We will find hereafter the most ancient hymns of the Aryans praying
God to 'hold the land firm'. The people of Atlantis, having seen
their country thus destroyed, section by section, and judging that
their own time must inevitably come, must have lived under a great
and perpetual terror, which will go far to explain the origin of
primeval religion, and the hold which it took upon the minds of
men; and this condition of things may furnish us a solution of the
legends which have come down to us of their efforts to perpetuate
their learning on pillars, and also an explanation of that other
legend of the Tower of Babel, which, as I will show hereafter,
was common to both continents, and in which they sought to build
a tower high enough to escape the Deluge.

All the legends of the preservation of a record prove that the
united voice of antiquity taught that the antediluvians had advanced
so far in civilization as to possess an alphabet and a system
of writing; a conclusion which, as we will see hereafter, finds
confirmation in the original identity of the alphabetical signs
used in the old world and the new.





Material civilization might be defined to be the result of a series
of inventions and discoveries, whereby man improves his condition,
and controls the forces of nature for his own advantage.

The savage man is a pitiable creature; as Menabosbu says, in
the Chippeway legends, he is pursued by a "perpetual hunger;" he
is exposed unprotected to the blasts of winter and the heats of
summer.  A great terror sits upon his soul; for every manifestation
of nature--the storm, the wind, the thunder, the lightning, the
cold, the heat--all are threatening and dangerous demons.  The
seasons bring him neither seed-time nor harvest; pinched with
hunger, appeasing in part the everlasting craving of his stomach
with seeds, berries, and creeping things, he sees the animals of
the forest dash by him, and he has no means to arrest their flight.
He is powerless and miserable in the midst of plenty.  Every step
toward civilization is a step of conquest over nature.  The invention
of the bow and arrow was, in its time, a far greater stride forward
for the human race than the steam-engine or the telegraph.  The
savage could now reach his game--his insatiable hunger could be
satisfied; the very eagle, "towering in its pride of place," was not
beyond the reach of this new and wonderful weapon.  The discovery
of fire and the art of cooking was another immense step forward.
The savage, having nothing but wooden vessels in which to cook,
covered the wood with clay; the day hardened in the fire.  The
savage gradually learned that he could dispense with the wood, and
thus pottery was invented.  Then some one (if we are to believe the
Chippeway legends, on the shores of Lake Superior) found fragments
of the pure copper of that region, beat them into shape, and the
art of metallurgy was begun; iron was first worked in the same way
by shaping meteoric iron into spear-heads.

But it must not be supposed that these inventions followed one another
in rapid succession.  Thousands, and perhaps tens of thousands, of
years intervened between each step; many savage races have not to
this day achieved some of these steps.  Prof.  Richard Owen says,
"Unprepossessed and sober experience teaches that arts, language,
literature are of slow growth, the results of gradual development."

I shall undertake to show hereafter that nearly all the arts
essential to civilization which we possess date back to the time
of Atlantis--certainly to that ancient Egyptian civilization which
was coeval with, and an outgrowth from, Atlantis.

'In six thousand years the world made no advance on the civilization
which it received from Atlantis.'

Phoenicia, Egypt, Chaldea, India, Greece, and Rome passed the torch
of civilization from one to the other; but in all that lapse of
time they added nothing to the arts which existed at the earliest
period of Egyptian history.  In architecture, sculpture, painting,
engraving, mining, metallurgy, navigation, pottery, glass-ware, the
construction of canals, roads, and aqueducts, the arts of Phoenicia
and Egypt extended, without material change or improvement, to
a period but two or three hundred years ago.  The present age has
entered upon a new era; it has added a series of wonderful inventions
to the Atlantean list; it has subjugated steam and electricity to
the uses of man.  And its work has but commenced:  it will continue
until it lifts man to a plane as much higher than the present as
the present is above the barbaric condition; and in the future it
will be said that between the birth of civilization in Atlantis and
the new civilization there stretches a period of many thousands of
years, during which mankind did not invent, but simply perpetuated.

Herodotus tells us ("Euterpe," cxlii.) that, according to the
information he received from the Egyptian priests, their written
history dated back 11,340 years before his era, or nearly 14,000
years prior to this time.  They introduced him into a spacious
temple, and showed him the statues of 341 high-priests who had in
turn succeeded each other; and yet the age of Columbus possessed no
arts, except that of printing (which was ancient in China), which
was not known to the Egyptians; and the civilization of Egypt at
its first appearance was of a higher order than at any subsequent
period of its history, thus testifying that it drew its greatness
from a fountain higher than itself.  It was in its early days that
Egypt worshipped one only God; in the later ages this simple and
sublime belief was buried under the corruptions of polytheism.  The
greatest pyramids were built by the Fourth Dynasty, and so universal
was education at that time among the people that the stones with
which they were built retain to this day the writing of the workmen.
The first king was Menes.

"At the epoch of Menes," says Winchell, "the Egyptians were already
a civilized and numerous people.  Manetho tells us that Athotis,
the son of this first king, Menes, built the palace at Memphis;
that he was a physician, and left anatomical books.  All these
statements imply that even at this early period the Egyptians were
in a high state of civilization." (Winchell's "Preadamites," p.
120.) "In the time of Menes the Egyptians had long been architects,
sculptors, painters, mythologists, and theologians." Professor
Richard Owen says, "Egypt is recorded to have been a civilized
and governed community 'before' the time of Menes.  The pastoral
community of a group of nomad families, as portrayed in the Pentateuch,
may be admitted as an early step in civilization.  But how far in
advance of this stage is a nation administered by a kingly government,
consisting of grades of society, with divisions of labor, of which
one kind, assigned to the priesthood, was to record or chronicle the
names and dynasties of the kings, the duration and chief events of
their reigns!" Ernest Renan points out that "Egypt at the beginning
appears mature, old, and entirely without mythical and heroic ages,
as if the country had never known youth.  Its civilization has no
infancy, and its art no archaic period.  The civilization of the
Old Monarchy did not begin with infancy.  It was already mature."

We shall attempt to show that it matured in Atlantis, and that the
Egyptian people were unable to maintain it at the high standard
at which they had received it, as depicted in the pages of Plato.
What king of Assyria, or Greece, or Rome, or even of these modern
nations, has ever devoted himself to the study of medicine and the
writing of medical books for the benefit of mankind? Their mission
has been to kill, not to heal the people; yet here, at the very
dawn of Mediterranean history, we find the son of the first king
of Egypt recorded "as a physician, and as having left anatomical

I hold it to be incontestable that, in some region of the earth,
primitive mankind must have existed during vast spaces of time, and
under most favorable circumstances, to create, invent, and discover
those arts and things which constitute civilization.  When we have
it before our eyes that for six thousand years mankind in Europe,
Asia, and Africa, even when led by great nations, and illuminated
by marvellous minds, did not advance one inch beyond the arts of
Egypt, we may conceive what lapses, what aeons, of time it must
have required to bring savage man to that condition of refinement
and civilization possessed by Egypt when it first comes within the
purview of history.

That illustrious Frenchman, H. A. Taine (" History of English
Literature," p. 23), sees the unity of the Indo-European races manifest
in their languages, literature, and philosophies, and argues that
these pre-eminent traits are "the great marks of an original model,"
and that when we meet with them "fifteen, twenty, thirty centuries
before our era, in an Aryan, an Egyptian, a Chinese, they represent
the work of a great many ages, perhaps of several myriads of
centuries....  Such is the first and richest source of these master
faculties from which historical events take their rise; and one
sees that if it be powerful it is because this is no simple spring,
but a kind of lake, a deep reservoir, wherein other springs have,
for a multitude of centuries, discharged their several streams."
In other words, the capacity of the Egyptian, Aryan, Chaldean,
Chinese, Saxon, and Celt to maintain civilization is simply the
result of civilized training during "myriads of centuries" in some
original home of the race.

I cannot believe that the great inventions were duplicated spontaneously,
as some would have us believe, in different countries; there is no
truth in the theory that men pressed by necessity will always hit
upon the same invention to relieve their wants.  If this were so,
all savages would have invented the boomerang; all savages would
possess pottery, bows and arrows, slings, tents, and canoes; in
short, all races would have risen to civilization, for certainly
the comforts of life are as agreeable to one people as another.

Civilization is not communicable to all; many savage tribes are
incapable of it.  There are two great divisions of mankind, the
civilized and the savage; and, as we shall show, every civilized
race in the world has had something of civilization from the earliest
ages; and as "all roads lead to Rome," so all the converging lines
of civilization lead to Atlantis.  The abyss between the civilized
man and the savage is simply incalculable; it represents not
alone a difference in arts and methods of life, but in the mental
constitution, the instincts, and the predispositions of the soul.
The child of the civilized races in his sports manufactures
water-wheels, wagons, and houses of cobs; the savage boy amuses
himself with bows and arrows:  the one belongs to a building and
creating race; the other to a wild, hunting stock.  This abyss
between savagery and civilization has never been passed by any nation
through its own original force, and without external influences,
during the Historic Period; those who were savages at the dawn of
history are savages still; barbarian slaves may have been taught
something of the arts of their masters, and conquered races have
shared some of the advantages possessed by their conquerors; but
we will seek in vain for any example of a savage people developing
civilization of and among themselves.  I may be reminded of
the Gauls, Goths, and Britons; but these were not savages, they
possessed written languages, poetry, oratory, and history; they
were controlled by religious ideas; they believed in God and the
immortality of the soul, and in a state of rewards and punishments
after death.  Wherever the Romans came in contact with Gauls,
or Britons, or German tribes, they found them armed with weapons
of iron.  The Scots, according to Tacitus, used chariots and iron
swords in the battle of the Grampians--"enormes gladii sine mucrone."
The Celts of Gaul are stated by Diodorus Siculus to have used
iron-headed spears and coats-of-mail, and the Gauls who encountered
the Roman arms in B.C. 222 were armed with soft iron swords, as
well as at the time when Caesar conquered their country.  Among the
Gauls men would lend money to be repaid in the next world, and, we
need not add, that no Christian people has yet reached that sublime
height of faith; they cultivated the ground, built houses and walled
towns, wove cloth, and employed wheeled vehicles; they possessed
nearly all the cereals and domestic animals we have, and they
wrought in iron, bronze, and steel.  The Gauls had even invented
a machine on wheels to cut their grain, thus anticipating our
reapers and mowers by two thousand years.  The difference between
the civilization of the Romans under Julius Caesar and the Gauls
under Vercingetorix was a difference in degree and not in kind.
The Roman civilization was simply a development and perfection of
the civilization possessed by all the European populations; it was
drawn from the common fountain of Atlantis.

If we find on both sides of the Atlantic precisely the same arts,
sciences, religious beliefs, habits, customs, and traditions, it
is absurd to say that the peoples of the two continents arrived
separately, by precisely the same steps, at precisely the same
ends.  When we consider the resemblance of the civilizations of
the Mediterranean nations to one another, no man is silly enough
to pretend that Rome, Greece, Egypt, Assyria, Phoenicia, each
spontaneously and separately invented the arts, sciences, habits,
and opinions in which they agreed; but we proceed to trace out the
thread of descent or connection from one to another.  Why should
a rule of interpretation prevail, as between the two sides of the
Atlantic, different from that which holds good as to the two sides
of the Mediterranean Sea? If, in the one case, similarity of
origin has unquestionably produced similarity of arts, customs, and
condition, why, in the other, should not similarity of arts, customs,
and condition prove similarity of origin? Is there any instance
in the world of two peoples, without knowledge of or intercourse
with each other, happening upon the same invention, whether that
invention be an arrow-head or a steam-engine? If it required of
mankind a lapse of at least six thousand years before it began anew
the work of invention, and took up the thread of original thought
where Atlantis dropped it, what probability is there of three or
four separate nations all advancing at the same speed to precisely
the same arts and opinions? The proposition is untenable.

If, then, we prove that, on both sides of the Atlantic, civilizations
were found substantially identical, we have demonstrated that they
must have descended one from the other, or have radiated from some
common source.



'Architecture.'--Plato tells us that the Atlanteans possessed
architecture; that they built walls, temples, and palaces.

We need not add that this art was found in Egypt and all the
civilized countries of Europe, as well as in Peru, Mexico, and
Central America.  Among both the Peruvians and Egyptians the walls
receded inward, and the doors were narrower at, the top than at
the threshold.

The obelisks of Egypt, covered with hieroglyphics, are paralleled
by the round columns of Central America, and both are supposed
to have originated in 'Phallus-worship'. "The usual symbol of the
Phallus was an erect stone, often in its rough state, sometimes
sculptured." (Squier, "Serpent Symbol," p. 49; Bancroft's "Native
Races," vol. iii., p. 504.) The worship of Priapus was found in
Asia, Egypt, along the European shore of the Mediterranean, and in
the forests of Central America.

The mounds of Europe and Asia were made in the same way and for the
same purposes as those of America.  Herodotus describes the burial
of a Scythian king; he says, "After this they set to work to raise
a vast mound above the grave, all of them vying with each other,
and seeking to make it as tall as possible." "It must be confessed,"
says Foster ("Prehistoric Races," p. 193), "that these Scythic burial
rites have a strong resemblance to those of the Mound Builders."
Homer describes the erection of a great symmetrical mound over
Achilles, also one over Hector.  Alexander the Great raised a great
mound over his friend Hephæstion, at a cost of more than a million
dollars; and Semiramis raised a similar mound over her husband.
The pyramids of Egypt, Assyria, and Phoenicia had their duplicates
in Mexico and Central America.


The grave-cists made of stone of the American mounds are exactly
like the stone chests, or 'kistvaen' for the dead, found in the
British mounds. (Fosters "Prehistoric Races," p. 109.) Tumuli have
been found in Yorkshire enclosing wooden coffins, precisely as in
the mounds of the Mississippi Valley. ('Ibid'., p. 185.) The articles
associated with the dead are the same in both continents:  arms,
trinkets, food, clothes, and funeral urns.  In both the Mississippi
Valley and among the Chaldeans vases were constructed around the
bones, the neck of the vase being too small to permit the extraction
of the skull. (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p. 200.)

The use of 'cement' was known alike to the European and American

The use of the 'arch' was known on both sides of the Atlantic.

The manufacture of bricks was known in both the Old and New Worlds.

The style of ornamentation in architecture was much the same on both
hemispheres, as shown in the preceding designs, pages 137, 139.

'Metallurgy.'--The Atlanteans mined ores, and worked in metals;
they used copper, tin, bronze, gold, and silver, and probably iron.

The American nations possessed all these metals.  The age of
bronze, or of copper combined with tin, was preceded in America,
'and nowhere else', by a simpler age of copper; and, therefore,
the working of metals probably originated in America, or in some
region to which it was tributary.  The Mexicans manufactured bronze,
and the Incas mined iron near Lake Titicaca; and the civilization
of this latter region, as we will show, probably dated back to
Atlantean times.  The Peruvians called gold the tears of the sun:
it was sacred to, the sun, as silver was to the moon.

'Sculpture.'--The Atlanteans possessed this art; so did the American
and Mediterranean nations.

Dr.  Arthur Schott ("Smith.  Rep.," 1869, p. 391), in describing
the "Cara Gigantesca," or gigantic face, a monument of Yzamal, in
Yucatan, says, "Behind and on both sides, from under the mitre, a
short veil falls upon the shoulders, so as to protect the back of
the head and the neck.  This particular appendage vividly calls to
mind the same feature in the symbolic adornments of Egyptian and
Hindoo priests, and even those of the Hebrew hierarchy." Dr.  Schott
sees in the orbicular wheel-like plates of this statue the wheel
symbol of Kronos and Saturn; and, in turn, it may be supposed that
the wheel of Kronos was simply the cross of Atlantis, surrounded
by its encircling ring.

'Painting.'--This art was known on both sides of the Atlantic.  The
paintings upon the walls of some of the temples of Central America
reveal a state of the art as high as that of Egypt.

'Engraving.'--Plato tells us that the Atlanteans engraved upon
pillars.  The American nations also had this art in common with
Egypt, Phoenicia, and Assyria.

'Agriculture.'--The people of Atlantis were pre-eminently an
agricultural people; so were the civilized nations of America and
the Egyptians.  In Egypt the king put his hand to the plough at an
annual festival, thus dignifying and consecrating the occupation of
husbandry.  In Peru precisely the same custom prevailed.  In both
the plough was known; in Egypt it was drawn by oxen, and in Peru
by men.  It was drawn by men in the North of Europe down to a
comparatively recent period.

'Public Works.'--The American nations built public works as great
as or greater than any known in Europe.  The Peruvians had public
roads, one thousand five hundred to two thousand miles long, made
so thoroughly as to elicit the astonishment of the Spaniards.  At
every few miles taverns or hotels were established for the
accommodation of travellers.  Humboldt pronounced these Peruvian
roads "among the most useful and stupendous works ever executed
by man." They built aqueducts for purposes of irrigation some of
which were five hundred miles long.  They constructed magnificent
bridges of stone, and had even invented suspension bridges thousands
of years before they were introduced into Europe.  They had, both
in Peru and Mexico, a system of posts, by means of which news was
transmitted hundreds of miles in a day, precisely like those known
among the Persians in the time of Herodotus, and subsequently among
the Romans.  Stones similar to mile-stones were placed along the
roads in Peru. (See Prescott's "Peru,")

'Navigation.'--Sailing vessels were known to the Peruvians and
the Central Americans.  Columbus met, in 1502, at an island near
Honduras, a party of the Mayas in a large vessel, equipped with sails,
and loaded with a variety of textile fabrics of divers colors.


'Manufactures.'--The American nations manufactured woollen and cotton
goods; they made pottery as beautiful as the wares of Egypt; they
manufactured glass; they engraved gems and precious stones.  The
Peruvians had such immense numbers of vessels and ornaments of
gold that the Inca paid with them a ransom for himself to Pizarro
of the value of fifteen million dollars.

'Music.'--It has been pointed out that there is great resemblance
between the five-toned music of the Highland Scotch and that of
the Chinese and other Eastern nations. ("Anthropology," p. 292.)

'Weapons.'--The weapons of the New World were identically the
same as those of the Old World; they consisted of bows and arrows,
spears, darts, short swords, battle-axes, and slings; and both peoples
used shields or bucklers, and casques of wood or hide covered with
metal.  If these weapons had been derived from separate sources of
invention, one country or the other would have possessed implements
not known to the other, like the blow-pipe, the boomerang, etc.
Absolute identity in so many weapons strongly argues identity of

'Religion.'--The religion of the Atlanteans, as Plato tells us,
was pure and simple; they made no regular sacrifices but fruits
and flowers; they worshipped the sun.

In Peru a single deity was worshipped, and the sun, his most
glorious work, was honored as his representative.  Quetzalcoatl, the
founder of the Aztecs, condemned all sacrifice but that of fruits
and flowers.  The first religion of Egypt was pure and simple; its
sacrifices were fruits and flowers; temples were erected to the
sun, 'Ra', throughout Egypt.  In Peru the great festival of the sun
was called 'Ra'-mi.  The Phoenicians worshipped Baal and Moloch;
the one represented the beneficent, and the other the injurious
powers of the sun.

'Religious Beliefs.'--The Guanches of the Canary Islands, who
were probably a fragment of the old Atlantean population, believed
in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body,
and preserved their dead as mummies.  The Egyptians believed in
the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, and
preserved the bodies of the dead by embalming them.  The Peruvians
believed in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the
body, and they too preserved the bodies of their dead by embalming
them. "A few mummies in remarkable preservation have been found
among the Chinooks and Flatheads." (Schoolcraft, vol. v., p. 693.)
The embalmment of the body was also practised in Central America
and among the Aztecs.  The Aztecs, like the Egyptians, mummified
their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing them with aromatic
substances. (Dorman, "Origin Prim.  Superst.," p.  173.) The bodies
of the kings of the Virginia Indians were preserved by embalming.
(Beverly, p. 47.)

Here are different races, separated by immense distances of land
and ocean, uniting in the same beliefs, and in the same practical
and logical application of those beliefs.

The use of confession and penance was known in the religious ceremonies
of some of the American nations.  Baptism was a religious ceremony
with them, and the bodies of the dead were sprinkled with water.

Vestal virgins were found in organized communities on both sides
of the Atlantic; they were in each case pledged to celibacy, and
devoted to death if they violated their vows.  In both hemispheres
the recreant were destroyed by being buried alive.  The Peruvians,
Mexicans, Central Americans, Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews
each had a powerful hereditary priesthood.

The Phoenicians believed in an evil spirit called Zebub; the
Peruvians had a devil called Cupay.  The Peruvians burnt incense
in their temples.  The Peruvians, when they sacrificed animals,
examined their entrails, and from these prognosticated the future.

I need not add that all these nations preserved traditions of the
Deluge; and all of them possessed systems of writing.

The Egyptian priest of Sais told Solon that the myth of Phaëthon,
the son of Helios, having attempted to drive the chariot of the
sun, and thereby burning up the earth, referred to "a declination
of the bodies moving round the earth and in the heavens" (comets),
which caused a "great conflagration upon the earth," from which
those only escaped who lived near rivers and seas.  The "Codex
Chimalpopoca"--a Nahua, Central American record--tells us that the
third era of the world, or "third sun," is called, 'Quia Tonatiuh',
or sun of rain, "because in this age there fell a rain of fire, all
which existed burned, and there fell a rain of gravel;" the rocks
"boiled with tumult, and there also arose the rocks of vermilion
color." In other words, the traditions of these people go back to
a great cataclysm of fire, when the earth possibly encountered, as
in the Egyptian story, one of "the bodies moving round the earth
and in the heavens;" they had also memories of "the Drift Period,"
and of the outburst of Plutonic rocks.  If man has existed on the
earth as long as science asserts, be must have passed through many
of the great catastrophes which are written upon the face of the
planet; and it is very natural that in myths and legends he should
preserve some recollection of events so appalling and destructive.

Among the early Greeks Pan was the ancient god; his wife was Maia.
The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg calls attention to the fact that
Pan was adored in all parts of Mexico and Central America; and at
'Panuco', or 'Panca', literally 'Panopolis', the Spaniards found.
upon their entrance into Mexico, superb temples and images of Pan.
(Brasseur's Introduction in Landa's "Relacion.") The names of both
Pan and Maya enter extensively into the Maya vocabulary, Maia being
the same as Maya, the principal name of the peninsula; and 'pan',
added to 'Maya', makes the name of the ancient capital 'Mayapan'.
In the Nahua language 'pan', or 'pani', signifies "equality to that
which is above," and Pentecatl was the progenitor of all beings.
("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 467.)

The ancient Mexicans believed that the sun-god would destroy the
world in the last night of the fifty-second year, and that he would
never come back.  They offered sacrifices to him at that time to
propitiate him; they extinguished all the fires in the kingdom; they
broke all their household furniture; they bung black masks before
their faces; they prayed and fasted; and on the evening of the last
night they formed a great procession to a neighboring mountain.
A human being was sacrificed exactly at midnight; a block of wood
was laid at once on the body, and fire was then produced by rapidly
revolving another piece of wood upon it; a spark was carried to a
funeral pile, whose rising flame proclaimed to the anxious people the
promise of the god not to destroy the world for another fifty-two
years.  Precisely the same custom obtained among the nations
of Asia Minor and other parts of the continent of Asia, wherever
sun-worship prevailed, at the periodical reproduction of the sacred
fire, but not with the same bloody rites as in Mexico.  (Valentini,
"Maya Archaeology," p. 21.)

To this day the Brahman of India "churns" his sacred fire out of
a board by boring into it with a stick; the Romans renewed their
sacred fire in the same way; and in Sweden even now a "need-fire is
kindled in this manner when cholera or other pestilence is about."
(Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 262.)

A belief in ghosts is found on both continents.  The American Indians
think that the spirits of the dead retain the form and features
which they wore while living; that there is a hell and a heaven;
that hell is below the earth, and heaven above the clouds; that
the souls of the wicked sometimes wander the face of the earth,
appearing occasionally to mortals.  The story of Tantalus is found
among the Chippewayans, who believed that bad souls stand up to
their chins in water in sight of the spirit-land, which they can
never enter.  The dead passed to heaven across a stream of water by
means of a narrow and slippery bridge, from which many were lost.
The Zuñis set apart a day in each year which they spent among the
graves of their dead, communing with their spirits, and bringing
them presents--a kind of All-souls-day. (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.,"
p. 35.) The Stygian flood, and Scylla and Charybdis, are found
among the legends of the Caribs. ('Ibid'., p. 37.) Even the boat
of Charon reappears in the traditions of the Chippewayans.

The Oriental belief in the transmigration of souls is found in every
American tribe.  The souls of men passed into animals or other men.
(Schoolcraft, vol. i., p. 33.) The souls of the wicked passed into
toads and wild beasts. (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 50.)

Among both the Germans and the American Indians lycanthropy, or
the metamorphosis of men into wolves, was believed in.  In British
Columbia the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire,
with their wolf-hides hung upon sticks to dry! The Irish legend of
hunters pursuing an animal which suddenly disappears, whereupon a
human being appears in its place is found among all the American

That timid and harmless animal, the hare, was, singularly enough,
an object of superstitious reverence and fear in Europe, Asia,
and America.  The ancient Irish killed all the hares they found on
May-day among their cattle, believing them to be witches.  Cæsar
gives an account of the horror in which this animal was held by the
Britons.  The Calmucks regarded the rabbit with fear and reverence.
Divine honors were paid to the hare in Mexico.  Wabasso was changed
into a white rabbit, and canonized in that form.

The white bull, Apis, of the Egyptians, reappears in the Sacred white
buffalo of the Dakotas, which was supposed to possess supernatural
power, and after death became a god.  The white doe of European
legend had its representative in the white deer of the Housatonic
Valley, whose death brought misery to the tribe.  The transmission
of spirits by the laying on of hands, and the exorcism of demons,
were part of the religion of the American tribes.

The witches of Scandinavia, who produced tempests by their
incantations, are duplicated in America.  A Cree sorcerer sold
three days of fair weather for one pound of tobacco! The Indian
sorcerers around Freshwater Bay kept the winds in leather bags,
and disposed of them as they pleased.

Among the American Indians it is believed that those who are insane
or epileptic are "possessed of devils." (Tylor, "Prim.  Cult.,"
vol. ii., pp. 123-126.) Sickness is caused by evil spirits entering
into the sick person. (Eastman's "Sioux.") The spirits of animals
are much feared, and their departure out of the body of the invalid
is a cause of thanksgiving.  Thus an Omaha, after an eructation,
says, "Thank you, animal." (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 55.) The
confession of their sins was with a view to satisfy the evil spirit
and induce him to leave them.  ('Ibid'., p. 57.)

In both continents burnt-offerings were sacrificed to the gods.  In
both continents the priests divined the future from the condition
of the internal organs of the man or animal sacrificed. ('Ibid'.,
pp. 214, 226.) In both continents the future was revealed by
the flight of birds and by dreams.  In Peru and Mexico there were
colleges of augurs, as in Rome, who practised divination by watching
the movements and songs of birds. ('Ibid'., p. 261.)

Animals were worshipped in Central America and on the banks of the
Nile.  ('Ibid'., p. 259.)

The Ojibbeways believed that the barking of a fox was ominous of
ill.  ('Ibid'., p. 225). The peasantry of Western Europe have the
same belief as to the howling of a dog.

The belief in satyrs, and other creatures half man and half animal,
survived in America.  The Kickapoos are Darwinians. "They think
their ancestors had tails, and when they lost them the impudent
fox sent every morning to ask how their tails were, and the bear
shook his fat sides at the joke." ('Ibid'., p. 232.) Among the natives
of Brazil the father cut a stick at the wedding of his daughter;
"this was done to cut off the tails of any future grandchildren."
(Tylor, vol. i., p. 384.)

Jove, with the thunder-bolts in his hand, is duplicated in the Mexican
god of thunder, Mixcoatl, who is represented holding a bundle of
arrows.  "He rode upon a tornado, and scattered the lightnings."
(Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 98.)

Dionysus, or Bacchus, is represented by the Mexican god Texcatzoncatl,
the god of wine. (Bancroft, vol. iii., p. 418.)

Atlas reappears in Chibchacum, the deity of the Chibchas; he bears
the world on his shoulders, and when be shifts the burden from one
shoulder to another severe earthquakes are produced. (Bollært, pp.
12, 13.)

Deucalion repeopling the world is repeated in Xololt, who, after
the destruction of the world, descended to Mictlan, the realm of
the dead, and brought thence a bone of the perished race.  This,
sprinkled with blood, grew into a youth, the father of the present
race.  The Quiche hero-gods, Hunaphu and Xblanque, died; their
bodies were burnt, their bones ground to powder and thrown into
the waters, whereupon they changed into handsome youths, with the
same features as before. (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 193.)

Witches and warlocks, mermaids and mermen, are part of the mythology
of the American tribes, as they were of the European races. ('Ibid'.,
p.  79.) The mermaid of the Ottawas was "woman to the waist and
fair;" thence fish-like. ('Ibid'., p. 278.)

The snake-locks of Medusa are represented in the snake-locks of
At-otarho, an ancient culture-hero of the Iroquois.

A belief in the incarnation of gods in men, and the physical
translation of heroes to heaven, is part of the mythology of the
Hindoos and the American races.  Hiawatha, we are told, rose to
heaven in the presence of the multitude, and vanished from sight
in the midst of sweet music.

The vocal statues and oracles of Egypt and Greece were duplicated
in America.  In Peru, in the valley of Rimac, there was an idol
which answered questions and became famous as an oracle. (Dorman,
"Prim.  Superst.," p. 124.)

The Peruvians believed that men were sometimes metamorphosed into

The Oneidas claimed descent from a stone, as the Greeks from the
stones of Deucalion. ('Ibid'., p. 132.)

Witchcraft is an article of faith among all the American races.
Among the Illinois Indians "they made small images to represent
those whose days they have a mind to shorten, and which they stab
to the heart," whereupon the person represented is expected to
die. (Charlevoix, vol.  ii., p. 166.) The witches of Europe made
figures of wax of their enemies, and gradually melted them at the
fire, and as they diminished the victim was supposed to sicken and

A writer in the Popular Science Monthly (April, 1881, p. 828)
points out the fact that there is an absolute identity between the
folk-lore of the negroes on the plantations of the South and the
myths and stories of certain tribes of Indians in South America,
as revealed by Mr.  Herbert Smith's "Brazil, the Amazons, and the
Coast." (New York:  Scribner, 1879.) Mr.  Harris, the author of
a work on the folk-lore of the negroes, asks this question, "When
did the negro or the North American Indian come in contact with
the tribes of South America?"

'Customs.'--Both peoples manufactured a fermented, intoxicating
drink, the one deriving it from barley, the other from maize.  Both
drank toasts.  Both had the institution of marriage, an important
part of the ceremony consisting in the joining of bands; both
recognized divorce, and the Peruvians and Mexicans established
special courts to decide cases of this kind.  Both the Americans
and Europeans erected arches, and had triumphal processions for
their victorious kings, and both strewed the ground before them
with leaves and flowers.  Both celebrated important events with
bonfires and illuminations; both used banners, both invoked blessings.
The Phoenicians, Hebrews, and Egyptians practised circumcision.
Palacio relates that at Azori, in Honduras, the natives circumcised
boys before an idol called Icelca. ("Carta," p. 84.) Lord Kingsborough
tells us the Central Americans used the same rite, and McKenzie
(quoted by Retzius) says he saw the ceremony performed by the
Chippeways.  Both had bards and minstrels, who on great festivals
sung the deeds of kings and heroes.  Both the Egyptians and the
Peruvians held agricultural fairs; both took a census of the people.
Among both the land was divided per capita among the people; in
Judea a new division was made every fifty years.  The Peruvians
renewed every year all the fires of the kingdom from the Temple
of the Sun, the new fire being kindled from concave mirrors by the
sun's rays.  The Romans under Numa had precisely the same custom.
The Peruvians had theatrical plays.  They chewed the leaves of
the coca mixed with lime, as the Hindoo to-day chews the leaves of
the betel mixed with lime.  Both the American and European nations
were divided into castes; both practised planet-worship; both used
scales and weights and mirrors.  The Peruvians, Egyptians, and
Chaldeans divided the year into twelve months, and the months into
lesser divisions of weeks.  Both inserted additional days, so as
to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days.  The Mexicans
added five intercalary days; and the Egyptians, in the time of
Amunoph I., had already the same practice.

Humboldt, whose high authority cannot be questioned, by an elaborate
discussion ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148 'et. seq.', ed. 1870),
has shown the relative likeness of the Nahua calendar to that
of Asia.  He cites the fact that the Chinese, Japanese, Calmucks,
Mongols, Mantchou, and other hordes of Tartars have cycles of sixty
years' duration, divided into five brief periods of twelve years
each.  The method of citing a date by means of signs and numbers
is quite similar with Asiatics and Mexicans.  He further shows
satisfactorily that 'the majority of the names of the twenty days
employed by the Aztecs are those of a zodiac used since the most
remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern Asia.'

Cabera thinks he finds analogies between the Mexican and Egyptian
calendars.  Adopting the view of several writers that the Mexican
year began on the 26th of February, be finds the date to correspond
with the beginning of the Egyptian year.

The American nations believed in four great primeval ages, as the
Hindoo does to this day.

"In the Greeks of Homer," says Volney, "I find the customs, discourse,
and manners of the Iroquois, Delawares, and Miamis.  The tragedies
of Sophocles and Euripides paint to me almost literally the sentiments
of the red men respecting necessity, fatality, the miseries of
human life, and the rigor of blind destiny." (Volney's "View of
the United States.")

The Mexicans represent an eclipse of the moon as the moon being
devoured by a dragon; and the Hindoos have precisely the same figure;
and both nations continued to use this expression long after they
had discovered the real meaning of an eclipse.

The Tartars believe that if they cut with an axe near a fire, or
stick a knife into a burning stick, or touch the fire with a knife,
they will "cut the top off the fire." The Sioux Indians will not
stick an awl or a needle into a stick of wood on the fire, or chop
on it with an axe or a knife.

Cremation was extensively practised in the New World.  The dead were
burnt, and their ashes collected and placed in vases and urns, as
in Europe.  Wooden statues of the dead were made.

There is a very curious and apparently inexplicable custom, called
the "Couvade," which extends from China to the Mississippi Valley;
it demands "that, when a child is born, the father must take to his
bed, while the mother attends to all the duties of the household."
Marco Polo found the custom among the Chinese in the thirteenth

The widow tells Hudibras--

"Chineses thus are said
To lie-in in their ladies' stead."

The practice remarked by Marco Polo continues to this day among
the hill-tribes of China. "The father of a new-born child, as soon
as the mother has become strong enough to leave her couch, gets
into bed himself, and there receives the congratulations of his
acquaintances." (Max Müller's "Chips from a German Workshop," vol.
ii., p. 272.) Strabo (vol. iii., pp. 4, 17) mentions that, among
the Iberians of the North of Spain, the women, after the birth of
a child, tend their husbands, putting them to bed instead of going
themselves.  The same custom existed among the Basques only a few
years ago. "In Biscay," says M. F. Michel, "the women rise immediately
after childbirth and attend to the duties of the household, while
the husband goes to bed, taking the baby with him, and thus receives
the neighbors' compliments." The same custom was found in France,
and is said to 'exist to this day in some cantons of Béarn'.  Diodorus
Siculus tells us that among the Corsicans the wife was neglected,
and the husband put to bed and treated as the patient.  Apollonius
Rhodius says that among the Tibereni, at the south of the Black
Sea, "when a child was born the father lay groaning, with his head
tied up, while the mother tended him with food and prepared his
baths." The same absurd custom extends throughout the tribes of North
and South America.  Among the Caribs in the West Indies (and the
Caribs, Brasseur de Bourbourg says, were the same as the ancient
Carians of the Mediterranean Sea) the man takes to his bed as soon
as a child is born, and kills no animals.  And herein we find an
explanation of a custom otherwise inexplicable.  Among the American
Indians it is believed that, if the father kills an animal during
the infancy of the child, the spirit of the animal will revenge
itself by inflicting some disease upon the helpless little one. "For
six months the Carib father must not eat birds or fish, for what
ever animals he eats will impress their likeness on the child, or
produce disease by entering its body." (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.,"
p. 58.) Among the Abipones the husband goes to bed, fasts a number
of days, "and you would think," says Dobrizboffer, "that it was he
that had had the child." The Brazilian father takes to his hammock
during and after the birth of the child, and for fifteen days
eats no meat and hunts no game.  Among the Esquimaux the husbands
forbear hunting during the lying-in of their wives and for some
time thereafter.

Here, then, we have a very extraordinary and unnatural custom, existing
to this day on both sides of the Atlantic, reaching back to a vast
antiquity, and finding its explanation only in the superstition
of the American races.  A practice so absurd could scarcely have
originated separately in the two continents; its existence is a
very strong proof of unity of origin of the races on the opposite
sides of the Atlantic; and the fact that the custom and the reason
for it are both found in America, while the custom remains in Europe
without the reason, would imply that the American population was
the older of the two.

The Indian practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead
was universal in ancient Europe, and in German villages nowadays
a needle and thread is placed in the coffin for the dead to mend
their torn clothes with; "while all over Europe the dead man had a
piece of money put in his hand to pay his way with." ("Anthropology,"
p. 347.)

The American Indian leaves food with the dead; the Russian peasant
puts crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron
shelf, and believes that the souls of his forefathers creep in and
out and eat them.  At the cemetery of Père-la-Chaise, Paris, on
All-souls-day, they "still put cakes and sweetmeats on the graves;
and in Brittany the peasants that night do not forget to make up
the fire and leave the fragments of the supper on the table for
the souls of the dead." ('Ibid'.. p. 351.)

The Indian prays to the spirits of his forefathers; the Chinese
religion is largely "ancestor-worship;" and the rites paid
to the dead ancestors, or lares, held the Roman family together."
("Anthropology," p. 351.)

We find the Indian practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture
in use among the Nasamonians, tribe of Libyans.  Herodotus, speaking
of the wandering tribes of Northern Africa, says, "They bury their
dead 'according to the fashion of the Greeks'....  They bury them
sitting, and are right careful, when the sick man is at the point
of giving up the ghost, to make him sit, and not let him die lying

The dead bodies of the caciques of Bogota were protected from
desecration by diverting the course of a river and making the
grave in its bed, and then letting the stream return to its natural
course.  Alaric, the leader of the Goths, was secretly buried in
the same way.  (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 195.)

Among the American tribes no man is permitted to marry a wife of
the same clan-name or totem as himself.  In India a Brahman is not
allowed to marry a wife whose clan-name (her "cow-stall," as they
say) is the same as his own; nor may a Chinaman take a wife of
his own surname.  ("Anthropology," p. 403.) "Throughout India the
hill-tribes are divided into septs or clans, and a man may not
marry a woman belonging to his own clan.  The Calmucks of Tartary
are divided into hordes, and a man may not marry a girl of his
own horde.  The same custom prevails among the Circassians and the
Samoyeds of Siberia.  The Ostyaks and Yakuts regard it as a crime
to marry a woman of the same family, or even of the same name."
(Sir John Lubbock, "Smith.  Rep.," p. 347, 1869.)

Sutteeism--the burning of the widow upon the funeral-pile of the
husband--was extensively practised in America (West's "Journal," p.
141); as was also the practice of sacrificing warriors, servants,
and animals at the funeral of a great chief (Dorman, pp. 210-211.)
Beautiful girls were sacrificed to appease the anger of the gods,
as among the Mediterranean races. (Bancroft, vol. iii., p. 471.)
Fathers offered up their children for a like purpose, as among the

The poisoned arrows of America had their representatives in Europe.
Odysseus went to Ephyra for the man-slaying drug with which to
smear his bronze-tipped arrows. (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 237.)

"The bark canoe of America was not unknown in Asia and Africa"
('Ibid'., p. 254), while the skin canoes of our Indians and the
Esquimaux were found on the shores of the Thames and the Euphrates.
In Peru and on the Euphrates commerce was carried on upon rafts
supported by inflated skins.  They are still used on the Tigris.

The Indian boils his meat by dropping red-hot stones into a
water-vessel made of hide; and Linnæus found the Both land people
brewing beer in this way--"and to this day the rude Carinthian boor
drinks such stone-beer, as it is called." ('Ibid'., p. 266.)

In the buffalo dance of the Mandan Indians the dancers covered
their heads with a mask made of the head and horns of the buffalo.
To-day in the temples of India, or among the lamas of Thibet,
the priests dance the demons out, or the new year in, arrayed in
animal masks ('Ibid'., p.  297 ); and the "mummers" at Yule-tide,
in England, are a survival of the same custom. ('Ibid'., p. 298.)
The North American dog and bear dances, wherein the dancers acted
the part of those animals, had their prototype in the Greek dances
at the festivals of Dionysia. ('Ibid'., p. 298.)

Tattooing was practised in both continents.  Among the Indians it
was fetichistic in its origin; "every Indian had the image of an
animal tattooed on his breast or arm, to charm away evil spirits."
(Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 156.) The sailors of Europe and
America preserve to this day a custom which was once universal
among the ancient races.  Banners, flags, and armorial bearings are
supposed to be survivals of the old totemic tattooing.  The Arab
woman still tattoos her face, arms, and ankles.  The war-paint of
the American savage reappeared in the 'woad' with which the ancient
Briton stained his body; and Tylor suggests that the painted stripes
on the circus clown are a survival of a custom once universal.
(Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 327.)

In America, as in the Old World, the temples of worship were built
over the dead., (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.," p. 178.) Says Prudentius,
the Roman bard, "there were as many temples of gods as sepulchres."

The Etruscan belief that evil spirits strove for the possession of
the dead was found among the Mosquito Indians. (Bancroft, "Native
Races," vol. i., p. 744.)

The belief in fairies, which forms so large a part of the folklore of
Western Europe, is found among the American races.  The Ojibbeways
see thousands of fairies dancing in a sunbeam; during a rain
myriads of them bide in the flowers.  When disturbed they disappear
underground.  They have their dances, like the Irish fairies; and,
like them, they kill the domestic animals of those who offend them.
The Dakotas also believe in fairies.  The Otoes located the "little
people" in a mound at the mouth of Whitestone River; they were
eighteen inches high, with very large heads; they were armed with
bows and arrows, and killed those who approached their residence.
(See Dorman's "Origin of Primitive Superstitions," p. 23.) "The
Shoshone legends people the mountains of Montana with little imps,
called Nirumbees, two feet long, naked, and 'with a tail'." They
stole the children of the Indians, and left in their stead the
young of their own baneful race, who resembled the stolen children
so much that the mothers were deceived and suckled them, whereupon
they died.  This greatly resembles the European belief in "changelings."
('Ibid'., p. 24.)

In both continents we find tree-worship.  In Mexico and Central
America cypresses and palms were planted near the temples, generally
in 'groups of threes'; they were tended with great care, and received
offerings of incense and gifts.  The same custom prevailed among
the Romans--the cypress was dedicated to Pluto, and the palm to

Not only infant baptism by water was found both in the old Babylonian
religion and among the Mexicans, but an offering of cakes, which
is recorded by the prophet Jeremiah as part of the worship of the
Babylonian goddess-mother, "the Queen of Heaven," was also found
in the ritual of the Aztecs. ("Builders of Babel," p. 78.)

In Babylonia, China, and Mexico the caste at the bottom of the social
scale lived upon floating islands of reeds or rafts, covered with
earth, on the lakes and rivers.

In Peru and Babylonia marriages were made but once a year, at a
public festival.

Among the Romans, the Chinese, the Abyssinians, and the Indians of
Canada the singular custom prevails of lifting the bride over the
door-step of her husband's home. (Sir John Lubbock, "Smith.  Rep.,"
1869, p. 352.)

"The bride-cake which so invariably accompanies a wedding among
ourselves, and which must always be cut by the bride, may be
traced back to the old Roman form of marriage by ''conferreatio','
or eating together.  So, also, among the Iroquois the bride and
bridegroom used to partake together of a cake of sagamite, which
the bride always offered to her husband." ('Ibid'.)

Among many American tribes, notably in Brazil, the husband captured
the wife by main force, as the men of Benjamin carried off the
daughters of Shiloh at the feast, and as the Romans captured the
Sabine women.  "Within a few generations the same old habit was
kept up in Wales, where the bridegroom and his friends, mounted and
armed as for war, carried off the bride; and in Ireland they used
even to hurl spears at the bride's people, though at such a distance
that no one was hurt, except now and then by accident--as happened
when one Lord Hoath lost an eye, which mischance put an end to this
curious relic of antiquity." (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 409.)

Marriage in Mexico was performed by the priest.  He exhorted them
to maintain peace and harmony, and tied the end of the man's mantle
to the dress of the woman; he perfumed them, and placed on each
a shawl on which was painted a skeleton, "as a symbol that 'only
death could now separate them' from one another." (Dorman, "Prim.
Superst.," p. 379.)

The priesthood was thoroughly organized in Mexico and Peru.  They
were prophets as well as priests. "They brought the newly-born
infant into the religious society; they directed their training and
education; they determined the entrance of the young men into the
service of the state; they consecrated marriage by their blessing;
they comforted the sick and assisted the dying." ('Ibid'., p. 374.)
There were five thousand priests in the temples of Mexico.  They
confessed and absolved the sinners, arranged the festivals,
and managed the choirs in the churches.  They lived in conventual
discipline, but were allowed to marry; they practised flagellation and
fasting, and prayed at regular hours.  There were great preachers
and exhorters among them.  There were also convents into which
females were admitted.  The novice had her hair cut off and took
vows of celibacy; they lived holy and pious lives. ('Ibid'., pp.
375, 376.) The king was the high-priest of the religious orders.
A new king ascended the temple naked, except his girdle; he was
sprinkled four times with water which had been blessed; he was then
clothed in a mantle, and on his knees took an oath to maintain the
ancient religion.  The priests then instructed him in his royal
duties. ('Ibid'., p. 378.) Besides the regular priesthood there were
monks who were confined in cloisters. ('Ibid'., p. 390.) Cortes
says the Mexican priests were very strict in the practice of honesty
and chastity, and any deviation was punished with death.  They wore
long white robes and burned incense.  (Dorman, "Prim.  Superst.,"
p. 379.) The first fruits of the earth were devoted to the support
of the priesthood. ('Ibid'., p. 383.) The priests of the Isthmus
were sworn to perpetual chastity.

The American doctors practised phlebotomy.  They bled the sick man
because they believed the evil spirit which afflicted him would
come away with the blood.  In Europe phlebotomy only continued to
a late period, but the original superstition out of which it arose,
in this case as in many others, was forgotten.

There is opportunity here for the philosopher to meditate upon the
perversity of human nature and the persistence of hereditary error.
The superstition of one age becomes the science of another; men were
first bled to withdraw the evil spirit, then to cure the disease;
and a practice whose origin is lost in the night of ages is continued
into the midst of civilization, and only overthrown after it has
sent millions of human beings to untimely graves.  Dr.  Sangrado
could have found the explanation of his profession only among the
red men of America.

'Folk-lore.'--Says Max Müller:  "Not only do we find the same words
and the same terminations in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only do we
find the same name for Zeus in Sanscrit, Latin, and German; not
only is the abstract Dame for God the same in India, Greece, and
Italy; but these very stories, these 'Mährchen' which nurses still
tell, with almost the same words, in the Thuringian forest and
in the Norwegian villages, and to which crowds of children listen
under the Pippal-trees of India--these stories, too, belonged to
the common heirloom of the Indo-European race, and their origin
carries us back to the same distant past, when no Greek had set
foot in Europe, no Hindoo had bathed in the sacred waters of the

And we find that an identity of origin can be established between
the folk-lore or fairy tales of America and those of the Old World,
precisely such as exists between the, legends of Norway and India.

Mr.  Tylor tells us the story of the two brothers in Central America
who, starting on their dangerous journey to the land of Xibalba,
where their father had perished, plant each a cane in the middle
of their grandmother's house, that she may know by its flourishing
or withering whether they are alive or dead.  Exactly the same
conception occurs in Grimm's "Mährchen," when the two gold-children
wish to see the world and to leave their father; and when their
father is sad, and asks them how he shall bear news of them, they
tell him, "We leave you the two golden lilies; from these you can
see how we fare.  If they are fresh, we are well; if they fade, we
are ill; if they fall, we are dead." Grimm traces the same idea in
Hindoo stories. "Now this," says Max Müller, "is strange enough, and
its occurrence in India, Germany, and Central America is stranger

Compare the following stories, which we print in parallel columns,
one from the Ojibbeway Indians, the other from Ireland:

| THE OJIBBEWAY STORY....  ....  THE IRISH STORY....  ........
....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| The birds met together one da... The birds all met together on....
| to try which could fly th....  | day, and settled among themselves  |
| highest.  Some flew up ver....  | that whichever of them could fly   |
| swift, but soon got tired, an... highest was to be the king of....
| were passed by others o....... all.  Well, just as they were on    |
| stronger wing.  But the eagl....  the hinges of being off, what....
| went up beyond them all, an....  does the little rogue of a wren    |
| was ready to claim the victory,  | do but hop up and perch himself    |
| when the gray linnet, a ver....  unbeknown on the eagle's tail.  So  |
| small bird, flew from th...... they flew and flew ever so high,   |
| eagle's back, where it ha....  | till the eagle was miles abov....
| perched unperceived, and, being  | all the rest, and could not fly    |
| fresh and unexhausted......  | another stroke, he was so tired.   |
| succeeded in going the highest.  | "Then," says he, "I'm king of the  |
| When the birds came down an....  birds." "You lie!" says the wren,  |
| met in council to award the....  darting up a perch and a half....
| prize it was given to th...... above the big fellow.  Well, the    |
| eagle, because that bird ha....  eagle was so mad to think how he   |
| not only gone up nearer to th... was done, that when the wren was   |
| sun than any of the large....  | coming down he gave him a stroke   |
| birds, but it had carried the... of his wing, and from that day to  |
| linnet on its back....   ....  this the wren was never able to    |
....  ....  ....  ...... | fly farther than a hawthorn-bush.  |
| For this reason the eagle's....  ....  ....  ....  .......
| feathers became the mos....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| honorable marks of distinctio....  ....  ....  ....  ....   |
| a warrior could bear....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   |

Compare the following stories:

| THE ASIATIC STORY....  ....... THE AMERICAN STORY....   ....
....  ....  ....  ....   ....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| In Hindoo mythology Urvasi came... Wampee, a great hunter, onc....
| down from heaven and became the... came to a strange prairie....  |
| wife of the son of Buddha only on  | where be heard faint sounds of   |
| condition that two pet ram...... music, and looking up sa....   |
| should never be taken from he....  speck in the sky, which proved   |
| bedside, and that she shoul....  | itself to be a baske.... ....
| never behold her lord undressed... containing twelve mos........
| The immortals, however, wishing... beautiful maidens, who, o....  |
| Urvasi back in heaven, contrive... reaching the earth, forthwith    |
| to steal the rams; and, as th....  set themselves to dance.  He....
| king pursued the robbers with his  | tried to catch the youngest....
| sword in the dark, the lightnin... but in vain; ultimately h....  |
| revealed his person, the compac... succeeded by assuming th....   |
| was broken, and Urvas....  ....  disguise of a mouse.  He was....
| disappeared.  This same story is... very attentive to his new wife,  |
| found in different forms amon....  who was really a daughter o....
| many people of Aryan and Turanian  | one of the stars, but sh....   |
| descent, the central idea being... wished to return home, so she    |
| that of a man marrying some one... made a wicker basket secretly,   |
| of an aerial or aquatic origin,... and, by help of a charm she....
| and living happily with her til... remembered, ascended to her....
| he breaks the condition on whic... father....  ....  .......
| her residence with him depends,....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| stories exactly parallel to tha....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| of Raymond of Toulouse, wh....   ....  ....  ....  .......
| chances in the hunt upon th....  ....  ....  ....  .......
| beautiful Melusina at a fountain,....  ....  ....  .... ....
| and lives with her happily unti....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| he discovers her fish-nature an....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| she vanishes....  ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   |

If the legend of Cadmus recovering Europa, after she has been
carried away by the white bull, the spotless cloud, means that "the
sun must journey westward until he sees again the beautiful tints
which greeted his eyes in the morning," it is curious to find a
story current in North America to the effect that a man once had
a beautiful daughter, 'whom he forbade to leave the lodge lest she
should be carried off by the king of the buffaloes; and that as she
sat, notwithstanding, outside the house combing her hair, "all of
a sudden the king of the buffaloes came dashing on, with his herd
of followers, and, taking her between his horns, away be cantered
over plains, plunged into a river which bounded his land, and
carried her safely to his lodge on the other side," whence she was
finally recovered by her father.

'Games.'--The same games and sports extended from India to the shores
of Lake Superior.  The game of the Hindoos, called 'pachisi', is
played upon a cross-shaped board or cloth; it is a combination of
checkers and draughts, with the throwing of dice, the dice determining
the number of moves; when the Spaniards entered Mexico they found
the Aztecs playing a game called 'patolli', identical with the
Hindoo 'pachisi', on a similar cross-shaped board.  The game of
ball, which the Indians of America were in the habit of playing at
the time of the discovery of the country, from California to the
Atlantic, was identical with the European 'chueca', 'crosse', or

One may well pause, after reading this catalogue, and ask himself,
wherein do these peoples differ? It is absurd to pretend that
all these similarities could have been the result of accidental

These two peoples, separated by the great ocean, were baptized alike
in infancy with blessed water; they prayed alike to the gods; they
worshipped together the sun, moon, and stars; they confessed their
sins alike; they were instructed alike by an established priesthood;
they were married in the same way and by the joining of hands;
they armed themselves with the same weapons; when children came,
the man, on both continents, went to bed and left his wife to do
the honors of the household; they tattooed and painted themselves
in the same fashion; they became intoxicated on kindred drinks;
their dresses were alike; they cooked in the same manner; they used
the same metals; they employed the same exorcisms and bleedings for
disease; they believed alike in ghosts, demons, and fairies; they
listened to the same stories; they played the same games; they used
the same musical instruments; they danced the same dances, and when
they died they were embalmed in the same way and buried sitting;
while over them were erected, on both continents, the same mounds,
pyramids, obelisks, and temples.  And yet we are asked to believe
that there was no relationship between them, and that they had
never had any ante-Columbian intercourse with each other.

If our knowledge of Atlantis was more thorough, it would no doubt
appear that, in every instance wherein the people of Europe accord
with the people of America, they were both in accord with the
people of Atlantis; and that Atlantis was the common centre from
which both peoples derived their arts, sciences, customs, and
opinions.  It will be seen that in every case where Plato gives us
any information in this respect as to Atlantis, we find this agreement
to exist.  It existed in architecture, sculpture, navigation,
engraving, writing, an established priesthood, the mode of worship,
agriculture, the construction of roads and canals; and it is
reasonable to suppose that the, same correspondence extended down
to all the minor details treated of in this chapter.



1. On the monuments of Central America there are representations
of bearded men.  How could the beardless American Indians have
imagined a bearded race?

2. All the traditions of the civilized races of Central America
point to an 'Eastern' origin.

The leader and civilizer of the Nahua family was Quetzalcoatl.
This is the legend respecting him:

"'From the distant East', from the fabulous Hue Hue Tlapalan,
this mysterious person came to Tula, and became the patron god and
high-priest of the ancestors of the Toltecs.  He is described as
having been 'a white man', with strong formation of body, broad
forehead, large eyes, and 'flowing beard'. He wore a mitre on his
bead, and was dressed in a long white robe reaching to his feet,
and covered with red crosses.  In his hand he held a sickle.  His
habits were ascetic, he never married, was most chaste and pure in
life, and is said to have endured penance in a neighboring mountain,
not for its effects upon himself, but as a warning to others.  He
condemned sacrifices, except of fruits and flowers, and was known
as the god of peace; for, when addressed on the subject of war,
he is reported to have stopped his ears with his fingers." ("North
Amer. of Antiq.," p. 268.)

"He was skilled in many arts:  he invented" (that is, imported)
"gem-cutting and metal-casting; he originated letters, and invented
the Mexican calendar.  He finally returned to the land in the East
from which be came:  leaving the American coast at Vera Cruz, he
embarked in a canoe made of serpent-skins, and ''sailed away into
the east'.'" ('Ibid'., p.  271.)

Dr.  Le Plongeon says of the columns at Chichen:

"The base is formed by the head of Cukulcan, the shaft of the body
of the serpent, with its feathers beautifully carved to the very
chapiter.  On the chapiters of the columns that support the portico,
at the entrance of the castle in Chichen Itza, may be seen the
carved figures of long-bearded men, with upraised hands, in the
act of worshipping sacred trees.  They forcibly recall to mind the
same worship in Assyria."

In the accompanying cut of an ancient vase from Tula, we see a
bearded figure grasping a beardless man.

In the cut given below we see a face that might be duplicated among
the old men of any part of Europe.

The Cakchiquel MS. says:  "Four persons came from Tulan, from the
'direction of the rising sun'--that is one Tulan.  There is another
Tulan in Xibalbay, and another where the sun sets, 'and it is there
that we came'; and in the direction of the setting sun there is
another, where is the god; so that there are four Tulans; and it
is where the sun sets that we came to Tulan, 'from the other side
of the sea', where this Tulan is; and it is there that we were
conceived and begotten by our mothers and fathers."

That is to say, the birthplace of the race was in the East, across
the sea, at a place called Tulan and when they emigrated they
called their first stopping-place on the American continent Tulan
also; and besides this there were two other Tulans.

"Of the Nahua predecessors of the Toltecs in Mexico the Olmecs and
Xicalaucans were the most important.  They were the forerunners of
the great races that followed.  According to Ixtlilxochitl, these
people-which are conceded to be one occupied the world in the third
age; 'they came from the East in ships or barks' to the land of
Potonchan, which they commenced to populate."

3. The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, in one of the notes of the
Introduction of the "Popol Vuh," presents a very remarkable analogy
between the kingdom of Xibalba, described in that work, and Atlantis.
He says:

"Both countries are magnificent, exceedingly fertile, and abound
in the precious metals.  The empire of Atlantis was divided into
ten kingdoms, governed by five couples of twin sons of Poseidon,
the eldest being supreme over the others; and the ten constituted
a tribunal that managed the affairs of the empire.  Their descendants
governed after them.  The ten kings of Xibalba, who reigned (in
couples) under Hun-Came and Vukub-Came (and who together constituted
a grand council of the kingdom), certainly furnish curious points
of comparison.  And there is wanting neither a catastrophe--for
Xibalba had a terrific inundation--nor the name of Atlas, of which
the etymology is found only in the Nahuatl tongue:  it comes from
atl, water; and we know that a city of Atlan (near the water) still
existed on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama at the time
of the Conquest."

"In Yucatan the traditions all point to an 'Eastern and foreign'
origin for the race.  The early writers report that the natives
believe their ancestors to have crossed the sea by a passage which
was opened for them." (Landa's "Relacion," p. 28.)

"It was also believed that part of the population came into the
country from the West.  Lizana says that the smaller portion, 'the
little descent,' came from the East, while the greater portion,
'the great descent,' came from the West.  Cogolluda considers the
Eastern colony to have been the larger....  The culture-hero Zamna,
the author of all civilization in Yucatan, is described as 'the
teacher of letters', and the leader of the people from their ancient
home....  He was the leader of a colony from the East." ("North
Amer. of Antiq.," p. 229.)

The ancient Mexican legends say that, after the Flood, Coxcox and
his wife, after wandering one hundred and four years, landed at
'Antlan', and passed thence to Capultepec, and thence to Culhuacan,
and lastly to Mexico.

Coming from Atlantis, they named their first landing-place 'Antlan'.

All the races that settled Mexico, we are told, traced their origin
back to an 'Aztlan' (Atlan-tis). Duran describes Aztlan as "a most
attractive land." ("North Amer. of Antiq.," p. 257.)

Samé, the great name of Brazilian legend, came across the ocean
'from the rising sun'. He had power over the elements and tempests;
the trees of the forests would recede to make room for him (cutting
down the trees); the animals used to crouch before him (domesticated
animals); lakes and rivers became solid for him (boats and bridges);
and he taught the use of agriculture and magic.  Like him, Bochica,
the great law-giver of the Muyscas, and son of the sun--he who
invented for them the calendar and regulated their festivals--had
a white beard, a detail in which all the American culture-heroes
agree.  The "Samé" of Brazil was probably the "Zamna" of Yucatan.


4. We find in America numerous representations of the elephant.  We
are forced to one of two conclusions:  either the monuments date
back to the time of the mammoth in North America, or these people
held intercourse at some time in the past with races who possessed
the elephant, and from whom they obtained pictures of that singular
animal.  Plato tells us that the Atlanteans possessed great numbers
of elephants.

There are in Wisconsin a number of mounds of earth representing
different animals-men, birds, and quadrupeds.


Among the latter is a mound representing an elephant, "so perfect
in its proportions, and complete in its representation of an
elephant, that its builders must have been well acquainted with all
the physical characteristics of the animal which they delineated."
We copy the representation of this mound on page 168.

On a farm in Louisa County, Iowa, a pipe was ploughed up which also
represents an elephant.  We are indebted to the valuable work of
John T.  Short ("The North Americans of Antiquity," p. 530) for a
picture of this singular object.  It was found in a section where
the ancient mounds were very abundant and rich in relies.  The
pipe is of sandstone, of the ordinary Mound-Builder's type, and
has every appearance of age and usage.  There can be no doubt of
its genuineness.  The finder had no conception of its archæological

In the ruined city of Palenque we find, in one of the palaces, a
stucco bass-relief of a priest.  His elaborate head-dress or helmet
represents very faithfully the bead of an elephant.  The cut on
page 169 is from a drawing made by Waldeck.

The decoration known as "elephant-trunks" is found in many parts
of the ancient ruins of Central America, projecting from above the
door-ways of the buildings.

In Tylor's "Researches into the Early History of Mankind," p. 313,
I find a remarkable representation of an elephant, taken from an
ancient Mexican manuscript.  It is as follows:




1. Lenormant insists that the human race issued from Ups Merou, and
adds that some Greek traditions point to "this locality--particularly
the expression me'ropes a?'nðwpoi, which can only mean 'the men
sprung from Merou.'" ("Manual," p.21.)

Theopompus tells us that the people who inhabited Atlantis were
the 'Meropes', the people of 'Merou'.

2. Whence comes the word 'Atlantic'? The dictionaries tell us that
the ocean is named after the mountains of 'Atlas'; but whence did
the 'Atlas' mountains get their name?

"The words Atlas and Atlantic have no satisfactory etymology
in any language known to Europe.  They are not Greek, and cannot
be referred to any known language of the Old World.  But in the
Nahuatl language we find immediately the radical 'a', 'atl', which
signifies water, war, and the top of the head. (Molina, "Vocab. en
lengua Mexicana y Castellana.") From this comes a series of words,
such as atlan--on the border of or amid the water--from which we
'have the adjective 'Atlantic'. We have also 'atlaça', to combat,
or be in agony; it means likewise to hurl or dart from the water,
and in the preterit makes 'Atlaz'. A city named 'Atlan' existed when
the continent was discovered by Columbus, at the entrance of the
Gulf of Uraba, in Darien.  With a good harbor, it is now reduced to
an unimportant pueblo named 'Acla'." (Baldwin's "Ancient America,"
p. 179.)

Plato tells us that Atlantis and the Atlantic Ocean were named
after Atlas, the eldest son of Poseidon, the founder of the kingdom.

3. Upon that part of the African continent nearest to the site of
Atlantis we find a chain of mountains, known from the most ancient
times as the Atlas Mountains.  Whence this name Atlas, if it be
not from the name of the great king of Atlantis? And if this be not
its origin, how comes it that we find it in the most north-western
corner of Africa? And how does it happen that in the time of
Herodotus there dwelt near this mountain-chain a people called the
'Atlantes', probably a remnant of a colony from Solon's island?
How comes it that the people of the Barbary States were known to
the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians as the "Atlantes," this name
being especially applied to the inhabitants of Fezzan and Bilma?
Where did they get the name from? There is no etymology for it east
of the Atlantic Ocean. (Lenormants "Anc.  Hist. of the East," p.

Look at it! An "Atlas" mountain on the shore of Africa; an "Atlan"
town on the shore of America; the "Atlantes" living along the north
and west coast of Africa; an Aztec people from Aztlan, in Central
America; an ocean rolling between the two worlds called the
"Atlantic;" a mythological deity called "Atlas" holding the world
on his shoulders; and an immemorial tradition of an island of
Atlantis.  Can all these things be the result of accident?

4. Plato says that there was a "passage west from Atlantis to the
rest of the islands, as well as from these islands to the whole
opposite continent that surrounds that real sea." He calls it
a real sea, as contradistinguished from the Mediterranean, which,
as he says, is not a real sea (or ocean) but a landlocked body of
water, like a harbor.

Now, Plato might have created Atlantis out of his imagination;
but how could he have invented the islands beyond (the West India
Islands), and the whole continent (America) enclosing that real
sea? If we look at the map, we see that the continent of America
does "surround" the ocean in a great half-circle.  Could Plato
have guessed all this? If there had been no Atlantis, and no series
of voyages from it that revealed the half-circle of the continent
from Newfoundland to Cape St.  Roche, how could Plato have guessed
it? And how could he have known that the Mediterranean was only a
harbor compared with the magnitude of the great ocean surrounding
Atlantis? Long sea-voyages were necessary to establish that fact,
and the Greeks, who kept close to the shores in their short journeys,
did not make such voyages.

5. How can we, without Atlantis, explain the presence of the
Basques in Europe, who have no lingual affinities with any other
race on the continent of Europe, but whose language 'is similar to
the languages of America'?

Plato tells us that the dominion of Gadeirus, one of the kings of
Atlantis, extended "toward the pillars of Heracles (Hercules) as
far as the country which is still called the region of Gades in that
part of the world." Gades is the Cadiz of today, and the dominion
of Gadeirus embraced the land of the Iberians or Basques, their chief
city taking its name from a king of Atlantis, and they themselves
being Atlanteans.

Dr.  Farrar, referring to the Basque language, says:

"What is certain about it is, that its structure is polysynthetic,
like the languages of America.  Like them, it forms its compounds
by the elimination of certain radicals in the simple words; so
that 'ilhun', the twilight, is contracted from 'hill', dead, and
'egun', day; and 'belhaur', the knee, from 'belhar', front, and
'oin', leg....  The fact is indisputable, and is eminently noteworthy,
that while the affinities of the Basque roots have never been
conclusively elucidated, there has never been any doubt that this
isolated language, preserving its identity in a western corner of
Europe, between two mighty kingdoms, resembles, in its grammatical
structure, the aboriginal languages of the vast opposite continent
(America), and those alone." ("Families of Speech," p. 132.)

If there was an Atlantis, forming, with its connecting ridges, a
continuous bridge of land from America to Africa, we can understand
how the Basques could have passed from one continent to another;
but if the wide Atlantic rolled at all times unbroken between the
two continents, it is difficult to conceive of such an emigration
by an uncivilized people.

6. Without Atlantis, how can we explain the fact that the early
Egyptians were depicted by themselves as red men on their own
monuments?  And, on the other hand, how can we account for the
representations of negroes on the monuments of Central America?

Dêsirè Charnay, now engaged in exploring those monuments, has published
in the North American Review for December, 1880, photographs of a
number of idols exhumed at San Juan de Teotihuacan, from which I
select the following strikingly negroid faces:


Dr.  Le Plongeon says:

"Besides the sculptures of long-bearded men seen by the explorer at
Chichen Itza, there were tall figures of people with small heads,
thick lips, and curly short hair or wool, regarded as negroes. 'We
always see them as standard or parasol bearers, but never engaged
in actual warfare.'" ("Maya Archæology," p. 62.)

The following cut is from the court of the Palace of Palenque,
figured by Stephens.  The face is strongly Ethiopian.

The figure below represents a gigantic granite head, found near the
volcano of Tuxtla, in the Mexican State of Vera Cruz, at Caxapa.
The features are unmistakably negroid.

As the negroes have never been a sea-going race, the presence of
these faces among the antiquities of Central America proves one
of two things, either the existence of a land connection between
America and Africa via Atlantis, as revealed by the deep-sea soundings
of the 'Challenger', or commercial relations between America and
Africa through the ships of the Atlanteans or some other civilized
race, whereby the negroes were brought to America as slaves at a
very remote epoch.

And we find some corroboration of the latter theory in that singular
book of the Quiches, the "Popol Vuh," in which, after describing
the creation of the first men "'in the region of the rising sun'"
(Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 548), and enumerating
their first generations, we are told, "All seem to have spoken one
language, and to have lived in great peace, 'black men and white
together'. Here they awaited the rising of the sun, and prayed to
the Heart of Heaven." (Bancroft's "Native Races," p. 547.) How did
the red men of Central America know anything about "black men and
white men?" The conclusion seems inevitable that these legends
of a primitive, peaceful, and happy land, an Aztlan in the East,
inhabited by black and white men, to which all the civilized nations
of America traced their origin, could only refer to Atlantis--that
bridge of land where the white, dark, and red races met.  The
"Popol Vuh" proceeds to tell how this first home of the race became
over-populous, and how the people under Balam-Quitze migrated; how
their language became "confounded," in other words, broken up into
dialects, in consequence of separation; and how some of the people
"'went to the East', and many came hither to Guatemala." ('Ibid'.,
p. 547.)

M. A. de Quatrefages ("Human Species," p. 200) says, "Black
populations have been found in America in very small numbers only,
as isolated tribes in the midst of very different populations.  Such
are the Charruas, of Brazil, the Black Carribees of Saint Vincent,
in the Gulf of Mexico; the Jamassi of Florida, and the dark-complexioned
Californians....  Such, again, is the tribe that Balboa saw some
representatives of in his passage of the Isthmus of Darien in 1513;
. .  . they were true negroes."

7. How comes it that all the civilizations of the Old World radiate
from the shores of the Mediterranean? The Mediterranean is a 'cul
de sac', with Atlantis opposite its mouth.  Every civilization on
its shores possesses traditions that point to Atlantis.  We hear of
no civilization coining 'to' the Mediterranean from Asia, Africa,
or Europe--from north, south, or west; but north, south, east,
and west we find civilization radiating from the Mediterranean to
other lands.  We see the Aryans descending upon Hindostan from the
direction of the Mediterranean; and we find the Chinese borrowing
inventions from Hindostan, and claiming descent from a region not
far from the Mediterranean.

The Mediterranean has been the centre of the modern world, because
it lay in the path of the extension of an older civilization,
whose ships colonized its shores, as they did also the shores .of
America.  Plato says, "the nations are gathered around the shores
of the Mediterranean like frogs around a marsh."

Dr.  McCausland says:

The obvious conclusion from these facts is, that at some time previous
to these migrations a people speaking a language of a superior
and complicated structure broke up their society, and, under some
strong impulse, poured out in different directions, and gradually
established themselves in all the lands now inhabited by the
Caucasian race.  Their territories extend from the Atlantic to the
Ganges, and from Iceland to Ceylon, and are bordered on the north
and east by the Asiatic Mongols, and on the south by the negro
tribes of Central Africa.  They present all the appearances of a
later race, expanding itself between and into the territories of
two pre-existing neighboring races, and forcibly appropriating the
room required for its increasing population." (McCausland's "Adam
and the Adamites," p. 280.)

Modern civilization is Atlantean.  Without the thousands of years
of development which were had in Atlantis modern civilization
could not have existed.  The inventive faculty of the present age
is taking up the great delegated work of creation where Atlantis
left it thousands of years ago.

8. How are we to explain the existence of the Semitic race in
Europe without Atlantis? It is an intrusive race; a race colonized
on sea-coasts.  Where are its Old World affinities?

9. Why is it that the origin of wheat, barley, oats, maize, and
rye--the essential plants of civilization--is totally lost in the
mists of a vast antiquity? We have in the Greek mythology legends
of the introduction of most of these by Atlantean kings or gods
into Europe; but no European nation claims to have discovered or
developed them, and it has been impossible to trace them to their
wild originals.  Out of the whole 'flora' of the world mankind in
the last seven thousand years has not developed a single food-plant
to compare in importance to the human family with these.  If a wise
and scientific nation should propose nowadays to add to this list,
it would have to form great botanical gardens, and, by systematic
and long-continued experiments, develop useful plants from the
humble productions of the field and forest.  Was this done in the
past on the island of Atlantis?

10. Why is it that we find in Ptolemy's "Geography of Asia Minor,"
in a list of cities in Armenia Major in A.D. 140, the names of five
cities which have their counterparts in the names of localities in
Central America?

| Armenian Cities. | Central American Localities. |
| Chol......   | Chol-ul....  ....  ....
| Colua......  | Colua-can....  ........
| Zuivana....... Zuivan....  ....   ....
| Cholima....... Colima....  ....   ....
| Zalissa....... Xalisco....  ....  ....

(Short's "North Americans of Antiquity," p. 497.)

11. How comes it that the sandals upon the feet of the statue of
Chacmol, discovered at Chichen Itza, are "exact representations of
those found on the feet of the Guanches, the early inhabitants of
the Canary Islands, whose mummies are occasionally discovered in
the eaves of Teneriffe?" Dr.  Merritt deems the axe or chisel heads
dug up at Chiriqui, Central America, "almost identical in form as
well as material with specimens found in Suffolk County, England."
(Bancroft's Native Races," vol. iv., p. 20.) The rock-carvings
of Chiriqui are pronounced by Mr.  Seemann to have a striking
resemblance to the ancient incised characters found on the rocks
of Northumberland, England. ('Ibid'.)

"Some stones have recently been discovered in Hierro and Las Palmas
(Canary Islands), bearing sculptured symbols similar to those found
on the shores of Lake Superior; and this has led M. Bertholet, the
historiographer of the Canary Islands, to conclude that the first
inhabitants of the Canaries and those of the great West were one
in race." (Benjamin, "The Atlantic Islands," p. 130.)

12. How comes it that that very high authority, Professor Retzius
("Smithsonian Report," 1859, p. 266), declares, "With regard to
the primitive dolichocephalæ of America I entertain a hypothesis
still more bold, namely, that they are nearly related to the Guanches
in the Canary Islands, and to the Atlantic populations of Africa,
the Moors, Tuaricks, Copts, etc., which Latham comprises under the
name of Egyptian-Atlantidæ. We find one and the same form of skull
in the Canary Islands, in front of the African coast, and in the
Carib Islands, on the opposite coast, which faces Africa.  The
color of the skin on both sides of the Atlantic is represented in
these populations as being of a reddish-brown."

13. The Barbarians who are alluded to by Homer and Thucydides
were a race of ancient navigators and pirates called 'Cares', or
'Carians', who occupied the isles of Greece before the Pelasgi,
and antedated the Phoenicians in the control of the sea.  The Abbé
Brasseur de Bourbourg claims that these Carians were identical with
the 'Caribs' of the West Indies, the 'Caras' of Honduras, and the
'Gurani' of South America.  (Landa's "Relacion," pp. 52-65.)

14. When we consider it closely, one of the most extraordinary customs
ever known to mankind is that to which I have already alluded in
a preceding chapter, to wit, the embalming of the body of the dead
man, with a purpose that the body itself may live again in a future
state.  To arrive at this practice several things must coexist:

a.  The people must be highly religious, and possessed of an organized
and influential priesthood, to perpetuate so troublesome a custom
from age to age.

b.  They must believe implicitly in the immortality of the soul;
and this implies a belief in rewards and punishments after death;
in a heaven and a hell.

c.  They must believe in the immortality of the body, and its
resurrection from the grave on some day of judgment in the distant

d.  But a belief in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection
of the body is not enough, for all Christian nations hold to these
beliefs; they must supplement these with a determination that the
body shall not perish; that the very flesh and blood in which the
man died shall rise with him on the last day, and not a merely
spiritual body.

Now all these four things must coexist before a people proceed to
embalm their dead for religious purposes.  The probability that
all these four things should coexist by accident in several widely
separated races is slight indeed.  The doctrine of chances is all
against it.  There is here no common necessity driving men to the
same expedient, with which so many resemblances have been explained;
the practice is a religious ceremony, growing out of religious
beliefs by no means common or universal, to wit, that the man who
is dead shall live again, and live again in the very body in which
he died.  Not even all the Jews believed in these things.

If, then, it should appear that among the races which we claim
were descended from Atlantis this practice of embalming the dead
is found, and nowhere else, we have certainly furnished evidence
which can only be explained by admitting the existence of Atlantis,
and of some great religious race dwelling on Atlantis, who believed
in the immortality of soul and body, and who embalmed their dead.
We find, as I have shown:

First.  That the Guanches of the Canary Islands, supposed to be a
remnant of the Atlantean population, preserved their dead as mummies.

Second.  That the Egyptians, the oldest colony of Atlantis, embalmed
their dead in such vast multitudes that they are now exported by the
ton to England, and ground up into manures to grow English turnips.

Third.  That the Assyrians, the Ethiopians, the Persians, the
Greeks, and even the Romans embalmed their dead.

Fourth.  On the American continents we find that the Peruvians,
the Central Americans, the Mexicans, and some of the Indian tribes,
followed the same practice.

Is it possible to account for this singular custom, reaching through
a belt of nations, and completely around the habitable world,
without Atlantis?

15. All the traditions of the Mediterranean races look to the ocean
as the source of men and gods.  Homer sings of

"Ocean, the origin of gods and Mother Tethys."

Orpheus says, "The fair river of Ocean was the first to marry,
and he espoused his sister Tethys, who was his mothers daughter."
(Plato's "Dialogues," 'Cratylus', p. 402.) The ancients always
alluded to the ocean as a river encircling the earth, as in the
map of Cosmos (see page 95 'ante'); probably a reminiscence of
the great canal described by Plato which surrounded the plain of
Atlantis.  Homer (Iliad, book xviii.) describes Tethys, "the mother
goddess," coming to Achilles "from the deep abysses of the main:"

"The circling Nereids with their mistress weep, And all the sea-green
sisters of the deep."

Plato surrounds the great statue of Poseidon in Atlantis with the
images of one hundred Nereids.

16. in the Deluge legends of the Hindoos (as given on page 87
'ante'), we have seen Manu saving a small fish, which subsequently
grew to a great size, and warned him of the coming of the Flood.
In this legend all the indications point to an ocean as the scene
of the catastrophe.  It says:  "At the close of the last 'calpa'
there was a general destruction, caused by the sleep of Brahma,
whence his creatures, in different worlds, 'were drowned in a vast
ocean'....  A holy king, named Satyavrata, then reigned, a servant
of 'the spirit which moved on the waves'" (Poseidon?), "and so
devout that water was his only sustenance....  In seven days the
three worlds" (remember Poseidon's trident) "shall be 'plunged in
an ocean of death'.....  "'Thou shalt enter the spacious ark, and
continue in it secure from the Flood 'on one immense ocean'.....
'The sea overwhelmed its shores', deluged the whole earth, augmented
by showers from immense clouds." ("Asiatic Researches," vol. i.,
p. 230.)

All this reminds us of "the fountains of the great deep and the
flood-gates of heaven," and seems to repeat precisely the story of
Plato as to the sinking of Atlantis in the ocean.

17. While I do not attach much weight to verbal similarities in the
languages of the two continents, nevertheless there are some that
are very remarkable.  We have seen the Pan and Maia of the Greeks
reappearing in the Pan and Maya of the Mayas of Central America.
The god of the Welsh triads, "Hu the mighty," is found in the
Hu-nap-bu, the hero-god of the Quiches; in Hu-napu, a hero-god;
and in Hu-hu-nap-hu, in Hu-ncam, in Hu-nbatz, semi-divine heroes
of the Quiches.  The Phoenician deity 'El' "was subdivided into
a number of hypostases called the 'Baalim', secondary divinities,
emanating from the substance of the deity" ("Anc.  Hist.  East,"
vol. ii., p. 219); and this word 'Baalim' we find appearing in
the mythology of the Central Americans, applied to the semi-divine
progenitors of the human race, 'Balam-Quitze', 'Balam-Agab', and



The tendency of scientific thought in ethnology is in the direction
of giving more and more importance to the race characteristics,
such as height, color of the hair, eyes and skin, and the formation
of the skull and body generally, than to language.  The language
possessed by a people may be merely the result of conquest
or migration.  For instance, in the United States to-day, white,
black, and red men, the descendants of French, Spanish, Italians,
Mexicans, Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Africans, all speak the
English language, and by the test of language they are all Englishmen;
and yet none of them are connected by birth or descent with the
country where that language was developed.

There is a general misconception as to the color of the European
and American races.  Europe is supposed to be peopled exclusively
by white men; but in reality every shade of color is represented
on that continent, from the fair complexion of the fairest of the
Swedes to the dark-skinned inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast,
only a shade lighter than the Berbers, or Moors, on the opposite
side of that sea.  Tacitus spoke of the "Black Celts," and the term,
so far as complexion goes, might not inappropriately be applied to
some of the Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese, while the Basques
are represented as of a still darker hue.  Tylor says ("Anthropology,"
p. 67), "On the whole, it seems that the distinction of color, from
the fairest Englishman to the darkest African, has no hard and fast
lines. but varies gradually from one tint to another."

And when we turn to America we find that the popular opinion that
all Indians are "red men," and of the same hue from Patagonia to
Hudson's Bay, is a gross error.

Prichard says ("Researches into the Physical History of Mankind,"
vol.  i., p. 269, 4th ed., 1841):

"It will be easy to show that the American races show nearly as
great a variety in this respect as the nations of the old continent;
there are among them white races with a florid complexion, and
tribes black or of a very dark hue; that their stature, figure,
and countenance are almost equally diversified."

John T. Short says ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 189):

"The Menominees, sometimes called the 'White Indians,' formerly
occupied the region bordering on Lake Michigan, around Green Bay.
The whiteness of these Indians, which is compared to that of white
mulattoes, early attracted the attention of the Jesuit missionaries,
and has often been commented on by travellers.  While it is true
that hybridy has done much to lighten the color of many of the
tribes, still the peculiarity of the complexion of this people
has been marked since the first time a European encountered them.
Almost every shade, from the ash-color of the Menominees through
the cinnamon-red, copper, and bronze tints, may be found among the
tribes formerly occupying the territory cast of the Mississippi,
until we reach the dark-skinned Kaws of Kansas, who are nearly as
black as the negro.  The variety of complexion is as great in South
America as among the tribes of the northern part of the continent."

In foot-note of p. 107 of vol. iii. of "U. S. Explorations for a
Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean," we are told,

"Many of the Indians of Zuni (New Mexico) are white.  They have
a fair skin, blue eyes, chestnut or auburn hair, and are quite
good-looking.  They claim to be full-blooded Zunians, and have no
tradition of intermarriage with any foreign race.  The circumstance
creates no surprise among this people, for from time immemorial a
similar class of people has existed among the tribe."

Winchell says:

"The ancient Indians of California, in the latitude of forty-two
degrees, were as black as the negroes of Guinea, while in Mexico
were tribes of an olive or reddish complexion, relatively light.
Among the black races of tropical regions we find, generally, some
light-colored tribes interspersed.  These sometimes have light hair
and blue eyes.  This is the case with the Tuareg of the Sahara, the
Afghans of India, and the aborigines of the banks of the Oronoco
and the Amazon." (Winchell's "Preadamites, p. 185.)

William Penn said of the Indians of Pennsylvania, in his letter of
August, 1683:

"The native....  are generally tall, straight, well-built, and of
singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk
with a lofty chin....  Their eye is little and black, not unlike
a straight-looked Jew....  I have seen among them as comely
European-like faces of both sexes as on your side of the sea; and
truly an Italian complexion hath not much more of the white, and
the noses of several of them have as much of the Roman....  For
their original, I am ready to believe them to be of the Jewish
race--I mean of the stock of the ten tribes--and that for the
following reasons:  first, in the next place, I find them to be of
the like countenance, and their children of so lively a resemblance
that a man would think himself in Duke's Place or Berry Street in
London when he seeth them.  But this is not all:  they agree in
rites, they reckon by moons, they offer their first-fruits, they
have a kind of feast of tabernacles, they are said to lay their
altars upon twelve stones, their mourning a year, customs of women,
with many other things that do not now occur."

Upon this question of complexion Catlin, in his "Indians of North
America," vol. i., p. 95, etc., gives us some curious information.
We have already seen that the Mandans preserved an image of the
ark, and possessed legends of a clearly Atlantean character.  Catlin

"A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different
shades of complexion and various colors of hair which he sees in
a crowd about him, and is at once disposed to exclaim, 'These are
not Indians.' There are a great many of these people whose complexions
appear as light as half-breeds; and among the women particularly
there are many whose skins are almost white, with the most pleasing
symmetry and proportion of feature; with hazel, with gray, and with
blue eyes; with mildness and sweetness of expression and excessive
modesty of demeanor, which render them exceedingly pleasing and
beautiful.  Why this diversity of complexion I cannot tell, nor
can they themselves account for it.  Their traditions, so far as
I can learn them, afford us no information of their having had any
knowledge of white men before the visit of Lewis and Clarke, made
to their village thirty-three years ago.  Since that time until now
(1835) there have been very few visits of white men to this place,
and surely not enough to have changed the complexions and customs
of a nation.  And I recollect perfectly well that Governor Clarke
told me, before I started for this place, that I would find the
Mandans a strange people and half white.

"Among the females may be seen every shade and color of hair that
can be seen in our own country except red or auburn, which is not
to be found.  ... There are very many of both sexes, and of every
age, from infancy to manhood and old age, with hair of a bright
silvery-gray, and in some instances almost perfectly white.  This
unaccountable phenomenon is not the result of disease or habit,
but it is unquestionably an hereditary characteristic which runs in
families, and indicates no inequality in disposition or intellect.
And by passing this hair through my hands I have found it uniformly
to be as coarse and harsh as a horse's mane, differing materially
from the hair of other colors, which, among the Mandans, is generally
as fine and soft as silk.

"The stature of the Mandans is rather below the ordinary size of
man, with beautiful symmetry of form and proportion, and wonderful
suppleness and elasticity."

Catlin gives a group (54) showing this great diversity in complexion:
one of the figures is painted almost pure white, and with light
hair.  The faces are European.


Major James W. Lynd, who lived among the Dakota Indians for nine
years, and was killed by them in the great outbreak of 1862, says
(MS. "Hist.  of Dakotas," Library, Historical Society, Minnesota,
p. 47), after calling attention to the fact that the different
tribes of the Sioux nation represent several different degrees of
darkness of color:

"The Dakota child is of lighter complexion than the young brave;
this one lighter than the middle-aged man, and the middle-aged
man lighter than the superannuated 'homo', who, by smoke, paint,
dirt, and a drying up of the vital juices, appears to be the true
copper-colored Dakota.  The color of the Dakotas varies with the
nation, and also with the age and condition of the individual.  It
may be set down, however, as a shade lighter than olive; yet it
becomes still lighter by change of condition or mode of life, and
nearly vanishes, even in the child, under constant ablutions and
avoiding of exposure.  Those children in the Mission at Hazlewood,
who are taken very young, and not allowed to expose themselves,
lose almost entirely the olive shade, and become quite as white as
the American child.  The Mandans are as light as the peasants of
Spain, while their brothers, the Crows, are as dark as the Arabs.
Dr.  Goodrich, in the 'Universal Traveller,' p. 154, says that the
modern Peruvians, in the warmer regions of Peru, are as fair as
the people of the south of Europe."

"The Aymaras, the ancient inhabitants of the mountains of Peru and
Bolivia, are described as having an olive-brown complexion, with
regular features, large heads, and a thoughtful and melancholy cast
of countenance.  They practised in early times the deformation of
the skull.

Professor Wilson describes the hair of the ancient Peruvians, as
found upon their mummies, as "a lightish brown, and of a fineness
of texture which equals that of the Anglo-Saxon race." "The ancient
Peruvians," says Short ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 187),
"appear, from numerous examples of hair found in their tombs, to
have been an auburn-haired race." Garcilasso, who had an opportunity
of seeing the body of the king, Viracocha, describes the hair of
that monarch as snow-white.  Haywood tells us of the discovery, at
the beginning of this century, of three mummies in a cave on the
south side of the Cumberland River (Tennessee), who were buried in
baskets, as the Peruvians were occasionally buried, and whose skin
was fair and white, and their hair auburn, and of a fine texture.
("Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee," p. 191.)


Neither is the common opinion correct which asserts all the American
Indians to be of the same type of features.  The portraits on this
page and on pages 187 and 191, taken from the "Report of the U. S.
Survey for a Route for a Pacific Railroad," present features very
much like those of Europeans; in fact, every face here could be
precisely matched among the inhabitants of the southern part of
the old continent.


On the other hand, look at the portrait of the great Italian orator
and reformer, Savonarola, on page 193. It looks more like the hunting
Indians of North-western America than any of the preceding faces.
In fact, if it was dressed with a scalp-lock it would pass muster
anywhere as a portrait of the "Man-afraid-of-his-horses," or "Sitting


Adam was, it appears, a 'red' man.  Winchell tells us that Adam is
derived from the 'red' earth.  The radical letters ÂDâM are found
in ADaMaH, "something out of which vegetation was made to germinate,"
to wit, the earth. ÂDôM and ÂDOM signifies 'red, ruddy, bay-colored',
as of a horse, the color of a red heifer. "ÂDâM, a man, a human
being, male or female, 'red, ruddy'." ("Preadamites," p.161.)

"The Arabs distinguished mankind into two races, one 'red, ruddy',
the other black." ('Ibid'.) They classed themselves among the red

Not only was Adam a red man, but there is evidence that, from the
highest antiquity, red was a sacred color; the gods of the ancients
were always painted 'red'. The Wisdom of Solomon refers to this
custom:  "The carpenter carved it elegantly, and formed it by the
skill of his understanding, and fashioned it to the shape of a man,
or made it like some vile beast, laying it over with vermilion,
and with paint, coloring it red, and covering every spot therein."

The idols of the Indians were also painted red, and red was the
religious color. (Lynd's MS. "Hist. of Dakotas," Library, Hist.
Society, Minn.)

The Cushites and Ethiopians, early branches of the Atlantean stock,
took their name from their "sunburnt" complexion; they were red

The name of the Phoenicians signified 'red'. 'Himyar', the prefix
of the 'Himyaritic' Arabians, also means red, and the Arabs were
painted red on the Egyptian monuments.

The ancient Egyptians were red men.  They recognized four races
of men--the red, yellow, black, and white men.  They themselves
belonged to the "'Rot'," or red men; the yellow men they called
"'Namu'"--it included the Asiatic races; the black men were called
"'Nahsu'," and the white men "'Tamhu'." The following figures are
copied from Nott and Gliddon's "Types of Mankind," p. 85, and were
taken by them from the great works of Belzoni, Champollion, and

In later ages so desirous were the Egyptians of preserving, the
aristocratic distinction of the color of their skin, that they
represented themselves on the monuments as of a crimson hue--an
exaggeration of their original race complexion.

In the same way we find that the ancient Aryan writings divided
mankind into four races--the white, red, yellow, and black:  the
four castes of India were founded upon these distinctions in color;
in fact, the word for color in Sanscrit ('varna') means caste.  The
red men, according to the 'Mahâbhârata', were the Kshatriyas--the
warrior caste-who were afterward engaged in a fierce contest with
the whites--the Brahmans--and were nearly exterminated, although
some of them survived, and from their stock Buddha was born.  So that
not only the Mohammedan and Christian but the Buddhistic religion
seem to be derived from branches of the Hamitic or red stock.  The
great Manu was also of the red race.


The Egyptians, while they painted themselves red-brown, represented
the nations of Palestine as yellow-brown, and the Libyans yellow-white.
The present inhabitants of Egypt range from a yellow color in the
north parts to a deep 'bronze'. Tylor is of opinion ("Anthropology,"
p. 95) that the ancient Egyptians belonged to a brown race, which
embraced the Nubian tribes and, to some extent, the Berbers of
Algiers and Tunis.  He groups the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Persians,
Greeks, Romans, Andalusians, Bretons, dark Welshmen, and people of
the Caucasus into one body, and designates them as "dark whites."
The Himyarite Arabs, as I have shown, derived their name originally
from their red color, and they were constantly depicted on the
Egyptian monuments as red or light brown.  Herodotus tells us that
there was a nation of Libyans, called the Maxyans, who claimed
descent from the people of Troy (the walls of Troy, we shall see,
were built by Poseidon; that is to say, Troy was an Atlantean colony).
These Maxyans painted their whole bodies red.  The Zavecians, the
ancestors of the Zuavas of Algiers (the tribe that gave their name
to the French Zouaves), also painted themselves red.  Some of the
Ethiopians were "copper-colored." ("'Amer.  Cyclop.," art. 'Egypt',
p. 464.) Tylor says ("Anthropology," p. 160):  "The language of
the ancient Egyptians, though it cannot be classed in the Semitic
family with Hebrew, has important points of correspondence, whether
due to the long intercourse between the two races in Egypt 'or to
some deeper ancestral connection'; and such analogies also appear
in the Berber languages of North Africa."

These last were called by the ancients the Atlanteans.

"If a congregation of twelve representatives from Malacca, China,
Japan, Mongolia, Sandwich Islands, Chili, Peru, Brazil, Chickasaws,
Comanches, etc., were dressed alike, or undressed and unshaven, the
most skilful anatomist could not, from their appearance, separate
them." (Fontaine's "How the World was Peopled," pp. 147, 244.)

Ferdinand Columbus, in his relation of his father's voyages, compares
the inhabitants of Guanaani to the Canary Islanders (an Atlantean
race), and describes the inhabitants of San Domingo as still more
beautiful and fair.  In Peru the Charanzanis, studied by M. Angraud,
also resemble the Canary Islanders.  L'Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg
imagined himself surrounded by Arabs when all his Indians of
Rabinal were around him; for they had, he said, their complexion,
features, and beard.  Pierre Martyr speaks of the Indians of the
Parian Gulf as having fair hair. ("The Human Species," p. 201.) The
same author believes that tribes belonging to the Semitic type are
also found in America.  He refers to "certain traditions of Guiana,
and 'the use in the country of a weapon entirely characteristic of
the ancient Canary Islanders'."

When science is able to disabuse itself of the Mortonian theory that
the aborigines of America are all red men, and all belong to one
race, we may hope that the confluence upon the continent of widely
different races from different countries may come to be recognized
and intelligently studied.  There can be no doubt that red, white,
black, and yellow men have united to form the original population
of America.  And there can be as little doubt that the entire
population of Europe and the south shore of the Mediterranean is a
mongrel race--a combination, in varying proportions, of a dark-brown
or red race with a white race; the characteristics of the different
nations depending upon the proportions in which the dark and light
races are mingled, for peculiar mental and moral characteristics
go with these complexions.  The red-haired people are a distinct
variety of the white stock; there were once whole tribes and nations
with this color of hair; their blood is now intermingled with all
the races of men, from Palestine to Iceland.  Everything in Europe
speaks of vast periods of time and long. continued and constant
interfusion of bloods, until there is not a fair-skinned man on
the Continent that has not the blood of the dark-haired race in
his veins; nor scarcely a dark-skinned man that is not lighter in
hue from intermixture with the white stock.



The Hebrews are a branch of the great family of which that powerful
commercial race, the Phoenicians, who were the merchants of the
world fifteen hundred years before the time of Christ, were a part.
The Hebrews carried out from the common storehouse of their race a
mass of traditions, many of which have come down-to us in that oldest
and most venerable of human compositions, the Book of Genesis.  I
have shown that the story of the Deluge plainly refers to
the destruction of Atlantis, and that it agrees in many important
particulars with the account given by Plato.  The people destroyed
were, in both instances, the ancient race that had created civilization;
they had formerly been in a happy and sinless condition; they had
become great and wicked; they were destroyed for their sins--they
were destroyed by water.

But we can go farther, and it can be asserted that there is scarcely
a prominent fact in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis
that cannot be duplicated from the legends of the American nations,
and scarcely a custom known to the Jews that does not find its
counterpart among the people of the New World.

Even in the history of the Creation we find these similarities:

The Bible tells us (Gen. i., 2) that in the beginning the earth
was without form and void, and covered with water.  In the Quiche
legends we are told, "at first all was sea--no man, animal, bird,
or green herb--there was nothing to be seen but the sea and the

The Bible says (Gen. i., 2), "And the Spirit of God moved upon
the face of the waters." The Quiche legend says, "The Creator--the
Former, the Dominator--the feathered serpent--those that give life,
moved upon the waters like a glowing light."

The Bible says (Gen. i., 9), "And God said, Let the waters under
the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry
land appear: and it was so." The Quiche legend says, "The creative
spirits cried out 'Earth!' and in an instant it was formed, and
rose like a vapor-cloud; immediately the plains and the mountains
arose, and the cypress and pine appeared."

The Bible tells us, "And God saw that it was good." The Quiche legend
says, "Then Gucumatz was filled with joy, and cried out, 'Blessed
be thy coming, O Heart of Heaven, Hurakan, thunder-bolt.'"

The order in which the vegetables, animals, and man were formed is
the same in both records.

In Genesis (chap. ii., 7) we are told, "And the Lord God formed
man of the dust of the ground." The Quiche legend says. "The first
man was made of clay; but he had no intelligence, and was consumed
in the water."

In Genesis the first man is represented as naked.  The Aztec legend
says, "The sun was much nearer the earth then than now, and his
grateful warmth rendered clothing unnecessary."

Even the temptation of Eve reappears in the American legends.  Lord
Kingsborough says:  "The Toltecs had paintings of a garden, with
a single tree standing in the midst; round the root of the tree is
entwined a serpent, whose head appearing above the foliage displays
the face of a woman.  Torquemada admits the existence of this
tradition among them, and agrees with the Indian historians, who
affirm that this was the first woman in the world, who bore children,
and from whom all mankind are descended." ("Mexican Antiquities,"
vol. viii., p. 19.) There is also a legend of Suchiquecal, who
disobediently gathered roses from a tree, and thereby disgraced
and injured herself and all her posterity. ("Mexican Antiquities,"
vol. vi., p. 401.)

The legends of the Old World which underlie Genesis, and were used
by Milton in the "Paradise Lost," appear in the Mexican le(fends of
a war of angels in heaven, and the fall of 'Zou-tem-que' ('Soutem',
'Satan'--Arabic, 'Shatana?') and the other rebellious spirits.

We have seen that the Central Americans possessed striking parallels
to the account of the Deluge in Genesis.

There is also a clearly established legend which singularly resembles
the Bible record of the Tower of Babel.

Father Duran, in his MS. "Historia Antiqua de la Nueva Espana,"
A.D.  1585, quotes from the lips of a native of Cholula, over one
hundred years old, a version of the legend as to the building of
the great pyramid of Cholula.  It is as follows:

"In the beginning, before the light of the sun had been created,
this land (Cholula) was in obscurity and darkness, and void
of any created thing; all was a plain, without hill or elevation,
encircled in every part by water, without tree or created thing;
and immediately 'after the light and the sun arose in the east'
there appeared gigantic men of deformed stature and possessed the
land, and desiring to see the nativity of the sun, as well as his
occident, proposed to go and seek them.  Dividing themselves into
two parties, some journeyed to the west and others toward the east;
these travelled; until the sea cut off their road, whereupon they
determined to return to the place from which they started, and
arriving at this place (Cholula), not finding the means of reaching
the sun, enamored of his light and beauty, they determined to
build a tower so high that its summit should reach the sky.  Having
collected materials for the purpose, they found a very adhesive
clay and bitumen, with which they speedily commenced to build the
tower; and having reared it to the greatest possible altitude,
so that they say it reached to the sky, the Lord of the Heavens,
enraged, said to the inhabitants of the sky, 'Have you observed
how they of the earth have built a high and haughty tower to mount
hither, being enamored of the light of the sun and his beauty? Come
and confound them, because it is not right that they of the earth,
living in the flesh, should mingle with us.' Immediately the
inhabitants of the sky sallied forth like flashes of lightning;
they destroyed the edifice, and divided and scattered its builders
to all parts of the earth."


One can recognize in this legend the recollection, by a ruder race,
of a highly civilized people; for only a highly civilized people
would have attempted such a vast work.  Their mental superiority and
command of the arts gave them the character of giants who arrived
from the East; who had divided into two great emigrations, one
moving eastward (toward Europe), the other westward (toward America).
They were sun-worshippers; for we are told "they were enamored of
the light and beauty of the sun," and they built a high place for
his worship.

The pyramid of Cholula is one of the greatest constructions ever
erected by human hands.  It is even now, in its ruined condition,
160 feet high, 1400 feet square at the base, and covers forty-five
acres; we have only to remember that the greatest pyramid of Egypt,
Cheops, covers but twelve or thirteen acres, to form some conception
of the magnitude of this American structure.

It must not be forgotten that this legend was taken down by a Catholic
priest, shortly after the conquest of Mexico, from the lips of an
old Indian who was born before Columbus sailed from Spain.

Observe the resemblances between this legend and the Bible account
of the building of the Tower of Babel:

"All was a plain without hill or elevation," says the Indian legend.
"They found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there,"
says the Bible.  They built of brick in both cases. "Let us build
us a tower whose top may reach unto heaven," says the Bible. "They
determined to build a tower so high that its summit should reach
the sky," says the Indian legend. "And the Lord came down to see
the city and the tower which the children of men had builded.  And
the Lord said, Behol....  nothing will be restrained from them
which they have imagined to do.  Go to, let us go down and confound
them," says the Bible record. "The Lord of the Heavens, enraged,
said to the inhabitants of the sky, 'Have you observed,' etc.  Come
and confound them," says the Indian record. "And the Lord scattered
them abroad from thence on all the face of the earth," says the
Bible. "They scattered its builders to all parts of the earth,"
says the Mexican legend.

Can any one doubt that these two legends must have sprung in some
way from one another, or from some common source? There are enough
points of difference to show that the American is not a servile copy
of the Hebrew legend.  In the former the story comes from a native
of Cholula:  it is told under the shadow of the mighty pyramid it
commemorates; it is a local legend which he repeats.  The men who
built it, according to his account, were foreigners.  They built
it to reach the sun--that is to say, as a sun-temple; while in
the Bible record Babel was built to perpetuate the glory of its
architects.  In the Indian legend the gods stop the work by a great
storm, in the Bible account by confounding the speech of the people.

Both legends were probably derived from Atlantis, and referred to
some gigantic structure of great height built by that people; and
when the story emigrated to the east and west, it was in the one
case affixed to the tower of the Chaldeans, and in the other to
the pyramid of Cholula, precisely as we find the ark of the Deluge
resting upon separate mountain-chains all the way from Greece to
Armenia.  In one form of the Tower of Babel legend, that of the
Toltecs, we are told that the pyramid of Cholula was erected "as
a means of escape from a second flood, should another occur."

But the resemblances between Genesis and the American legends do
not stop here.

We are told (Gen. ii., 21) that "the Lord God caused a deep sleep
to fall upon Adam," and while he slept God made Eve out of one of
his ribs.  According to the Quiche tradition, there were four men
from whom the races of the world descended (probably a recollection
of the red, black, yellow, and white races); and these men were
without wives, and the Creator made wives for them "while they

Some wicked misanthrope referred to these traditions when he said,
"And man's first sleep became his last repose."

In Genesis (chap. iii., 22), "And the Lord God said, Behold, the
man is become as one of us, to know good and evil:  and now, lest
he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat,
and live forever:" therefore God drove him out of the garden.  In
the Quiche legends we are told, "The gods feared that they had
made men too perfect, and they breathed a cloud of mist over their

When the ancestors of the Quiches migrated to America the Divinity
parted the sea for their passage, as the Red Sea was parted for
the Israelites.

The story of Samson is paralleled in the history of a hero named
Zipanca, told of in the "Popol Vuh," who, being captured by his
enemies and placed in a pit, pulled down the building in which his
captors had assembled, and killed four hundred of them.

"There were giants in those days," says the Bible.  A great deal
of the Central American history is taken up with the doings of an
ancient race of giants called Quinames.

This parallelism runs through a hundred particulars:

Both the Jews and Mexicans worshipped toward the east.

Both called the south "the right hand of the world."

Both burnt incense toward the four corners of the earth.

Confession of sin and sacrifice of atonement were common to both

Both were punctilious about washings and ablutions.

Both believed in devils, and both were afflicted with leprosy.

Both considered women who died in childbirth as worthy of honor as
soldiers who fell in battle.

Both punished adultery with stoning to death.

As David leaped and danced before the ark of the Lord, so did the
Mexican monarchs before their idols.

Both had an ark, the abiding-place of an invisible god.

Both had a species of serpent-worship.


Compare our representation of the great serpent-mound in Adams County,
Ohio, with the following description of a great serpent-mound in

"'Serpent-worship in the West'.--Some additional light appears to
have been thrown upon ancient serpent-worship in the West by the
recent archaeological explorations of Mr.  John S. Phené, F.G.S.,
F.R.G.S., in Scotland.  Mr.  Phené has just investigated a curious
earthen mound in Glen Feechan, Argyleshire, referred to by him, at
the late meeting of the British Association in Edinburgh, as being
in the form of a serpent or saurian.  The mound, says the 'Scotsman',
is a most perfect one.  The head is a large cairn, and the body of
the earthen reptile 300 feet long; and in the centre of the bead
there were evidences, when Mr.  Phené first visited it, of an altar
having been placed there.  The position with regard to Ben Cruachan
is most remarkable.  The three peaks are seen over the length of
the reptile when a person is standing on the head, or cairn.  The
shape can only be seen so as to be understood when looked down upon
from an elevation, as the outline cannot be understood unless the
whole of it can be seen.  This is most perfect when the spectator
is on the bead of the animal form, or on the lofty rock to the west
of it.  This mound corresponds almost entirely with one 700 feet
long in America, an account of which was lately published, after
careful survey, by Mr.  Squier.  The altar toward the head in each
case agrees.  In the American mound three rivers (also objects of
worship with the ancients) were evidently identified.  The number
three was a sacred number in all ancient mythologies.  The sinuous
winding and articulations of the vertebral spinal arrangement
are anatomically perfect in the Argyleshire mound.  The gentlemen
present with Mr.  Phené during his investigation state that beneath
the cairn forming the head of the animal was found a megalithic
chamber, in which was a quantity of charcoal and burnt earth and
charred nutshells, a flint instrument, beautifully and minutely
serrated at the edge, and burnt bones.  The back or spine of the
serpent, which, as already stated, is 300 feet long, was found,
beneath the peat moss, to be formed by a careful adjustment of
stones, the formation of which probably prevented the structure
from being obliterated by time and weather." ('Pall Mall Gazette'.)


We find a striking likeness between the works of the Stone Age in
America and Europe, as shown in the figures here given.

The same singular custom which is found among the Jews and the
Hindoos, for "a man to raise up seed for his deceased brother by
marrying his widow," was found among the Central American nations.
(Las Casas, MS.  "Hist.  Apoloq.," cap. ccxiii., ccxv.  Torquemada,
"Monarq.  Ind.," tom.  ii., 377-8.)

No one but the Jewish high-priest might enter the Holy of Holies.
A similar custom obtained in Peru.  Both ate the flesh of the
sacrifices of atonement; both poured the blood of the sacrifice
on the earth; they sprinkled it, they marked persons with it, they
smeared it upon walls and stones.  The Mexican temple, like the
Jewish, faced the east. "As among the Jews the ark was a sort of
portable temple, in which the Deity was supposed to be continually
present, so among the Mexicans, the Cherokees, and the Indians of
Michoacan and Honduras, an ark was held in the highest veneration,
and was considered an object too sacred to be touched by any but
the priests." (Kingsborough, "Mex.  Antiq., "vol.  viii., p.258.)

The Peruvians believed that the rainbow was a sign that the earth
would not be again destroyed by a deluge. ('Ibid'., p. 25.)

The Jewish custom of laying the sins of the people upon the head
of an animal, and turning him out into the wilderness, had its
counterpart among the Mexicans, who, to cure a fever, formed a
dog of maize paste and left it by the roadside, saying the first
passer-by would carry away the illness. (Dorman, "Prim.  Super.,"
p. 59.) Jacob's ladder had its duplicate in the vine or tree of the
Ojibbeways, which led from the earth to heaven, up and down which
the spirits passed. ('Ibid'., p. 67.)

Both Jews and Mexicans offered water to a stranger that be might
wash his feet; both ate dust in token of humility; both anointed
with oil; both sacrificed prisoners; both periodically separated
the women, and both agreed in the strong and universal idea of
uncleanness connected with that period.

Both believed in the occult power of water, and both practised

"Then the Mexican midwife gave the child to taste of the water,
putting her moistened fingers in its mouth, and said, 'Take this;
by this thou hast to live on the earth, to grow and to flourish;
through this we get all things that support existence on the earth;
receive it.' Then with moistened fingers she touched the breast
of the child, and said, 'Behold the pure water that washes and
cleanses thy heart, that removes all filthiness; receive it:  may
the goddess see good to purify And cleanse thine heart.' Then the
midwife poured water upon the head of the child, saying, 'O my
grandson--my son--take this water of the Lord of the world, which
is thy life, invigorating and refreshing, washing and cleansing.
I pray that this celestial water, blue and light blue, may enter
into thy body, and there live; I pray that it may destroy in thee
and put away from thee all the things evil and adverse that were
'given thee before the beginning of the world'....  Wheresoever
thou art in this child, O thou hurtful thing, begone! leave it, put
thyself apart; for now does it live anew, and 'anew is it born';
now again is it purified and cleansed; now again is it shaped and
engendered by our mother, the goddess of water." (Bancroft's "Native
Races," vol. iii., p.  372.)

Here we find many resemblances to the Christian ordinance of
baptism: the pouring of the water on the head, the putting of the
fingers in the mouth, the touching of the breast, the new birth,
and the washing away of the original sin.  The Christian rite, we
know, was not a Christian invention, but was borrowed from ancient
times, from the great storehouse of Asiatic traditions and beliefs.

The Mexicans hung up the heads of their sacrificed enemies; this
was also a Jewish custom:

"And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people,
and hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce
anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel.  And Moses said
unto the judges of Israel, Slay ye every one his men that were
joined unto Baal-peor." (Numb., xxv., 4, 5.)

The Scythians, Herodotus tells us, scalped their enemies, and
carried the scalp at the pommel of their saddles; the Jews probably
scalped their enemies:

"But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp
of such a one as goeth on still in his trespasses." (Psa., lxviii.,

The ancient Scandinavians practised scalping.  When Harold Harefoot
seized his rival, Alfred, with six hundred followers, be "had them
maimed, blinded, hamstrung, scalped, or embowelled. (Taine's "Hist.
Eng.  Lit.," p. 35.)

Herodotus describes the Scythian mode of taking the scalp:

He makes a cut round the head near the ears, and shakes the skull
out." This is precisely the Indian custom. "The more scalps a man
has," says Herodotus, "the more highly he is esteemed among them."

The Indian scalp-lock is found on the Egyptian monuments as one
of the characteristics of the Japhetic Libyans, who shaved all the
head except one lock in the middle.

The Mantchoos of Tartary wear a scalp-lock, as do the modern Chinese.

Byron describes the heads of the dead Tartars under the walls of
Corinth, devoured by the wild dogs:

"Crimson and green were the shawls of their wear, And each scalp
had a single long tuft of hair, All the rest was shaven and bare."

These resemblances are so striking and so numerous that repeated
attempts have been made to prove that the inhabitants of America
are the descendants of the Jews; some have claimed that they
represented "the lost tribes" of that people.  But the Jews were
never a maritime or emigrating people; they formed no colonies; and
it is impossible to believe (as has been asserted) that they left
their flocks and herds, marched across the whole face of Asia, took
ships and sailed across the greatest of the oceans to a continent
of the existence of which they had no knowledge.

If we seek the origin of these extraordinary coincidences in
opinions and habits, we must go far back of the time of the lost
tribes.  We must seek it in the relationship of the Jews to the
family of Noah, and in the identity of the Noachic race destroyed
in the Deluge with the people of the drowned Atlantis.

Nor need it surprise us to find traditions perpetuated for thousands
upon thousands of years, especially among a people having a religious

The essence of religion is conservatism; little is invented; nothing
perishes; change comes from without; and even when one religion
is supplanted by another its gods live on as the demons of the
new faith, or they pass into the folk-lore and fairy stories of
the people.  We see Votan, a hero in America, become the god Odin
or Woden in Scandinavia; and when his worship as a god dies out
Odin survives (as Dr.  Dasent has proved) in the Wild Huntsman of
the Hartz, and in the Robin Hood (Oodin) of popular legend.  The
Hellequin of France becomes the Harlequin of our pantomimes.  William
Tell never existed; he is a myth; a survival of the sun-god Apollo,
Indra, who was worshipped on the altars of Atlantis.

Nothing here but it doth change into something rich and strange."

The rite of circumcision dates back to the first days of Phoenicia,
Egypt, and the Cushites.  It, too, was probably an Atlantean custom,
invented in the Stone Age.  Tens of thousands of years have passed
since the Stone Age; the ages of copper, bronze, and iron bare
intervened; and yet to this day the Hebrew rabbi performs the
ceremony of circumcision with a stone knife.

Frothingham says, speaking of St.  Peter's Cathedral, in Rome:

"Into what depths of antiquity the ceremonies carried me back! To
the mysteries of Eleusis; to the sacrificial rites of Phoenicia.  The
boys swung the censors as censors had been swung in the adoration
of Bacchus.  The girdle and cassock of the priests came from Persia;
the veil and tonsure were from Egypt; the alb and chasuble were
prescribed by Numa Pompilius; the stole was borrowed from the
official who used to throw it on the back of the victim that was
to be sacrificed; the white surplice was the same as described by
Juvenal and Ovid."

Although it is evident that many thousands of years must have passed
since the men who wrote in Sanscrit, in Northwestern India, could
have dwelt in Europe, yet to this day they preserve among their
ancient books maps and descriptions of the western coast of Europe,
and even of England and Ireland; and we find among them a fuller
knowledge of the vexed question of the sources of the Nile than
was possessed by any nation in the world twenty-five years ago.

This perpetuation of forms and beliefs is illustrated in the fact
that the formulas used in the Middle Ages in Europe to exorcise evil
spirits were Assyrian words, imported probably thousands of years
before from the magicians of Chaldea.  When the European conjurer
cried out to the demon, "'Hilka, hilka, besha, besha'," he had
no idea that he was repeating the very words of a people who had
perished ages before, and that they signified 'Go away, go away,
evil one, evil one'. (Lenormant, "Anc.  Hist.  East," vol. i., p.

Our circle of 360 degrees; the division of a chord of the circle
equal to the radius into 60 equal parts, called degrees:  the
division of these into 60 minutes, of the minute into 60 seconds,
and the second into 60 thirds; the division of the day into 24
hours, each hour into 60 minutes, each minute into 60 seconds; the
division of the week into seven days, and the very order of the
days--all have come down to us from the Chaldeo-Assyrians; and
these things will probably be perpetuated among our posterity "to
the last syllable of recorded time."

We need not be surprised, therefore, to find the same legends and
beliefs cropping out among the nations of Central America and the
people of Israel.  Nay, it should teach us to regard the Book of
Genesis with increased veneration, as a relic dating from the most
ancient days of man's history on earth; its roots cross the great
ocean; every line is valuable; a word, a letter, an accent may
throw light upon the gravest problems of the birth of civilization.

The vital conviction which, during thousands of years, at all times
pressed home upon the Israelites, was that they were a "chosen people,"
selected out of all the multitude of the earth, to perpetuate the
great truth that there was but one God--an illimitable, omnipotent,
paternal spirit, who rewarded the good and punished the wicked--in
contradistinction from the multifarious, subordinate, animal and
bestial demi-gods of the other nations of the earth.  This sublime
monotheism could only have been the outgrowth of a high civilization,
for man's first religion is necessarily a worship of "stocks and
stones," and history teaches us that the gods decrease in number
as man increases in intelligence.  It was probably in Atlantis that
monotheism was first preached.  The proverbs of "Ptah-hotep," the
oldest book of the Egyptians, show that this most ancient colony
from Atlantis received the pure faith from the mother-land at the
very dawn of history:  this book preached the doctrine of 'one'
God, "the rewarder of the good and the punisher of the wicked."
(Reginald S. Poole, 'Contemporary Rev'., Aug., 1881, p. 38.) "In
the early days the Egyptians worshipped one only God, the maker
of all things, without beginning and without end.  To the last the
priests preserved this doctrine and taught it privately to a select
few." ("Amer.  Encycl.," vol. vi., p. 463.) The Jews took up this
great truth where the Egyptians dropped it, and over the beads and
over the ruins of Egypt, Chaldea, Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, and India
this handful of poor shepherds--ignorant, debased, and despised--have
carried down to our own times a conception which could only have
originated in the highest possible state of human society.

And even skepticism must pause before the miracle of the continued
existence of this strange people, wading through the ages, bearing
on their shoulders the burden of their great trust, and pressing
forward under the force of a perpetual and irresistible impulse.
The speech that may be heard to-day in the synagogues of Chicago and
Melbourne resounded two thousand years ago in the streets of Rome;
and, at a still earlier period, it could be heard in the palaces
of Babylon and the shops of Thebes--in Tyre, in Sidon, in Gades,
in Palmyra, in Nineveh.  How many nations have perished, how many
languages have ceased to exist, how many splendid civilizations
have crumbled into ruin, bow many temples and towers and towns
have gone down to dust since the sublime frenzy of monotheism first
seized this extraordinary people! All their kindred nomadic tribes
are gone; their land of promise is in the hands of strangers; but
Judaism, with its offspring, Christianity, is taking possession
of the habitable world; and the continuous life of one people--one
poor, obscure, and wretched people--spans the tremendous gulf
between "Ptah-hotep" and this nineteenth century.

If the Spirit of which the universe is but an expression--of whose
frame the stars are the infinite molecules--can be supposed ever
to interfere with the laws of matter and reach down into the doings
of men, would it not be to save from the wreck and waste of time the
most sublime fruit of the civilization of the drowned Atlantis--a
belief in the one, only, just God, the father of all life, the
imposer of all moral obligations?



One of the most marvellous inventions for the advancement of mankind
is the phonetic alphabet, or a system of signs representing the
sounds of human speech.  Without it our present civilization could
scarcely have been possible.

No solution of the origin of our European alphabet has. yet been
obtained:  we can trace it back from nation to nation, and form to
form, until we reach the Egyptians, and the archaic forms of the
Phoenicians, Hebrews, and Cushites, but. beyond this the light
fails us.

The Egyptians spoke of their hieroglyphic system of writing not as
their own invention, but as "the language of the gods." (Lenormant
and Cheval, "Anc.  Hist. of the East," vol. ii., p. 208.) "The gods"
were, doubtless, their highly civilized ancestors--the people of
Atlantis--who, as we shall hereafter see, became the gods of many
of the Mediterranean races.

"According to the Phoenicians, the art of writing was invented by
Taautus, or Taut, 'whom the Egyptians call Thouth,' and the Egyptians
said it was invented by Thouth, or Thoth, otherwise called 'the
first Hermes,' in which we clearly see that both the Phoenicians
and Egyptians referred the invention to a period older than their
own separate political existence, and to an older nation, from
which both peoples received it." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations,"
p. 91.)

The "first Hermes," here referred to (afterward called Mercury by
the Romans), was a son of Zeus and Maia, a daughter of Atlas.  This
is the same 'Maia' whom the Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg identifies
with the Maya of Central America.

Sir William Drummond, in his "Origines," said:

"There seems to be no way of accounting either for the early use
of letters among so many different nations, or for the resemblance
which existed between some of the graphic systems employed by
those nations, than by supposing hieroglyphical writing, if I may
be allowed the term, to have been in use among the Tsabaists in
the first ages after the Flood, when Tsabaisin (planet-worship)
was the religion of almost every country that was yet inhabited."

Sir Henry Rawlinson says:

"So great is the analogy between the first principles of the Science
of writing, as it appears to have been pursued in Chaldea, and as
we can actually trace its progress in Egypt, that we can hardly
hesitate to assign the original invention 'to a period before the
Hamitic race had broken up and divided'."

It is not to be believed that such an extraordinary system of
sound-signs could have been the invention of any one man or even
of any one age.  Like all our other acquisitions, it must have been
the slow growth and accretion of ages; it must have risen step by
step from picture-writing through an intermediate condition like
that of the Chinese, where each word or thing was represented by
a separate sign.  The fact that so old and enlightened a people as
the Chinese have never reached a phonetic alphabet, gives us some
indication of the greatness of the people among whom it was invented,
and the lapse of time before they attained to it.

Humboldt says:

"According to the views which, since Champollion's great discovery,
have been gradually adopted regarding the earlier condition of
the development of alphabetical writing, the Phoenician as well as
the Semitic characters are to be regarded as a phonetic alphabet
that has originated from pictorial writing; as one in which the
ideal signification of the symbols is wholly disregarded, and the
characters are regarded as mere signs for sounds." ("Cosmos," vol.
ii., p. 129.)

Baldwin says (" Prehistoric Nations," p. 93):

"The nation that became mistress of the seas, established communication
with every shore, and monopolized the commerce of the known world,
must have substituted a phonetic alphabet for the hieroglyphics
as it gradually grew to this eminence; while isolated Egypt,
less affected by the practical wants and tendencies of commercial
enterprise, retained the hieroglyphic system, and carried it to a
marvellous height of perfection."

It must be remembered that some of the letters of our alphabet are
inventions of the later nations.  In the oldest alphabets there
was no 'c', the 'g' taking its place.  The Romans converted the
'g' into 'c'; and then, finding the necessity for a 'g' Sign, made
one by adding a tail-piece to the 'c' ('C, G'). The Greeks added
to the ancient alphabet the 'upsilon', shaped like our V or Y, the
two forms being used at first indifferently:  they added the X sign;
they converted the t of the Phoenicians into 'th', or 'theta'; 'z'
and 's' into signs for double consonants; they turned the Phoenician
'y' ('yod') into 'i' ('iota').  The Greeks converted the Phoenician
alphabet, which was partly consonantal, into one purely phonetic--"a
perfect instrument for the expression of spoken language." The 'w'
was also added to the Phoenician alphabet.  The Romans added the
'y'. At first 'i' and 'j' were both indicated by the same sound;
a sign for 'j' was afterward added.  We have also, in common with
other European languages, added a double U, that is, VV, or W, to
represent the 'w' sound.

The letters, then, which we owe to the Phoenicians, are A, B, C,
D, E, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, Z. If we are to trace
out resemblances with the alphabet of any other country, it must
be with these signs.

Is there any other country to which we can turn which possessed
a phonetic alphabet in any respect kindred to this Phoenician
alphabet? It cannot be the Chinese alphabet, which has more signs
than words; it cannot be the cuneiform alphabet of Assyria, with
its seven hundred arrow-shaped characters, none of which bear the
slightest affinity to the Phoenician letters.

It is a surprising fact that 'we find in Central America a phonetic
alphabet'. This is in the alphabet of the Mayas, the ancient people
of the peninsula of Yucatan, who claim that their civilization
came to them across the sea in ships from the east, that is, from
the direction of Atlantis.  The Mayas succeeded to the Colhuas,
whose era terminated one thousand years before the time of Christ;
from them they received their alphabet.  It has come to us through
Bishop Landa, one of the early missionary bishops, who confesses
to having burnt a great number of Maya books because they contained
nothing but the works of the devil.  He fortunately, however,
preserved for posterity the alphabet of this people.  We present
it herewith.

LANDA'S ALPHABET (From "North Amer. of Antiquity," p. 434.)

Diego de Landa was the first bishop of Yucatan.  He wrote a history
of the Mayas and their country, which was preserved in manuscript
at Madrid in the library of the Royal Academy of History....  It
contains a description and explanation of the phonetic alphabet
of the Mayas.  Landa's manuscript seems to have lain neglected in
the library, for little or nothing was heard of it until it was
discovered by the French priest Brasseur de Bourbourg, who, by
means of it, has deciphered some of the old American writings. he
says, 'the alphabet and signs explained by Landa have been to me
a Rosetta stone.'" (Baldwin's "Ancient America," p. 191.)

When we observe, in the table of alphabets of different European
nations which I give herewith, how greatly the forms of the
Phoenician letters have been modified, it would surprise us to find
any resemblance between the Maya alphabet of two or three centuries
since and the ancient European forms.  It must, however, be
remembered that the Mayas are one of the most conservative peoples
in the world.  They still adhere with striking pertinacity to the
language they spoke when Columbus landed on San Salvador; and it
is believed that that language is the same as the one inscribed on
the most ancient monuments of their country.  Señor Pimental says
of them, "The Indians have preserved this idiom with such tenacity
that they will speak no other; it is necessary for the whites to
address them in their own language to communicate with them." It
is therefore probable, as their alphabet did not pass from nation
to nation, as did the Phoenician, that it has not departed so widely
from the original forms received from the Colhuas.

The Alphabet

But when we consider the vast extent of time which has elapsed,
and the fact that we are probably without the intermediate stages
of the alphabet which preceded the archaic Phoenician, it will
be astonishing if we find resemblances between 'any' of the Maya
letters and the European forms, even though we concede that they
are related.  If we find decided affinities between two or three
letters, we may reasonably presume that similar coincidences existed
as to many others which have disappeared under the attrition of

The first thought that occurs to us on examining the Landa alphabet
is the complex and ornate character of the letters.  Instead of
the two or three strokes with which we indicate a sign for a sound,
we have here rude pictures of objects.  And we find that these are
themselves simplifications of older forms of a still more complex
character.  Take, for instance, the letter 'pp' in Landa's alphabet,
### :  here are evidently the traces of a face.  The same appear,
but not so plainly, in the sign for 'x', which is ### . Now, if
we turn to the ancient hieroglyphics upon the monuments of Central
America, we will find the human face appearing in a great many of
them, as in the following, which we copy from the Tablet of the
Cross at Palenque.  We take the hieroglyphs from the left-hand
side of the inscription.  Here it will be seen that, out of seven
hieroglyphical figures, six contain human faces.  And we find that
in the whole inscription of the Tablet of the Cross there are 33
figures out of 108 that are made up in part of the human countenance.

We can see, therefore, in the Landa alphabet a tendency to
simplification.  And this is what we would naturally expect.  When
the emblems--which were probably first intended for religious
inscriptions, where they could be slowly and carefully elaborated--were
placed in the bands of a busy, active, commercial people, such as
were the Atlanteans, and afterward the Phoenicians, men with whom
time was valuable, the natural tendency would be to simplify and
condense them; and when the original meaning of the picture was
lost, they would naturally slur it, as we find in the letters 'pp'
and 'x' of the Maya alphabet, where the figure of the human face
remains only in rude lines.

The same tendency is plainly shown in the two forms of the letter
'h', as given in Landa's alphabet; the original form is more
elaborate than the variation of it.  The original form is ### The
variation is given as ###. Now let us suppose this simplification
to be carried a step farther:  we have seen the upper and lower
parts of the first form shrink into a smaller and less elaborate
shape; let us imagine that the same tendency does away with them
altogether; we would then have the letter H of the Maya alphabet
represented by this figure, ###; now, as it takes less time to make
a single stroke than a double one, this would become in time ###.
We turn now to the archaic Greek and the old Hebrew, and we find the
letter 'h' indicated by this sign, ###, precisely the Maya letter
'h' simplified.  We turn to the archaic Hebrew, and we find ###.
Now it is known that the Phoenicians wrote from right to left, and
just as we in writing from left to right slope our letters to the
right, so did the Phoenicians slope their letters to the left.
Hence the Maya sign becomes in the archaic Phoenician this, ###.
In some of the Phoenician alphabets we even find the letter h
made with the double strokes above and below, as in the Maya 'h'.
The Egyptian hieroglyph for 'h' is ### while 'ch' is ###. In time
the Greeks carried the work of simplification still farther, and
eliminated the top lines, as we have supposed the Atlanteans to
have eliminated the double strokes, and they left the letter as it
has come down to us, H.

Now it may be said that all this is coincidence.  If it is, it is
certainly remarkable.  But let us go a step farther:

We have seen in Landa's alphabet that there are two forms of the
letter m.  The first is ###. But we find also an 'm' combined with
the letter 'o', 'a', or 'e', says Landa, in this form, ###. The 'm'
here is certainly indicated by the central part of this combination,
the figure ###; where does that come from? It is clearly taken
from the heart of the original figure wherein it appears.  What
does this prove? That the Atlanteans, or Mayas, when they sought
to simplify their letters and combine them with others, took from
the centre of the ornate hieroglyphical figure some characteristic
mark with which they represented the whole figure.  Now let us
apply this rule:

We have seen in the table of alphabets that in every language, from
our own day to the time of the Phoenicians, 'o' has been represented
by a circle or a circle within a circle.  Now where did the Phoenicians
get it? Clearly from the Mayas.  There are two figures for 'o' in
the Maya alphabet; they are ### and ###; now, if we apply the rule
which we have seen to exist in the case of the Maya 'm' to these
figures, the essential characteristic found in each is the circle,
in the first case pendant from the hieroglyph; in the other, in the
centre of the lower part of it.  And that this circle was withdrawn
from the hieroglyph, and used alone, as in the case of the 'm',
is proved by the very sign used at the foot of Landa's alphabet,
which is, ### Landa calls this 'ma', 'me', or 'mo'; it is probably
the latter, and in it we have the circle detached from the hieroglyph.

We find the precise Maya 'o' a circle in a circle, or a dot within
a circle, repeated in the Phoenician forms for 'o', thus, ### and
###, and by exactly the same forms in the Egyptian hieroglyphics;
in the Runic we have the circle in the circle; in one form of the
Greek o the dot was placed along-side of the circle instead of
below it, as in the Maya.

Are these another set of coincidences?

Take another letter:

The letter 'n' of the Maya alphabet is represented by this sign,
itself probably a simplification of some more ornate form, ###.
This is something like our letter S, but quite unlike our N. But
let us examine into the pedigree of our 'n'. We find in the archaic
Ethiopian, a language as old as the Egyptian, and which represents
the Cushite branch of the Atlantean stock, the sign for 'n' ('na')
is ###; in archaic Phoenician it comes still closer to the S shape,
thus, ###, or in this form, ###; we have but to curve these angles
to approximate it very closely to the Maya 'n'; in Troy this form
was found, ###. The Samaritan makes it ###; the old Hebrew ###;
the Moab stone inscription gives it ###; the later Phoenicians
simplified the archaic form still further, until it became ###;
then it passed into ###:  the archaic Greek form is ###; the later
Greeks made ###, from which it passed into the present form, N.
All these forms seem to be representations of a serpent; we turn to
the valley of the Nile, and we find that the Egyptian hieroglyphic
for 'n' was the serpent, ###; the Pelasgian 'n' was ###; the
Arcadian, ###; the Etruscan, ###.

Can anything be more significant than to find the serpent the sign
for 'n' in Central America, and in all these Old World languages?

Now turn to the letter 'k'. The Maya sign for 'k' is ###. This does
not look much like our letter K; but let us examine it.  Following
the precedent established for us by the Mayas in the case of the
letter m, let us see what is the distinguishing feature here; it
is clearly the figure of a serpent standing erect, with its tail
doubled around its middle, forming a circle.  It has already been
remarked by Savolini that this erect serpent is very much like the
Egyptian 'Uræus', an erect serpent with an enlarged body--a sacred
emblem found in the hair of their deities.  We turn again to the
valley of the Nile, and we find that the Egyptian hieroglyphic for
'k' was a serpent with a convolution or protuberance in the middle,
precisely as in the Maya, thus, ###; this was transformed into the
Egyptian letter ###; the serpent and the protuberance reappear in
one of the Phoenician forms of 'k', to wit, ###; while in the Punic
we have these forms, ### and ###. Now suppose a busy people trying
to give this sign:  instead of drawing the serpent in all its
details they would abbreviate it into something like this, ###; now
we turn to the ancient Ethiopian sign for 'k' ('ka'), and we have
###, or the Himyaritic Arabian ###; while in the Phoenician it
becomes ###; in the archaic Greek, ###; and in the later Greek,
when they changed the writing from left to right, ###. So that the
two lines projecting from the upright stroke of our English K are
a reminiscence of the convolution of the serpent in the Maya original
and the Egyptian copy.

Turn now to the Maya sign for 't':  it is ###.  What is the
distinctive mark about this figure? It is the cross composed of
two curved lines, thus, ###.  It is probable that in the Maya sign
the cross is united at the bottom, like a figure '8'. Here again
we turn to the valley of the Nile, and we find that the Egyptian
hieroglyph for 't' is ### and ###; and in the Syriac 't' it is
###.  We even find the curved lines of the Maya 't' which give it
something of the appearance of the numeral '8', repeated accurately
in the Mediterranean alphabets; thus the Punic 't' repeats the
Maya form almost exactly as ### and ###.  Now suppose a busy people
compelled to make this mark every day for a thousand years, and
generally in a hurry, and the cross would soon be made without
curving the lines; it would become X. But before it reached even
that simplified form it had crossed the Atlantic, and appeared in
the archaic Ethiopian sign for 'tsa', thus, ###.  In the archaic
Phoenician the sign for ### is ### and ###; the oldest Greek form
is ### or ### and the later Greeks gave it to the Romans ###, and
modified this into ###; the old Hebrew gave it as ### and ###; the
Moab stone as ###; this became in time ### and ###.

Take the letter 'a'. In the Maya there are three forms given for
this letter.  The first is ###; the third is ###.  The first looks
very much like the foot of a lion or tiger; the third is plainly
a foot or boot.  If one were required to give hurriedly a rude
outline of either of these, would he not represent it thus, ###;
and can we not conceive that this could have been in time modified
into the Phoenician 'a', which was ###?  The hieratic Egyptian
'a' was ###; the ancient Hebrew, which was ### or ###; the ancient
Greek was the foot reversed, ###; the later Greek became our A.

Turn next to the Maya sign for 'q' ('ku'):  it is ###.  Now
what is the peculiarity of this hieroglyph? The circle below is
not significant, for there are many circular figures in the Maya
alphabet.  Clearly, if one was called upon to simplify this, he
would retain the two small circles joined side by side at the top,
and would indicate the lower circle with a line or dash.  And when
we turn to the Egyptian 'q' we find it in this shape, ###; we turn
to the Ethiopian 'q' ('khua'), and we find it ###, as 'qua', ###;
while the Phoenician comes still nearer the supposed Maya form in
###; the Moab stone was ###; the Himyaritic Arabian form became ###;
the Greek form was ###, which graduated into the Roman Q.  But a
still more striking proof of the descent of the Phoenician alphabet
from the Maya is found in the other form of the 'q', the Maya 'cu',
which is ###.  Now, if we apply the Maya rule to this, and discard
the outside circle, we have this left, ###. In time the curved line
would be made straight, and the figure would assume this form, ###;
the next step would be to make the cross on the straight line, thus,
###.  One of the ancient Phoenician forms is ###. Can all this be

The letter 'c' or 'g' (for the two probably gave the same sound as
in the Phoenician) is given in the Maya alphabet as follows, ###.
This would in time be simplified into a figure representing the
two sides of a triangle with the apex upward, thus, ###.  This is
precisely the form found by Dr.  Schliemann in the ruins of Troy,
###.  What is the Phoenician form for 'g' as found on the Moab
stone? It is ###. The Carthaginian Phoenicians gave it more of a
rounded form, thus, ###. The hieratic Egyptian figure for 'g' was
###; in the earlier Greek form the left limb of the figure was
shortened, thus, ###; the later Greeks reversed it, and wrote it
###; the Romans, changed this into ### and it finally became C.

In the Maya we have one sign for 'p', and another for 'pp'. The
first contains a curious figure, precisely like our 'r' laid on
its back ###, There is, apparently, no 'r' in the Maya alphabet;
and the Roman 'r' grew out of the later Phoenician 'r' formed thus,
###; it would appear that the earliest Phoenician alphabet did
not contain the letter 'r'.  But if we now turn to the Phoenician
alphabet, we will find one of the curious forms of the 'p' given
thus, ###, a very fair representation of an 'r' lying upon its
face.  Is it not another remarkable coincidence that the 'p', in
both Maya and Phoenician, should contain this singular sign?

The form of 'pp' in the Maya alphabet is this, ###.  If we are
asked, on the principle already indicated, to reduce this to its
elements, we would use a figure like this, ###; in time the tendency
would be to shorten one of these perpendicular lines, thus, and
this we find is very much like the Phoenician 'p', ###.  The Greek
'ph' is ###.

The letter 'l' in the Maya is in two forms; one of these is ###,
the other is ###. Now, if we again apply the rule which we observed
to hold good with the letter 'm'--that is, draw from the inside
of the hieroglyph some symbol that will briefly indicate the whole
letter--we will have one of two forms, either a right-angled figure
formed thus, ###, or an acute angle formed by joining the two lines
which are unconnected, thus, ###; and either of these forms brings
us quite close to the letter 'l' of the Old World.  We find 'l' on
the Moab stone thus formed, ###. The archaic Phoenician form of 'l'
was ###, or ###; the archaic Hebrew was ### and ###; the hieratic
Egyptian was ###; the Greek form was ###--the Roman L.

The Maya letter 'b' is shaped thus, ###. Now, if we turn to the
Phoenician, we find that 'b' is represented by the same crescent-like
figure which we find in the middle of this hieroglyph, but reversed
in the direction of the writing, thus, ###; while in the archaic
Hebrew we have the same crescent figure as in the Maya, turned in
the same direction, but accompanied by a line drawn downward, and
to the left, thus, ###; a similar form is also found in the Phoenician
###, and this in the earliest Greek changed into ###, and in the
later Greek into B. One of the Etruscan signs for 'b' was ###, while
the Pelasgian 'b' was represented thus, ###; the Chaldaic 'b' was
###; the Syriac sign for 'b' was ###; the Illyrian 'b' was ###.

The Maya 'e' is ###; this became in time ###; then ### (we see
this form on the Maya monuments); the dots in time were indicated
by strokes, and we reach the hieratic Egyptian form, ###:  we even
find in some of the ancient Phoenician inscriptions the original
Maya circles preserved in making the letter 'e', thus, ###; then
we find the old Greek form, ###; the old Hebrew, ###; and the later
Phoenician, ###:  when the direction of the writing was changed this
became ###. Dr.  Schliemann found a form like this on inscriptions
deep in the ruins of Troy, ###.  This is exactly the form found on
the American monuments.

The Maya 'i' is ###; this became in time ###; this developed into
a still simpler form, ###; and this passed into the Phoenician form,
###. The Samaritan 'i' was formed thus, ### ; the Egyptian letter
'i' is ### :  gradually in all these the left-hand line was dropped,
and we come to the figure used on the stone of Moab, ### and ###;
this in time became the old Hebrew ###, or ###; and this developed
into the Greek ###.

We have seen the complicated symbol for 'm' reduced by the Mayas
themselves into this figure, ###:  if we attempt to write this
rapidly, we find it very difficult to always keep the base lines
horizontal; naturally we form something like this, ###:  the
distinctive figure within the sign for 'm' in the Maya is ### or
###.  We see this repeated in the Egyptian hieroglyphics for 'm',
###, and ###, and ###; and in the Chaldaic 'm', ###; and in the
Ethiopic ###. We find one form of the Phoenician where the 'm' is
made thus, ###; and in the Punic it appears thus, ###; and this
is not unlike the 'm' on the stone of Moab, ###, or the ancient
Phoenician forms ###, ###, and the old Greek ###, or the ancient
Hebrew ###, ###.

The ###, 'x', of the Maya alphabet is a hand pointing downward ###,
this, reduced to its elements, would be expressed some thing like
this, ### or ###; and this is very much like the 'x' of the archaic
Phoenician, ###; or the Moab stone, ###; or the later Phoenician
### or the Hebrew ###, ###, or the old Greek, ###:  the later Greek
form was ###.

The Maya alphabet contains no sign for the letter 's'; there is,
however, a symbol called 'ca' immediately above the letter 'k'; it
is probable that the sign 'ca' stands for the soft sound of 'c',
as, in our words 'citron', 'circle', 'civil', 'circus', etc.  As
it is written in the Maya alphabet 'ca', and not 'k', it evidently
represents a different sound.  The sign 'ca' is this, ###. A
somewhat similar sign is found in the body of the symbol for 'k',
thus, ###, this would appear to be a simplification of 'ca', but
turned downward.  If now we turn to the Egyptian letters we find
the sign 'k' represented by this figure ###, simplified again into
###; while the sign for 'k' in the Phoenician inscription on the
stone of Moab is ###. If now we turn to the 's' sound, indicated
by the Maya sign 'ca', ###, we find the resemblance still more
striking to kindred European letters.  The Phoenician 's' is ###;
in the Greek this becomes ### ###; the Hebrew is ### ###; the
Samaritan, ###. The Egyptian hieroglyph for 's' is ###; the Egyptian
letter 's' is ###; the Ethiopic, ###; the Chaldaic, ###; and the
Illyrian 's c' is ###.

We have thus traced back the forms of eighteen of the ancient letters
to the Maya alphabet.  In some cases the pedigree, is so plain as
to be indisputable.

For instance, take the 'h':

Maya, ###; old Greek, ###; old Hebrew, ###; Phoenician, ###.

Or take the letter 'o':

Maya, ###; old Greek, ###; old Hebrew, ###; Phoenician, ###.

Or take the letter 't':

Maya, ###; old Greek, ###; old Phoenician, ### and ###.

Or take the letter 'q':

Maya, ###; old Phoenician, ### and ###; Greek, ###.

Or take the letter 'k':

Maya, ###; Egyptian, ###; Ethiopian, ###; Phoenician, ###.

Or take the letter 'n':

Maya, ###; Egyptian, ###; Pelasgian ###, Arcadian,###; Phoenician,

Surely all this cannot be accident!

But we find another singular proof of the truth of this theory:  It
will be seen that the Maya alphabet lacks the letter 'd' and the
letter 'r'.  The Mexican alphabet possessed a 'd'. The sounds 'd'
and 't' were probably indicated in the Maya tongue by the same
sign, called 't' in the Landa alphabet.  The Finns and Lapps do not
distinguish between these two sounds.  In the oldest known form of
the Phoenician alphabet, that found on the Moab stone, we find in
the same way but one sign to express the 'd' and 't'. 'D' does not
occur on the Etruscan monuments, 't' being used in its place.  It
would, therefore, appear that after the Maya alphabet passed to the
Phoenicians they added two new signs for the letters 'd' and 'r';
and it is a singular fact that their poverty of invention seems
to have been such that they used to express both 'd' and 'r', the
same sign, with very little modification, which they had already
obtained from the Maya alphabet as the symbol for 'b'. To illustrate
this we place the signs side by side:

It thus appears that the very signs 'd' and 'r', in the Phoenician,
early Greek, and ancient Hebrew, which are lacking in the Maya, were
supplied by imitating the Maya sign for 'b'; and it is a curious
fact that while the Phoenician legends claim that Taaut invented
the art of writing, yet they tell us that Taaut made records, and
"delivered them to his successors and to foreigners, of whom one
was Isiris (Osiris, the Egyptian god), 'the inventor of the three
letters'." Did these three letters include the 'd' and 'r', which
they did not receive from the Atlantean alphabet, as represented
to us by the Maya alphabet?

In the alphabetical table which we herewith append we have represented
the sign V, or vau, or 'f', by the Maya sign for U. "In the present
so-called Hebrew, as in the Syriac, Sabæic, Palmyrenic, and some
other kindred writings, the 'vau' takes the place of F, and indicates
the sounds of 'v' and 'u'. F occurs in the same place also on the
Idalian tablet of Cyprus, in Lycian, also in Tuarik (Berber), and
some other writings." ("American Cyclopædia," art.  F.)

Since writing the above, I find in the "Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society" for December, 1880, p. 154, an interesting
article pointing out other resemblances between the Maya alphabet
and the Egyptian.  I quote:

It is astonishing to notice that while Landa's first B is,
according to Valentini, represented by a footprint, and that path
and footprint are pronounced 'Be' in the Maya dictionary, the
Egyptian sign for B was the human leg.

"Still more surprising is it that the H of Landa's alphabet is a
tie of cord, while the Egyptian H is a twisted cord....  But the
most striking coincidence of all occurs in the coiled or curled
line representing Landa's U; 'for it is absolutely identical with
the Egyptian curled U'. The Mayan word for to wind or bend is
Uuc; but why should Egyptians, confined as they were to the valley
of the Nile, and abhorring as they did the sea and sailors, write
their U precisely like Landa's alphabet U in Central America?
There is one other remarkable coincidence between Landa's and the
Egyptian alphabets; and, by-the-way, the English and other Teutonic
dialects have a curious share in it.  Landa's D (T) is a disk with
lines inside the four quarters, the allowed Mexican symbol for a day
or sun.  So far as sound is concerned, the English day represents
it; so far as the form is concerned, the Egyptian 'cake,' ideograph
for (1) country and (2) the sun's orbit is essentially the same."

It would appear as if both the Phoenicians and Egyptians drew their
alphabet from a common source, of which the Maya is a survival,
but did not borrow from one another.  They followed out different
characteristics in the same original hieroglyph, as, for instance,
in the letter 'b'.  And yet I have shown that the closest resemblances
exist between the Maya alphabet and the Egyptian signs--in the 'c',
'h', 't', 'i', 'k', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'q', and 's'--eleven letters in
all; in some cases, as in the 'n' and 'k', the signs are identical;
the 'k', in both alphabets, is not only a serpent, but a serpent
with a protuberance or convolution in the middle! If we add to
the above the 'b' and 'u', referred to in the "Proceedings of the
American Philosophical Society," we have thirteen letters out of
sixteen in the Maya and Egyptian related to each other.  Can any
theory of accidental coincidences account for all this? And it must
be remembered that these resemblances are found between the only
two phonetic systems of alphabet in the world.

Let us suppose that two men agree that each shall construct apart
from the other a phonetic alphabet of sixteen letters; that they
shall employ only simple forms--combinations of straight or curved
lines--and that their signs shall not in anywise resemble the letters
now in use.  They go to work apart; they have a multitudinous array
of forms to draw from the thousand possible combinations of lines,
angles, circles, and curves; when they have finished, they bring
their alphabets together for comparison.  Under such circumstances
it is possible that out of the sixteen signs one sign might appear
in both alphabets; there is one chance in one hundred that such
might be the case; but there is not one chance in five hundred
that this sign should in both cases represent the same sound.  It
is barely possible that two men working thus apart should bit upon
two or three identical forms, but altogether impossible that these
forms should have the same significance; and by no stretch of the
imagination can it be supposed that in these alphabets so created,
without correspondence, thirteen out of sixteen signs should be
the same in form and the same in meaning.

It is probable that a full study of the Central American monuments
may throw stronger light upon the connection between the Maya and
the European alphabets, and that further discoveries of inscriptions
in Europe may approximate the alphabets of the New and Old World
still more closely by supplying intermediate forms.

We find in the American hieroglyphs peculiar signs which take the
place of pictures, and which probably, like the hieratic symbols
mingled with the hieroglyphics of Egypt, represent alphabetical
sounds.  For instance, we find this sign on the walls of the palace
of Palenque, ###; this is not unlike the form of the Phoenician
't' used in writing, ### and ###; we find also upon these monuments
the letter 'o' represented by a small circle, and entering into
many of the hieroglyphs; we also find the 'tau' sign (thus ###)
often repeated; also the sign which we have supposed to represent
'b', ###; also this sign, ###, which we think is the simplification
of the letter 'k'; also this sign, which we suppose to represent
'e', ###; also this figure, ###; and this ###. There is an evident
tendency to reduce the complex figures to simple signs whenever
the writers proceed to form words.

Although it has so far been found difficult, if not impossible,
to translate the compound words formed from the Maya alphabet, yet
we can go far enough to see that they used the system of simpler
sounds for the whole hieroglyph to which we have referred.

Bishop Landa gives us, in addition to the alphabet, the signs which
represent the days and months, and which are evidently compounds
of the Maya letters.  For instance, we have this figure as the
representative of the month 'Mol' ###. Here we see very plainly
the letter ### for 'm', the sign ### for 'o'; and we will possibly
find the sign for 'l' in the right angle to the right of the 'm'
sign, and which is derived from the figure in the second sign for
'l' in the Maya alphabet.

One of the most ancient races of Central America is the Chiapenec,
a branch of the Mayas.  They claim to be the first settlers of the
country.  They came, their legends tell us, from the East, from
beyond the sea.

And even after the lapse of so many thousand years most remarkable
resemblances have been found to exist between the Chiapenec language
and the Hebrew, the living representative of the Phoenician tongue.

The Mexican scholar, Señor Melgar ("North Americans of Antiquity,"
p.  475) gives the following list of words taken from the Chiapenec
and the Hebrew:

| 'English.......  | 'Chiapenec.' | 'Hebrew.' |
| So....  ...... | Bee....... Ben.....
| Daughte....  ....  Bat....... Bath....
| Fathe....  ....  | Abag...... Abba....
| Star in Zodia....  | Chima....  | Chimah.   |
| Kin....  ....... Mol....... Maloc.    |
| Name applied to Adam | Abag...... Abah....
| Afflicte......   | Chana....  | Chanan.   |
| Go....  ...... | Ela....... Elab....
| Septembe......   | Tsiquin....  Tischiri. |
| Mor....  ....... Chi....... Chi.....
| Ric....  ....... Chabi....  | Chabic.   |
| Son of Set...... | Eno....... Enos....
| To giv....   ....  Vota...... Votan.    |

Thus, while we find such extraordinary resemblances between the Maya
alphabet and the Phoenician alphabet, we find equally surprising
coincidences between the Chiapenec tongue, a branch of the Mayas,
and the Hebrew, a branch of the Phoenician.

Attempts have been repeatedly made by European scholars to trace
the letters of the Phoenician alphabet back to the elaborate
hieroglyphics from which all authorities agree they must have been
developed, but all such attempts have been failures.  But here, in
the Maya alphabet, we are not only able to extract from the heart
of the hieroglyphic the typical sign for the sound, but we are able
to go a step farther, and, by means of the inscriptions upon the
monuments of Copan and Palenque, deduce the alphabetical hieroglyph
itself from an older and more ornate figure; we thus not Only
discover the relationship of the European alphabet to the American,
but we trace its descent in the very mode in which reason tells us
it must have been developed.  All this proves that the similarities
in question did not come from Phoenicians having accidentally visited
the shores of America, but that we have before us the origin, the
source, the very matrix in which the Phoenician alphabet was formed.
In the light of such a discovery the inscriptions upon the monuments
of Central America assume incalculable importance; they take us
back to a civilization far anterior to the oldest known in Europe;
they represent the language of antediluvian times.

It may be said that it is improbable that the use of an alphabet
could have ascended to antediluvian times, or to that prehistoric
age when intercourse existed between ancient Europe and America;
but it must be remembered that if the Flood legends of Europe and
Asia are worth anything they prove that the art of writing existed
at the date of the Deluge, and that records of antediluvian learning
were preserved by those who escaped the Flood; while Plato tells
us that the people of Atlantis engraved their laws upon columns of
bronze and plates of gold.

There was a general belief among the ancient nations that the art
of writing was known to the antediluvians.  The Druids believed in
books more ancient than the Flood.  They styled them "the books of
Pheryllt," and "the writings of Pridian or Hu." "Ceridwen consults
them before she prepares the mysterious caldron which shadows out
the awful catastrophe of the Deluge." (Faber's "Pagan Idolatry,"
vol. ii., pp. 150, 151.) In the first 'Avatar' of Vishnu we are told
that "the divine ordinances were stolen by the demon Haya-Griva.
Vishnu became a fish; and after the Deluge, when the waters
had subsided, he recovered the holy books 'from the bottom of the
ocean'." Berosus, speaking of the time before the Deluge, says:
"Oannes wrote concerning the generations of mankind and their
civil polity." The Hebrew commentators on Genesis say, "Our rabbins
assert that Adam, our father of blessed memory, composed a book of
precepts, which were delivered to him by God in Paradise." (Smith's
"Sacred Annals," p. 49.) That is to say, the Hebrews preserved a
tradition that the Ad-ami, the people of Ad, or Adlantis, possessed,
while yet dwelling in Paradise, the art of writing.  It has been
suggested that without the use of letters it would have been impossible
to preserve the many details as to dates, ages, and measurements,
as of the ark, handed down to us in Genesis.  Josephus, quoting
Jewish traditions, says, "The births and deaths of illustrious
men, between Adam and Noah, were noted down at the time with great
accuracy." (Ant., lib. 1, cap. iii., see. 3.) Suidas, a Greek
lexicographer of the eleventh century, expresses tradition when
he says, "Adam was the author of arts and letters." The Egyptians
said that their god Anubis was an antediluvian, and it wrote annals
'before' the Flood." The Chinese have traditions that the earliest
race of their nation, prior to history, "taught all the arts of
life and wrote books." "The Goths always had the use of letters;"
and Le Grand affirms that before or soon after the Flood "there were
found the acts of great men engraved in letters on large stones."
(Fosbroke's "Encyclopædia of Antiquity," vol. i., p.  355.) Pliny
says, "Letters were always in use." Strabo says, "The inhabitants
of Spain possessed records 'written before the Deluge'." (Jackson's
"Chronicles of Antiquity," vol. iii., p. 85.) Mitford ("History of
Greece," vol. i, p. 121) says, "Nothing appears to us so probable
as that it (the alphabet) was derived from the antediluvian world."



There exist in Europe the evidences of three different ages of
human development:

1. The Stone Age, which dates back to a vast antiquity.  It is
subdivided into two periods:  an age of rough stone implements; and
a later age, when these implements were ground smooth and made in
improved forms.

2. The Bronze Age, when the great mass of implements were manufactured
of a compound metal, consisting of about nine parts of copper and
one part of tin.

3. An age when iron superseded bronze for weapons and cutting
tools, although bronze still remained in use for ornaments.  This
age continued down to what we call the Historical Period, and embraces
our present civilization; its more ancient remains are mixed with
coins of the Gauls, Greeks, and Romans.

The Bronze Period has been one of the perplexing problems of
European scientists.  Articles of bronze are found over nearly all
that continent, but in especial abundance in Ireland and Scandinavia.
They indicate very considerable refinement and civilization upon the
part of the people who made them; and a wide diversity of opinion
has prevailed as to who that people were and where they dwelt.

In the first place, it was observed that the age of bronze (a
compound of copper and tin) must, in the natural order of things,
have been preceded by an age when copper and tin were used separately,
before the ancient metallurgists had discovered the art of combining
them, and yet in Europe the remains of no such age have been found.
Sir John Lubbock says ("Prehistoric Times," p. 59), "The absence
of implements made either of copper or tin seems to me to indicate
that 'the art of making bronze was introduced into, not invented in,
Europe'." The absence of articles of copper is especially marked,
nearly all the European specimens of copper implements have been
found in Ireland; and yet out of twelve hundred and eighty-three
articles of the Bronze Age, in the great museum at Dublin, only
thirty celts and one sword-blade are said to be made of pure copper;
and even as to some of these there seems to be a question.

Where on the face of the earth are we to find a Copper Age? Is it
in the barbaric depths of that Asia out of whose uncivilized tribes
all civilization is said to have issued? By no means.  Again we are
compelled to turn to the West.  In America, from Bolivia to Lake
Superior, we find everywhere the traces of a long-enduring Copper
Age; bronze existed, it is true, in Mexico, but it held the same
relation to the copper as the copper held to the bronze in Europe--it
was the exception as against the rule.  And among the Chippeways
of the shores of Lake Superior, 'and among them alone', we find any
traditions of the origin of the manufacture of copper implements;
and on the shores of that lake we find pure copper, out of which
the first metal tools were probably hammered before man had learned
to reduce the ore or run the metal into moulds.  And on the shores
of this same American lake we find the ancient mines from which some
people, thousands of years ago, derived their supplies of copper.


Sir W. R. Wilde says, "It is remarkable that so few antique copper
implements have been found (in Europe), although a knowledge of
that metal must have been the preliminary stage in the manufacture
of bronze." He thinks that this may be accounted for by supposing
that "but a short time elapsed between the knowledge of smelting and
casting copper ore and the introduction of tin, and the subsequent
manufacture and use of bronze."

But here we have in America the evidence that thousands of years
must have elapsed during which copper was used alone, before it was
discovered that by adding one-tenth part of tin it gave a harder
edge, and produced a superior metal.

The Bronze Age cannot be attributed to the Roman civilization.  Sir
John Lubbock shows ("Prehistoric Times," p. 21) that bronze weapons
have never been found associated with Roman coins or pottery, or
other remains of the Roman Period; that bronze articles have been
found in the greatest abundance in countries like Ireland and
Denmark, which were never invaded by Roman armies; and that the
character of the ornamentation of the works of bronze is not Roman
in character, and that the Roman bronze contained a large proportion
of lead, which is never the case in that of the Bronze Age.

It has been customary to assume that the Bronze Age was due to
the Phoenicians, but of late the highest authorities have taken
issue with this opinion.  Sir John Lubbock ('Ibid'., p. 73) gives
the following reasons why the Phoenicians could not have been the
authors of the Bronze Age:  First, the ornamentation is different.
In the Bronze Age "this always consists of geometrical figures,
and we rarely, if ever, find upon them representations of animals
and plants, while on the ornamented shields, etc., described by
Homer, as well as in the decoration of Solomon's Temple, animals
and plants were abundantly represented." The cuts on p. 242 will
show the character of the ornamentation of the Bronze Age.  In the
next place, the form of burial is different in the Bronze Age from
that of the Phoenicians. "In the third place, the Phoenicians, so
far as we know them, were well acquainted with the use of iron;
in Homer we find the warriors already armed with iron weapons, and
the tools used in preparing the materials for Solomon's Temple were
of this metal."

This view is also held by M. de Fallenberg, in the "Bulletin de la
Société des Sciences" of Berne. (See "Smithsonian Rep.," 1865-66,
p.  383.) He says,


"It seems surprising that the nearest neighbors of the Phoenicians--the
Greeks, the Egyptians, the Etruscans, and the Romans--should have
manufactured 'plumbiferous' bronzes, while the Phoenicians carried
to the people of the North only pure bronzes without the alloy
of lead.  If the civilized people of the Mediterranean added lead
to their bronzes, it can scarcely be doubted that the calculating
Phoenicians would have done as much, and, at least, with distant
and half-civilized tribes, have replaced the more costly tin by the
cheaper metal....  On the whole, then, I consider that the first
knowledge of bronze may have been conveyed to the populations of
the period tinder review not only by the Phoenicians, but by other
civilized people dwelling more to the south-east."

Professor E. Desor, in his work on the "Lacustrian Constructions
of the Lake of Neuchatel," says,

"The Phoenicians certainly knew the use of iron, and it can scarcely
be conceived why they should have excluded it from their commerce
on the Scandinavian coasts....  The Etruscans, moreover, were
acquainted with the use of iron as well as the Phoenicians, and
it has already been seen that the composition of their bronzes is
different, since it contains lead, which is entirely a stranger
to our bronze epoch....  We must look, then, 'beyond' both the
Etruscans and Phoenicians in attempting to identify the commerce
of the Bronze Age of our palafittes.  It will be the province
of the historian to inquire whether, exclusive of Phoenicians and
Carthaginians, there may not have been some maritime and commercial
people who carried on a traffic through the ports of Liguria with
the populations of the age of bronze of the lakes of Italy 'before
the discovery of iron'. We may remark, in passing, that there is
nothing to prove that the Phoenicians were the first navigators.
History, on the Contrary, positively mentions prisoners, under the
name of Tokhari, who were vanquished in a naval battle fought by
Rhamses III. in the thirteenth century before our era, and whose
physiognomy, according to Morton, would indicate the Celtic type.
Now there is room to suppose that if these Tokhari were energetic
enough to measure their strength on the sea with one of the powerful
kings of Egypt, they must, with stronger reason, have been in a
condition to carry on a commerce along the coasts of the Mediterranean,
and perhaps of the Atlantic.  If such a commerce really existed
before the time of the Phoenicians, it would not be limited to
the southern slope of the Alps; it would have extended also to the
people of the age of bronze in Switzerland.  The introduction of
bronze would thus ascend to a very high antiquity, doubtless beyond
the limits of the most ancient European races."

For the merchants of the Bronze Age we must look beyond even the
Tokhari, who were contemporaries of the Phoenicians.

The Tokhari, we have seen, are represented as taken prisoners, in
a sea-fight with Rhamses III., of the twentieth dynasty, about the
thirteenth century B.C. They are probably the 'Tochari' of Strabo.
The accompanying figure represents one of these people as they
appear upon the Egyptian monuments. (See Nott and Gliddon's "Types
of Mankind," p.  108.) Here we have, not an inhabitant of Atlantis,
but probably a representative of one of the mixed races that sprung
from its colonies.

Dr.  Morton thinks these people, as painted on the Egyptian monuments,
to have "strong Celtic features.  Those familiar with the Scotch
Highlanders may recognize a speaking likeness."

It is at least interesting to have a portrait of one of the daring
race who more than three thousand years ago left the west of Europe
in their ships to attack the mighty power of Egypt.

They were troublesome to the nations of the East for many centuries;
for in 700 B.C. we find them depicted on the Assyrian monuments.
This figure represents one of the Tokhari of the time of Sennacherib.
It will be observed that the headdress (apparently of feathers)
is the same in both portraits, al, though separated by a period of
six hundred years.

It is more reasonable to suppose that the authors of the bronze
Age of Europe were the people described by Plato, who were workers
in metal, who were highly civilized, who preceded in time all
the nations which we call ancient.  It was this people who passed
through an age of copper before they reached the age of bronze, and
whose colonies in America represented this older form of metallurgy
as it existed for many generations.

Professor Desor says:

"We are asked if the preparation of bronze was not an indigenous
invention which had originated on the slopes of the Alps....  In this
idea we acquiesced for a moment.  But we are met by the objection
that, if this were so, the natives, like the ancient tribes of
America, would have commenced by manufacturing utensils of 'copper';
yet thus far no utensils of this metal have been found except a
few in the strand of Lake Garda.  The great majority of metallic
objects is of bronze, which necessitated the employment of tin,
and this could not be obtained except by commerce, inasmuch as it
is a stranger to the Alps.  It would appear, therefore, more natural
to admit that the art of combining tin with copper--in other words,
'that the manufacture of bronze--was of foreign importation'." He
then shows that, although copper ores are found in the Alps, the
probability is that even "the copper also was of foreign importation.
Now, in view of the prodigious quantity of bronze manufactured
at that epoch, this single branch of commerce must itself have
'necessitated the most incessant commercial communications'."

And as this commerce could not, as we have seen, have been carried
on by the Romans, Greeks, Etruscans, or Phoenicians, because their
civilizations flourished during the Iron Age, to which this age of
bronze was anterior, where then are we to look for a great maritime
and commercial people, who carried vast quantities of copper,
tin, and bronze (unalloyed by the lead of the south of Europe) to
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Ireland, England, France, Spain, Switzerland,
and Italy?  Where can we find them save in that people of Atlantis,
whose ships, docks, canals, and commerce provoked the astonishment
of the ancient Egyptians, as recorded by Plato.  The Toltec root
for water is 'Atl'; the Peruvian word for copper is 'Anti' (from
which, probably, the Andes derived their name, as there was a
province of Anti on their slopes): may it not be that the name of
Atlantis is derived from these originals, and signified the copper
island, or the copper mountains in the sea? And from these came the
thousands of tons of copper and tin that must, during the Bronze
Age, have been introduced into Europe? There are no ancient works
to indicate that the tin mines of Cornwall were worked for any
length of time in the early days (see "Prehistoric Times," p. 74).
Morlot has pointed out that the bronze implements of Hallstadt, in
Austria, were of foreign origin, because they contain no lead or

Or, if we are to seek for the source of the vast amount of copper
brought into Europe somewhere else than in Atlantis, may it not
be that these supplies were drawn in large part from the shores
of Lake Superior in America? The mining operations of some ancient
people were there carried on upon a gigantic scale, not only along
the shores of the lake but even far out upon its islands.  At Isle
Royale vast works were found, reaching to a depth of sixty feet;
great intelligence was shown in following up the richest veins
even when interrupted; the excavations were drained by underground
drains.  On three sections of land on this island the amount of
mining exceeded that mined in twenty years in one of our largest
mines, with a numerous force constantly employed.  In one place
the excavations extended in a nearly continuous line for two miles.
No remains of the dead and no mounds are found near these mines:
it would seem, therefore, that the miners came from a distance,
and carried their dead back with them.  Henry Gillman ("Smithsonian
Rep.," 1873, p. 387) supposes that the curious so-called "Garden
Beds" of Michigan were the fields from which they drew their supplies
of food.  He adds,

"The discoveries in Isle Royale throw a new light on the character
of the 'Mound Builders,' giving us a totally distinct conception
of them, and dignifying them with something of the prowess and
spirit of adventure which we associate with the higher races.  The
copper, the result of their mining, to be available, must, in all
probability, have been conveyed in vessels, great or small, across
a treacherous and stormy sea, whose dangers are formidable to us
now, being dreaded even by our largest craft, and often proving
their destruction.  Leaving their homes, those men dared to face
the unknown, to brave the hardships and perils of the deep and of
the wilderness, actuated by an ambition which we to-day would not
be ashamed to acknowledge."

Such vast works in so remote a land must have been inspired by the
commercial necessities of some great civilization; and why not by
that ancient and mighty people who covered Europe, Asia, and Africa
with their manufactures of bronze-and who possessed, as Plato
tells us, enormous fleets trading to all parts of the inhabited
world-whose cities roared with the continual tumult of traffic,
whose dominion extended to Italy and Egypt, and who held parts of
"the great opposite continent" of America under their control? A
continuous water-way led, from the island of Atlantis to the Gulf
of Mexico, and thence up the Mississippi River and its tributaries
almost to these very mines of Lake Superior.

Arthur Mitchell says ("The Past in the Present," p. 132),

"The discovery of bronze, and the knowledge of how to make it, may,
as a mere intellectual effort, be regarded as rather above than
below the effort which is involved in the discovery and use of
iron.  As regards bronze, there is first the discovery of copper,
and the way of getting it from its ore; then the discovery of tin,
and the way to get it from its ore; and then the further discovery
that, by an admixture of tin with copper in proper proportions, an
alloy with the qualities of a hard metal can be produced.  It is
surely no mistake to say that there goes quite as much thinking to
this as to the getting of iron from its ore, and the conversion of
that iron into steel.  There is a considerable leap from stone to
bronze, but the leap from bronze to iron is comparatively small....
It seems highly improbable, if not altogether absurd, that the
human mind, at some particular stage of its development, should
here, there, and everywhere--independently, and as the result of
reaching that stage--discover that an alloy of copper and tin yields
a hard metal useful in the manufacture of tools and weapons.  There
is nothing analogous to such an occurrence in the known history
of human progress.  It is infinitely more probable that bronze was
discovered in one or more centres by one or more men, and that its
first use was solely in such centre or centres.  That the invention
should then be perfected, and its various applications found out,
and that it should thereafter spread more or less broadly over the
face of the earth, is a thing easily understood."

We will find the knowledge of bronze wherever the colonies of
Atlantis extended, and nowhere else; and Plato tells us that the
people of Atlantis possessed and used that metal.

The indications are that the Bronze Age represents the coming in of
a new people--a civilized people.  With that era, it is believed,
appears in Europe for the first time the domesticated animals-the
horse, the ox, the sheep, the goat, and the hog. (Morlot, "Smithsonian
Rep.," 1860, p.  311.) It was a small race, with very small hands;
this is shown in the size of the sword-hilts:  they are not large
enough to be used by the present races of Europe.  They were a race
with long skulls, as contradistinguished. from the round heads of
the Stone Period.  The drawings on the following page represent
the types of the two races.


This people must have sent out colonies to the shores of France,
Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, and Norway, who bore with them the
arts and implements of civilized life.  They raised crops of grain,
as is proved by the bronze sickles found in different parts of

It is not even certain that their explorations did not reach to
Iceland.  Says Humboldt,

"When the Northmen first landed in Iceland (A.D. 875), although the
country was uninhabited, they found there Irish books, mass-bells,
and other objects which had been left behind by earlier visitors,
called Papar; these papæ (fathers) were the clerici of Dicuil.  If,
then, as we may suppose from the testimony here referred to, these
objects belonged to Irish monks (papar), who had come from the Faroe
Islands, why should they have been termed in the native sagas 'West
men' (Vestmen), ''who had come over the sea from the westward''
(kommer til vestan um haf)?" (Humboldt's "Cosmos," vol. ii., 238.)

If they came "from the West" they could not have come from Ireland;
and the Scandinavians may easily have mistaken Atlantean books and
bells for Irish books and mass-bells.  They do not say that there
were any evidences that these relics belonged to a people who had
recently visited the island; and, as they found the island uninhabited,
it would be impossible for them to tell how many years or centuries
had elapsed since the books and bells were left there.

The fact that the implements of the Bronze Age came from some common
centre, and did not originate independently in different countries,
is proved by the striking similarity which exists between the bronze
implements of regions as widely separated as Switzerland, Ireland,
Denmark, and Africa.  It is not to be supposed that any overland
communication existed in that early age between these countries;
and the coincidence of design which we find to exist can only be
accounted for by the fact that the articles of bronze were obtained
from some sea-going people, who carried on a commerce at the same
time with all these regions.


Compare, for instance, these two decorated bronze celts. the first
from Ireland, the second from Denmark; and then compare both these
with a stone celt found in a mound in Tennessee, given below.  Here
we have the same form precisely.


Compare the bronze swords in the four preceding illustrations-from
Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Denmark-and then observe the
same very peculiar shape--the leaf-shape, as it is called--in the
stone sword from Big Harpeth River, Tennessee.

We shall find, as we proceed, that the Phoenicians were unquestionably
identified with Atlantis, and that it was probably from Atlantis
they derived their god Baal, or Bel, or El, whose name crops out
in the Bel of the Babylonians, the Elohim, and the Beelzebub of the
Jews, and the Allah of the Arabians, And we find that this great
deity, whose worship extended so widely among the Mediterranean
races, was known and adored also upon the northern and western
coasts of Europe.  Professor Nilsson finds traces of Baal worship
in Scandinavia; he tells us that the festival of Baal, or Balder,
was celebrated on midsummer's night in Scania, and far up into
Norway, almost to the Loffoden Islands, until within the last fifty
years.  The feast of Baal, or Beltinne, was celebrated in Ireland
to a late period.  I argue from these facts, not that the worship
of Baal came to Ireland and Norway from Assyria or Arabia, but that
the same great parent-race which carried the knowledge of Baal to
the Mediterranean brought it also to the western coasts of Europe,
and with the adoration of Baal they imported also the implements
of bronze now found in such abundance in those regions.

The same similarity of form exists in the bronze knives from Denmark
and Switzerland, as represented in the illustrations on p. 254.

In the central figure we have a representation of an Egyptian-looking
man holding a cup before him.  We shall see, as we proceed, that
the magnetic needle, or "mariner's compass," dates back to the days
of Hercules, and that it consisted of a bar of magnetized iron
floating upon a piece of wood in a cup.  It is possible that in
this ancient relic of the Bronze Age we have a representation of
the magnetic cup.  The magnetic needle must certainly have been an
object of great interest to a people who, through its agency, were
able to carry on commerce on all the shores of Europe, from the
Mediterranean to the Baltic.  The second knife represented above
has upon its handle a wheel, or cross surrounded by a ring, which,
we shall see here after, was pre-eminently the symbol of Atlantis.

If we are satisfied that these implements of bronze were the work
of the artisans of Atlantis--of the antediluvians--they must acquire
additional and extraordinary interest in our eyes, and we turn to
them to earn something of the habits and customs of "that great,
original, broad-eyed, sunken race."

We find among the relies of the Bronze Age an urn, which probably
gives us some idea of the houses of the Atlanteans:  it is evidently
made to represent a house, and shows us even the rude fashion in
which they fastened their doors.  The Mandan Indiana built round
houses very much of this appearance.

The museum at Munich contains a very interesting piece of pottery,
which is supposed to represent one of the lake villages or hamlets
of the era when the people of Switzerland dwelt in houses erected
on piles driven into the bottom of the lakes of that country.  The
accompanying illustration represents it.  The double spiral ornament
upon it shows that it belongs to the Bronze Age.

Among the curious relies of the Bronze Age are a number of
razor-like knives; from which we may conclude that the habit of
shaving the whole or some part of the face or head dates back to
a great antiquity.  The illustrations below represent them.

These knives were found in Denmark.  The figures upon them represent
ships, and it is not impossible that their curious appendages may
have been a primitive kind of sails.


An examination of the second of these bronze knives reveals
a singular feature:  Upon the handle of the razor there are 'ten'
series of lines; the stars in the sky are 'ten' in number; and there
were probably 'ten' rings at the left-hand side of the figure, two
being obliterated.  There were, we are told, ten sub-kingdoms in
Atlantis; and precisely as the thirteen stripes on the American
flag symbolize the thirteen original States of the Union, so
the recurrence of the figure ten in the emblems upon this bronze
implement may have reference to the ten subdivisions of Atlantis.
The large object in the middle of this ship may be intended
to represent a palm-tree-the symbol, as we shall see, in America,
of Aztlan, or Atlantis.  We have but to compare the pictures of
the ships upon these ancient razor-knives with the accompanying
representations of a Roman galley and a ship of William the
Conqueror's time, to see that there can be no question that they
represented the galleys of that remote age.  They are doubtless
faithful portraits of the great vessels which Plato described as
filling the harbors of Atlantis.


We give on page 258 a representation of a bronze dagger found in
Ireland, a strongly-made weapon.  The cut below it represents the
only implement of the Bronze Age yet found containing an inscription.
It has been impossible to decipher it, or even to tell to what
group of languages its alphabet belongs.

It is proper to note, in connection with a discussion of the Bronze
Age, that our word bronze is derived from the Basque, or Iberian
'broncea', from which the Spanish derive 'bronce', and the Italians
'bronzo'. The copper mines of the Basques were extensively worked
at a very early age of the world, either by the people of Atlantis
or by the Basques themselves, a colony from Atlantis.  The
probabilities are that the name for bronze, as well as the metal
itself, dates back to Plato's island.

I give some illustrations on pages 239 and 242 of ornaments and
implements of the Bronze Age, which may serve to throw light upon
the habits of the ancient people.  It will be seen that they had
reached a considerable degree of civilization; that they raised crops
of grain, and cut them with sickles; that their women ornamented
themselves with bracelets, armlets, earrings, finger-rings,
hair-pins, and amulets; that their mechanics used hammers, adzes,
and chisels; and that they possessed very fair specimens of pottery.
Sir John Lubbock argues ("Prehistoric Times," pp. 14, 16, etc.):

"A new civilization is indicated not only by the mere presence of
bronze but by the beauty and variety of the articles made from it.
We find not only, as before, during the Stone Age, axes, arrows,
and knives, but, in addition, swords, lances, sickles, fish-hooks,
ear-rings, bracelets, pins, rings, and a variety of other articles."

If the bronze implements of Europe had been derived from the
Phoenicians, Greeks, Etruscans, or Romans, the nearer we approached
the site of those nations the greater should be the number of
bronze weapons we would find; but the reverse is the case.  Sir
John Lubbock ("Prehistoric Times," p. 20) shows that more than
three hundred and fifty bronze swords have been found in Denmark,
and that the Dublin Museum contains twelve hundred and eighty-three
bronze weapons found in Ireland; "while," he says, "I have only
been able to hear of six bronze swords in all Italy." This state of
things is inexplicable unless we suppose that Ireland and Denmark
received their bronze implements directly from some maritime nation
whose site was practically as near their shores as it was to the
shores of the Mediterranean.  We have but to look at our map on page
43, ante, to see that Atlantis was considerably nearer to Ireland
than it was to Italy.

The striking resemblance between the bronze implements found in
the different portions of Europe is another proof that they were
derived from one and the same source-from some great mercantile people
who carried on their commerce at the same time with Denmark, Norway,
Ireland, Spain, Greece, Italy, Egypt, Switzerland, and Hungary.
Mr.  Wright ("Essays on Archæology," p. 120) says, "Whenever we
find the bronze swords or celts,


whether in Ireland, in the far west, in Scotland, in distant
Scandinavia, in Germany, or still farther east, in the Sclavonic
countries, they are the same--'not similar in character, but
identical'." Says Sir John Lubbock ("Prehistoric Times," p. 59),
"Not only are the several varieties of celts found throughout
Europe alike, but some of the swords, knives, daggers, etc., are so
similar that they seem as if they must have been cast by the same

What race was there, other than the people of Atlantis, that
existed before the Iron Age-before the Greek, Roman, Etruscan, and
Phoenician--that was civilized, that worked in metals, that carried
on a commerce with all parts of Europe? Does history or tradition
make mention of any such?

We find a great resemblance between the pottery of the Bronze Age
in Europe and the pottery of the ancient inhabitants of America.
The two figures on page 260 represent vases from one of the mounds
of the Mississippi Valley.  Compare them with the following from
the lake dwellings of Switzerland:


It will be seen that these vases could scarcely stand upright
unsupported; and we find that the ancient inhabitants of Switzerland
had circles or rings of baked earth in which they placed them when
in use, as in the annexed figure.  The Mound Builders used the same

The illustrations of discoidal stones on page 263 are from the "North
Americans of Antiquity," p. 77. The objects represented were taken
from an ancient mound in Illinois.  It would be indeed surprising
if two distinct peoples, living in two different continents, thousands
of miles apart, should, without any intercourse with each other,
not only form their vases in the same inconvenient form, but should
hit upon the same expedient as a remedy.

We observe, in the American spear-head and the Swiss hatchets, on
the opposite page, the same overlapping), of the metal around the
staff, or handle--a very peculiar mode of uniting them together,
which has now passed out of use.

A favorite design of the men of the Bronze Age in Europe is the
spiral or double-spiral form.  It appears on the face of the urn
in the shape of a lake dwelling, which is given on p. 255; it also
appears in the rock sculptures of Argyleshire, Scotland, here shown.

We find the same figure in an ancient fragment of pottery from the
Little Colorado, as given in the "United States Pacific Railroad
Survey Report," vol. iii., p. 49, art. 'Pottery'. It was part of
a large vessel.  The annexed illustration represents this.




The same design is also found in ancient rock etchings of the Zuñis
of New Mexico, of which the cut on p. 265 is an illustration.

We also find this figure repeated upon vase from a Mississippi
Valley mound, which we give elsewhere. (See p. 260.)

It is found upon many of the monuments of Central America.  In the
Treasure House of Atreus, at Mycenæ, Greece, a fragment of a pillar
was found which is literally covered with this double spiral design.
(See "Rosengarten's Architectural Styles," p, 59.)

This Treasure House of Atreus is one of the oldest buildings in

We find the double-spiral figure upon a shell ornament found on the
breast of a skeleton, in a carefully constructed stone coffin, in
a mound near Nashville, Tennessee.

Lenormant remarks ("Anc.  Civil.," vol. ii., p. 158) that the bronze
implements found in Egypt, near Memphis, had been buried for six
thousand years; and that at that time, as the Egyptians had a horror
of the sea, some commercial nation must have brought the tin, of
which the bronze was in part composed, from India, the Caucasus,
or Spain, the nearest points to Egypt in which tin is found.

Heer has shown that the civilized plants of the lake dwellings are
not of Asiatic, but of African, and, to a great extent, of Egyptian
origin.  Their stone axes are made largely of jade or nephrite, a
mineral which, strange to say, geologists 'have not found in place
on the continent of Europe'." (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p.

Compare this picture of a copper axe from a mound near Laporte,
Indiana, with this representation of a copper axe of the Bronze
Age, found near Waterford, Ireland.  Professor Foster pronounces
them almost identical.

Compare this specimen of pottery from the lake dwellings
of Switzerland with the following specimen from San José, Mexico.
Professor Foster calls attention to the striking resemblance in the
designs of these two widely separated works of art, one belonging
to the Bronze Age of Europe, the other to the Copper Age of America.

| NEUFCHATEL, SWITZERLAND......   | MEXICO....  ....  ....    |

These, then, in conclusion, are our reasons for believing that the
Bronze Age of Europe has relation to Atlantis:

1. The admitted fact that it is anterior in time to the Iron Age
relegates it to a great antiquity.

2. The fact that it is anterior in time to the Iron Age is conclusive
that it is not due to any of the known European or Asiatic nations,
all of which belong to the Iron Age.

3. The fact that there war. in Europe, Asia, or Africa no copper
or tin age prior to the Bronze Age, is conclusive testimony that
the manufacture of bronze was an importation into those continents
from some foreign country.

4. The fact that in America alone of all the world is found the
Copper Age, which must necessarily have preceded the Bronze Age,
teaches us to look to the westward of Europe and beyond the sea
for that foreign country.

5. We find many similarities in forms of implements between the
Bronze Age of Europe and the Copper Age of America.

6. if Plato told the truth, the Atlanteans were a great commercial
nation, trading to America and Europe, and, at the same time, they
possessed bronze, and were great workers in the other metals.

7. We shall see hereafter that the mythological traditions of Greece
referred to a Bronze Age which preceded an Iron Age, and placed
this in the land of the gods, which was an island in the Atlantic
Ocean, beyond the Pillars of Hercules; and this land was, as we
shall see, clearly Atlantis.

8. As we find but a small development of the Bronze Age in America,
it is reasonable to suppose that there must have been some intermediate
station between America and Europe, where, during a long period of
time, the Bronze Age was developed out of the Copper Age, and immense
quantities of bronze implements were manufactured and carried to



An examination of the American monuments shows (see figure on page
269) that the people represented were in the habit of flattening
the skull by artificial means.  The Greek and Roman writers had
mentioned this practice, but it was long totally forgotten by the
civilized world, until it was discovered, as an unheard-of wonder, to
be the usage among the Carib Islanders, and several Indian tribes
in North America.  It was afterward found that the ancient Peruvians
and Mexicans practised this art:  several flattened Peruvian skulls
are depicted in Morton's "Crania Americana." It is still in use
among the Flat-head Indians of the north-western part of the United

In 1849 a remarkable memoir appeared from the pen of M. Rathke,
showing that similar skulls had been found near Kertsch, in the
Crimea, and calling attention to the book of Hippocrates, "De Aeris,
Aquis et Locu," lib. iv., and a passage of Strabo, which speaks of
the practice among the Scythians.  In 1854 Dr.  Fitzinger published
a learned memoir on the skulls of the Avars, a branch of the Uralian
race of Turks.  He shows that the practice of flattening the head
had existed from an early date throughout the East, and described
an ancient skull, greatly distorted by artificial means, which had
lately been found in Lower Austria.  Skulls similarly flattened
have been found in Switzerland and Savoy.  The Huns under Attila
had the same practice of flattening the heads.  Professor Anders
Retzius proved (see "Smithsonian Report," 1859) that the custom
still exists in the south of France, and in parts of Turkey.  "Not
long since a French physician surprised the world by the fact
that nurses in Normandy were still giving the children's heads a
sugar-loaf shape by bandages and a tight cap,


while in Brittany they preferred to press it round.  No doubt they
are doing so to this day." (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 241.)

Professor Wilson remarks:

"Trifling as it may appear, it is not without interest to have
the fact brought under our notice, by the disclosures of ancient
barrows and cysts, that the same practice of nursing the child
and carrying it about, bound to a flat cradle-board, prevailed in
Britain and the north of Europe long before the first notices of
written history reveal the presence of man beyond the Baltic or
the English Channel, and that in all probability the same custom
prevailed continuously from the shores of the German Ocean to
Behring's Strait." ("Smithsonian Report," 1862, p. 286.)

Dr.  L. A. Gosse testifies to the prevalence of the same custom
among the Caledonians and Scandinavians in the earliest times;
and Dr.  Thurman has treated of the same peculiarity among the
Anglo-Saxons.  Crania Britannica," chap. iv., p. 38.)



Here, then, is an extraordinary and unnatural practice which has
existed from the highest antiquity, over vast regions of country,
on both sides of the Atlantic, and which is perpetuated unto this
day in races as widely separated as the Turks, the French, and
the Flat-head Indians.  Is it possible to explain this except by
supposing that it originated from some common centre?

The annexed out represents an ancient Swiss skull, from a cemetery
near Lausanne, from a drawing of Frederick Troyon.  Compare this
with the illustration given on page 271, which represents a Peruvian
flat-head, copied from Morton's "Ethnography and Archæology of the
American Aborigines," 1846. This skull is shockingly distorted.
The dotted lines indicate the course of the bandages by which the
skull was deformed.

The following heads are from Del Rio's "Account of Palenque," copied
into Nott and Gliddon's "Types of Mankind," p. 440. They show that
the receding forehead was a natural characteristic of the ancient
people of Central America.  The same form of head has been
found even in fossil skulls.  We may therefore conclude that the
skull-flattening, which we find to have been practised in both the
Old and New Worlds, was an attempt of other races to imitate the
form of skull of a people whose likenesses are found on the monuments
of Egypt and of America.  It has been shown that this peculiar form
of the head was present even in the foetus of the Peruvian mummies.

Hippocrates tells us that the practice among the Scythians was for
the purpose of giving a certain aristocratic distinction.


Amedée Thierry, in his "History of Attila," says the Huns used it
for the same reason; and the same purpose influences the Indians
of Oregon.

Dr.  Lund, a Swedish naturalist, found in the bone caves of Minas-Geraes,
Brazil, ancient human bones associated with the remains of extinct
quadrupeds. "These skulls," says Lund, "show not only the peculiarity
of the American race but in an excessive degree, 'even to the entire
disappearance of the forehead'." Sir Robert Schomburgh found on
some of the affluents of the Orinoco a tribe known as Frog Indians,
whose heads were flattened by Nature, as shown in newly-born

In the accompanying plate we show the difference in the conformation
of the forehead in various races.  The upper dotted line, A,
represents the shape of the European forehead; the next line, B,
that of the Australian; the next, C, that of the Mound Builder of
the United States; the next, D, that of the Guanche of the Canary
Islands; and the next, E, that of a skull from the Inca cemetery
of Peru.  We have but to compare these lines with the skulls of
the Egyptians, Kurds, and the heroic type of heads in the statues
of the gods of Greece, to see that there was formerly an ancient race
marked by a receding forehead; and that the practice of flattening
the skull was probably an attempt to approximate the shape of the
bead to this standard of an early civilized and dominant people.

Not only do we find the same receding forehead in the skulls of the
ancient races of Europe and America, and the same attempt to imitate
this natural and peculiar conformation by artificial flattening of
the head, but it has been found (see Henry Gillman's "Ancient Man
in Michigan," "Smithsonian Report," 1875, p. 242) that the Mound
Builders and Peruvians of America, and the Neolithic people of
France and 'the Canary Islands', had alike an extraordinary custom
of boring a circular bole in the top of the skulls of their dead,
so that the soul might readily pass in and out.  More than this, it
has been found that in all these ancient populations the skeletons
exhibit a remarkable degree of 'platicnemism', or flattening of
the 'tibiæ' or leg bones. ('lbid'., 1873, p.367.) In this respect
the Mound Builders of Michigan were identical with the man of Cro
Magnon and the ancient inhabitants of Wales.

The annexed ancient Egyptian heads, copied from the monuments,
indicate either that the people of the Nile deformed their beads
by pressure upon the front of the skull, or that


there was some race characteristic which gave this appearance to
their heads.  These heads are all the heads of priests, and therefore
represented the aristocratic class.

The first illustration below is taken from a stucco relief found
in a temple at Palenque, Central America.  The second is from an
Egyptian monument of the time of Rameses IV.

The outline drawing on the following page shows the form of the
skull of the royal Inca line:  the receding forehead here seems to
be natural, and not the result of artificial compression.

Both illustrations at the bottom of the preceding page show the same
receding form of the forehead, due to either artificial deformation
of the skull or to a common race characteristic.

We must add the fact that the extraordinary practice of deforming
the skull was found all over Europe and America to the catalogue
of other proofs that the people of both continents were originally
united in blood and race.  With the couvade, the practice of
circumcision, unity of religious beliefs and customs, folk-lore, and
alphabetical signs, language and flood legends, we array together
a mass of unanswerable proofs of prehistoric identity of race.




We find allusions to the Atlanteans in the most ancient traditions
of many different races.

The great 'antediluvian' king of the Mussulman was Shedd-Ad-Ben-Ad,
or Shed-Ad, the son of Ad, or Atlantis.

Among the Arabians the first inhabitants of that country are known
as the Adites, from their progenitor, who is called Ad, the grandson
of Ham.  These Adites were probably the people of Atlantis or
Ad-lantis.  "They are personified by a monarch 'to whom everything
is ascribed', and to whom is assigned several centuries of life."
("Ancient History of the East," Lenormant and Chevallier, vol.
ii., p. 295.), Ad came from the northeast. "He married a thousand
wives, had four thousand sons, and lived twelve hundred years.  His
descendants multiplied considerably.  After his death his sons Shadid
and Shedad reigned in succession over the Adites.  In the time of
the latter the people of Ad were a thousand tribes, each composed
of several thousands of men.  Great conquests are attributed to
Shedad; he subdued, it is said, all Arabia and Irak.  The migration
of the Canaanites, their establishment in Syria, and the Shepherd
invasion of Egypt are, by many Arab writers, attributed to an
expedition of Shedad." ('Ibid'., p. 296.)

Shedad built a palace ornamented with superb columns, and surrounded
by a magnificent garden.  It was called Irem. "It was a paradise
that Shedad had built in imitation of the celestial Paradise, of
whose delights he had heard." ("Ancient History of the East," p.
296.) In other words, an ancient, sun-worshipping, powerful, and
conquering race overran Arabia at the very dawn of history; they
were the sons of Adlantis:  their king tried to create a palace
and garden of Eden like that of Atlantis.

The Adites are remembered by the Arabians as a great and civilized
race.  "They are depicted as men of gigantic stature; their strength
was equal to their size, and they easily moved enormous blocks of
stone." ('Ibid'.) They were architects and builders. "They raised
many monuments of their power; and hence, among the Arabs, arose
the custom of calling great ruins "buildings of the Adites." To
this day the Arabs say "as old as Ad." In the Koran allusion is
made to the edifices they built on "high places for vain uses;"
expressions proving that their "idolatry was considered to have
been tainted with Sabæism or star-worship." ('Ibid'.) "In these
legends," says Lenormant, "we find traces of a wealthy nation,
constructors of great buildings, with an advanced civilization,
analogous to that of Chaldea, professing a religion similar to the
Babylonian; a nation, in short, with whom material progress was
allied to great moral depravity and obscene rites.  These facts
must be true and strictly historical, for they are everywhere met
with among the Cushites, as among the Canaanites, their brothers
by origin."

Nor is there wanting a great catastrophe which destroys the whole
Adite nation, except a very few who escape because they had renounced
idolatry.  A black cloud assails their country, from which proceeds
a terrible hurricane (the water-spout?) which sweeps away everything.

The first Adites were followed by a second Adite race; probably
the colonists who had escaped the Deluge.  The centre of its power
was the country of Sheba proper.  This empire endured for a thousand
years.  The Adites are represented upon the Egyptian monuments
as very much like the Egyptians themselves; in other words, they
were a red or sunburnt race: their great temples were pyramidal,
surmounted by buildings. ("Ancient History of the East," p. 321.)
"The Sabæans," says Agatharchides ("De Mari Erythræo," p. 102),
"have in their houses an incredible number of vases, and utensils
of all sorts, of gold and silver, beds and tripods of silver, and
all the furniture of astonishing richness.  Their buildings have
porticos with columns sheathed with gold, or surmounted by capitals
of silver.  On the friezes, ornaments, and the framework of the
doors they place plates of gold incrusted with precious stones."

All this reminds one of the descriptions given by the Spaniards of
the temples of the sun in Peru.

The Adites worshipped the gods of the Phoenicians under names but
slightly changed; "their religion was especially solar... It was
originally a religion without images, without idolatry, and without
a priesthood." ('Ibid'., p. 325.) They "worshipped the sun from
the tops of pyramids." ('Ibid'.) They believed in the immortality
of the soul.

In all these things we see resemblances to the Atlanteans.

The great Ethiopian or Cushite Empire, which in the earliest ages
prevailed, as Mr.  Rawlinson says, "from the Caucasus to the Indian
Ocean, from the shores of the Mediterranean to the mouth of the
Ganges," was the empire of Dionysos, the empire of "Ad," the empire
of Atlantis.  El Eldrisi called the language spoken to this day by
the Arabs of Mahrah, in Eastern Arabia, "the language of the people
of Ad," and Dr.  J. H. Carter, in the 'Bombay Journal' of July,
1847, says, "It is the softest and sweetest language I have ever
heard." It would be interesting to compare this primitive tongue
with the languages of Central America.

The god Thoth of the Egyptians, who was the god of a foreign country,
and who invented letters, was called At-hothes.

We turn now to another ancient race, the Indo-European family--the
Aryan race.

In Sanscrit 'Adim', means first.  Among the Hindoos the first man
was 'Ad'-ima, his wife was Heva.  They dwelt upon an island, said
to be Ceylon; they left the island and reached the main-land, when,
by a great convulsion of nature, their communication with the parent
land was forever cut off. (See "Bible in India.")

Here we seem to have a recollection of the destruction of Atlantis.

Mr.  Bryant says, "Ad and Ada signify 'the first'." The Persians
called the first man "Ad-amah." "Adon" was one of the names of the
Supreme God of the Phoenicians; from it was derived the name of
the Greek god "Ad-onis." The Arv-'ad' of Genesis was the Ar-'Ad'
of the Cushites; it is now known as Ru-'Ad'. It is a series of
connected cities twelve miles in length, along the coast, full of
the most massive and gigantic ruins.

Sir William Jones gives the tradition of the Persians as to the
earliest ages.  He says:  "Moshan assures us that in the opinion of
the best informed Persians the first monarch of Iran, 'and of the
whole earth', was Mashab-'Ad'; that he received from the Creator,
and promulgated among men a sacred book, 'in a heavenly language',
to which the Mussulman author gives the Arabic title of 'Desatir,'
or 'Regulations.' Mashab-'Ad' was, in the opinion of the ancient
Persians, the person left at the end of the last great cycle, and
consequently the father of the present world.  He and his wife having
survived the former cycle, were blessed with a numerous progeny;
he planted gardens, invented ornaments, forged weapons, taught men
to take the fleece from sheep and make clothing; he built cities,
constructed palaces, fortified towns, and introduced arts and

We have already seen that the primal gods of this people are identical
with the gods of the Greek mythology, and were originally kings of
Atlantis.  But it seems that these ancient divinities are grouped
together as "'the Aditya';" and in this name "Ad-itya" we find a
strong likeness to the Semitic "Adites," and another reminiscence
of Atlantis, or Adlantis.  In corroboration of this view we find,

1. The gods who are grouped together as the Aditya are the most
ancient in the Hindoo mythology.

2. They are all gods of light, or solar gods. (Whitney's Oriental
and Linguistic Studies," p. 39.)

3. There are twelve of them. ('Ibid'.)

4. These twelve gods presided over twelve months in the year.

5. They are a dim recollection of a very remote past.  Says Whitney,
"It seems as if here was an attempt on the part of the Indian
religion to take a new development in a moral direction, which a
change in the character and circumstances of the people has caused
to fail in the midst, and fall back again into forgetfulness, while
yet half finished and indistinct." ('Ibid'.)

6. These gods are called "the sons of Aditi," just as in the
Bible we have allusions to "the sons of Adab," who were the first
metallurgists and musicians. "Aditi is not a goddess.  She is
addressed as a queen's daughter, she of fair children."

7. The Aditya "are elevated above all imperfections; they do not
sleep or wink." The Greeks represented their gods as equally wakeful
and omniscient. "Their character is all truth; they hate and punish
guilt." We have seen the same traits ascribed by the Greeks to the
Atlantean kings.

8. The sun is sometimes addressed as an Aditya.

9. Among the Aditya is Varuna, the equivalent of Uranos, whose
identification with Atlantis I have shown.  In the vedas Varuna is
"the god of the ocean."

10. The Aditya represent an earlier and purer form of religion:
"While in hymns to the other deities long:  life, wealth, power,
are the objects commonly prayed for, of the Aditya is craved purity,
forgiveness of sin, freedom from guilt, and repentance." ("Oriental
and Linguistic Studies," p. 43.)

11. The Aditya, like the Adites, are identified with the doctrine
of the immortality of the soul.  Yama is the god of the abode beyond
the grave.  In the Persian story he appears as Yima, and "'is made
ruler of the golden age and founder of the Paradise'." ('Ibid'.,
p. 45.) (See "Zamna," p. 167 'ante'.)

In view of all these facts, one cannot doubt that the legends of the
"sons of Ad," "the Adites," and "the Aditya," all refer to Atlantis.

Mr.  George Smith, in the Chaldean account of the Creation (p.
78), deciphered from the Babylonian tablets, shows that there was
an original race of men at the beginning of Chaldean history, a dark
race, the 'Zalmat-qaqadi', who were called 'Ad-mi', or 'Ad-ami';
they were the race "who had fallen," and were contradistinguished
from "the 'Sarku', or light race." The "fall" probably refers
to their destruction by a deluge, in consequence of their moral
degradation and the indignation of the gods.  The name Adam is used
in these legends, but as the name of a race, not of a man.

Genesis (chap. v., 2) distinctly says that God created man male and
female, and "called 'their' name Adam." That is to say, the people
were the Ad-ami, the people of "Ad," or Atlantis. "The author of
the Book of Genesis," says M. Schoebel, "in speaking of the men who
were swallowed up by the Deluge, always describes them as 'Haadam,'
'Adamite humanity.'" The race of Cain lived and multiplied far away
from the land of Seth; in other words, far from the land destroyed
by the Deluge.  Josephus, who gives us the primitive traditions
of the Jews, tells us (chap. ii., p. 42) that "Cain travelled over
many countries" before he came to the land of Nod.  The Bible does
not tell us that the race of Cain perished in the Deluge. "Cain
went out from the presence of Jehovah;" he did not call on his
name; the people that were destroyed were the "sons of Jehovah."
All this indicates that large colonies had been sent out by the
mother-land before it sunk in the sea.

Across the ocean we find the people of Guatemala claiming their
descent from a goddess called 'At-tit', or grandmother, who lived
for four hundred years, and first taught the worship of the true
God, which they afterward forgot. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol.
iii., p. 75.) While the famous Mexican calendar stone shows that
the sun was commonly called 'tonatiuh' but when it was referred to
as the god of the Deluge it was then called 'Atl-tona-ti-uh', or
'At-onatiuh'. (Valentini's "Mexican Calendar Stone," art. 'Maya
Archæology', p. 15.)

We thus find the sons of 'Ad' at the base of all the most ancient
races of men, to wit, the Hebrews, the Arabians, the Chaldeans, the
Hindoos, the Persians, the Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans,
and the Central Americans; testimony that all these races traced
their beginning back to a dimly remembered Ad-lantis.



Lord Bacon said:

"The mythology of the Greeks, which their oldest writers do not
pretend to have invented, was no more than a light air, which had
passed from a more ancient people into the flutes of the Greeks,
which they modulated to such descants as best suited their fancies."

This profoundly wise and great man, who has illuminated every
subject which he has touched, guessed very close to the truth in
this utterance.

The Hon.  W. E. Gladstone has had quite a debate of late with Mr.
Cox as to whether the Greek mythology was underlaid by a nature
worship, or a planetary or solar worship.

Peru, worshipping the sun and moon and planets, probably represents
very closely the simple and primitive religion of Atlantis, with
its sacrifices of fruits and flowers.  This passed directly to
their colony in Egypt.  We find the Egyptians in their early ages
sun and planet worshippers.  Ptah was the object of their highest
adoration.  He is the father of the god of the sun, the ruler of the
region of light.  Ra was the sun-god.  He was the supreme divinity
at On, or Heliopolis, near Memphis.  His symbol was the solar
disk, supported by two rings.  He created all that exists below
the heavens.

The Babylonian trinity was composed of Idea, Anu, and Bel.  Bel
represented the sun, and was the favorite god.  Sin was the goddess
of the moon.

The Phoenicians were also sun-worshippers.  The sun was represented
by Baal-Samin, the great god, the god of light and the heavens,
the creator and rejuvenator.

"The attributes of both Baal and Moloch (the good and bad powers
of the sun) were united in the Phoenician god Melkart, "king of
the city," whom the inhabitants of Tyre considered their special
patron.  The Greeks called him "Melicertes," and identified him
with Hercules.  By his great strength and power he turned evil into
good, brought life out of destruction, pulled back the sun to the
earth at the time of the solstices, lessened excessive beat and
cold, and rectified the evil signs of the zodiac.  In Phoenician
legends he conquers the savage races of distant coasts, founds the
ancient settlements on the Mediterranean, and plants the rocks in
the Straits of Gibraltar. ("American Cyclopædia," art. 'Mythology'.)

The Egyptians worshipped the sun under the name of Ra; the Hindoos
worshipped the sun under the name of Rama; while the great festival
of the sun, of the Peruvians, was called Ray-mi.

Sun-worship, as the ancient religion of Atlantis, underlies all the
superstitions of the colonies of that country.  The Samoyed woman
says to the sun, "When thou, god, risest, I too rise from my bed."
Every morning even now the Brahmans stand on one foot, with their
hands held out before them and their faces turned to the east, adoring
the sun. "In Germany or France one may still see the peasant take
off his hat to the rising sun." ("Anthropology," p. 361.) The Romans,
even, in later times, worshipped the sun at Emesa, under the name
of Elagabalus, "typified in the form of a black conical stone, which
it was believed had fallen from heaven." The conical stone was the
emblem of Bel.  Did it have relation to the mounds and pyramids?

Sun-worship was the primitive religion of the red men of America.
It was found among all the tribes. (Dorman, "Origin of Primitive
Superstitions, p. 338.) The Chichimecs called the sun their father.
The Comanches have a similar belief.

But, compared with such ancient nations as the Egyptians and
Babylonians, the Greeks were children.  A priest of Sais said to

"You Greeks are novices in knowledge of antiquity.  You are ignorant
of what passed either here or among yourselves in days of old.  The
history of eight thousand years is deposited in our sacred books;
but I can ascend to a much higher antiquity, and tell you what our
fathers have done for nine thousand years; I mean their institutions,
their laws, and their most brilliant achievements."

The Greeks, too young to have shared in the religion of Atlantis,
but preserving some memory of that great country and its history,
proceeded to convert its kings into gods, and to depict Atlantis
itself as the heaven of the human race.  Thus we find a great solar
or nature worship in the elder nations, while Greece has nothing
but an incongruous jumble of gods and goddesses, who are born and
eat and drink and make love and ravish and steal and die; and who
are worshipped as immortal in presence of the very monuments that
testify to their death.

"These deities, to whom the affairs of the world were in trusted,
were, it is believed, immortal, though not eternal in their
existence.  In Crete there was even a story of the death of Zeus,
his tomb being pointed out." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 2.)

The history of Atlantis is the key of the Greek mythology.  There
can be no question that these gods of Greece were human beings.
The tendency to attach divine attributes to great earthly rulers
is one deeply implanted in human nature.  The savages who killed
Captain Cook firmly believed that he was immortal, that he was
yet alive, and would return to punish them.  The highly civilized
Romans made gods out of their dead emperors.  Dr.  Livingstone
mentions that on one occasion, after talking to a Bushman for
some time about the Deity, he found that the savage thought he was
speaking of Sekomi, the principal chief of the district.

We find the barbarians of the coast of the Mediterranean regarding
the civilized people of Atlantis with awe and wonder:  "Their
physical strength was extraordinary, the earth shaking sometimes
under their tread.  Whatever they did was done speedily.  They
moved through space almost without the loss of a moment of time."
This probably alluded to the rapid motion of their sailing-vessels.
"They were wise, and communicated their wisdom to men." That is
to say, they civilized the people they came in contact with. 'They
had a strict sense of justice, and punished crime rigorously, and
rewarded noble actions, though it is true they were less conspicuous
for the latter." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 4.) We should understand
this to mean that where they colonized they established a government
of law, as contradistinguished from the anarchy of barbarism.

"There were tales of personal visits and adventures of the gods
among men, taking part in battles and appearing in dreams.  They
were conceived to possess the form of human beings, and to be,
like men, subject to love and pain, but always characterized by
the highest qualities and grandest forms that could be imagined."

Another proof that the gods of the Greeks were but the deified
kings of Atlantis is found in the fact that "the gods were not
looked upon as having created the world." They succeeded to the
management of a world already in existence.

The gods dwelt on Olympus.  They lived together like human beings;
they possessed palaces, storehouses, stables, horses, etc.; "they
dwelt in a social state which was but a magnified reflection of the
social system on earth.  Quarrels, love passages, mutual assistance,
and such instances as characterize human life, were ascribed to
them." ('Ibid'., p. 10.)

Where was Olympus? It was in Atlantis. "The ocean encircled
the earth with a great stream, and was a region of wonders of all
kinds." ('Ibid'., p. 23.) It was a great island, the then civilized
world.  The encircling ocean "was spoken of in all the ancient
legends.  Okeanos lived there with his wife Tethys:  these were
the 'Islands of the Blessed', the garden of the gods, the sources
of the nectar and ambrosia on which the gods lived." (Murray's
"Mythology," p. 23.) Nectar was probably a fermented intoxicating
liquor, and ambrosia bread made from wheat.  Soma was a kind
of whiskey, and the Hindoos deified it. "The gods lived on nectar
and ambrosia" simply meant that the inhabitants of these blessed
islands were civilized, and possessed a liquor of some kind and
a species of food superior to anything in use among the barbarous
tribes with whom they came in contact.

This blessed land answers to the description of Atlantis.  It was
an island full of wonders.  It lay spread out in the ocean "like a
disk, with the mountains rising from it." ('Ibid'.) On the highest
point of this mountain dwelt Zeus (the king), "while the mansions
of the other deities were arranged upon plateaus, or in ravines lower
down the mountain.  These deities, including Zeus, were twelve in
number:  Zeus (or Jupiter), Hera (or Juno), Poseidon (or Neptune),
Demeter (or Ceres), Apollo, Artemis (or Diana), Hephæstos (or
Vulcan), Pallas Athena (or Minerva), Ares (or Mars), Aphrodite (or
Venus), Hermes (or Mercury), and Hestia (or Vesta)." These were
doubtless the twelve gods from whom the Egyptians derived their
kings.  Where two names are given to a deity in the above list, the
first name is that bestowed by the Greeks, the last that given by
the Romans.

It is not impossible that our division of the year into twelve
parts is a reminiscence of the twelve gods of Atlantis.  Diodorus
Siculus tells us that among the Babylonians there were twelve gods
of the heavens, each personified by one of the signs of the zodiac,
and worshipped in a 'certain month of the year'. The Hindoos had
twelve primal gods, "the Aditya." Moses erected twelve pillars at
Sinai.  The Mandan Indians celebrated the Flood with twelve typical
characters, who danced around the ark.  The Scandinavians believed
in the twelve gods, the Aesir, who dwelt on Asgard, the Norse Olympus.
Diligent investigation may yet reveal that the number of a modern
jury, twelve, is a survival of the ancient council of Asgard.

"According to the traditions of the Phoenicians, the Gardens
of the Hesperides were in the remote west." (Murray's "Manual of
Mythology," p.  258.) Atlas lived in these gardens. ('Ibid'., p.
259.) Atlas, we have seen, was king of Atlantis. "The Elysian Fields
(the happy islands) were commonly placed in the remote west.  They
were ruled over by Chronos." ('Ibid'., p. 60.) Tartarus, the region
of Hades, the gloomy home of the dead, was also located "under
the mountains of an island in the midst of the ocean in the remote
west." ('Ibid'., p. 58.) Atlas was described in Greek mythology
as "an enormous giant, who stood upon the western confines of the
earth, and supported the heavens on his shoulders, in a region of
the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set upon
Greece." ('Ibid'., p. 156.)

Greek tradition located the island in which Olympus was situated
"in the far west," "in the ocean beyond Africa," "on the western
boundary of the known world," "where the sun shone when it had
ceased to shine on Greece," and where the mighty Atlas "held up
the heavens." And Plato tells us that the land where Poseidon and
Atlas ruled was Atlantis.

"The Garden of the Hesperides" (another name for the dwelling-place
of the gods) "was situated 'at the extreme limit of Africa'. Atlas
was said to have surrounded it on every side with high mountains."
(Smith's "Sacred Annals, Patriarchal Age," p. 131.) Here were found
the golden apples.

This is very much like the description which Plato gives of the
great plain of Atlantis, covered with fruit of every kind, and
surrounded by precipitous mountains descending to the sea.

The Greek mythology, in speaking of the Garden of the Hesperides,
tells us that "the outer edge of the garden was slightly raised,
so that the water might not run in and overflow the land." Another
reminiscence of the surrounding mountains of Atlantis as described
by Plato, and as revealed by the deep-sea soundings of modern times.

Chronos, or Saturn, Dionysos, Hyperion, Atlas, Hercules, were all
connected with "a great Saturnian continent;" they were kings that
ruled over countries on the western shores of the Mediterranean,
Africa and Spain.  One account says:

"Hyperion, Atlas, and Saturn, or Chronos, were sons of Uranos, who
reigned over a great kingdom composed of countries around the western
part of the Mediterranean, with certain islands in the Atlantic.
Hyperion succeeded his father, and was then killed by the Titans.
The kingdom was then divided between Atlas and Saturn--Atlas
taking Northern Africa, with the Atlantic islands, and Saturn the
countries on the opposite shore of the Mediterranean to Italy and
Sicily." (Baldwin's Prehistoric Nations," p. 357.)

Plato says, speaking of the traditions of the Greeks ("Dialogues,
Laws," c. iv., p. 713), "There is a tradition of the happy life of
mankind in the days when all things were spontaneous and abundant....
In like manner God in his love of mankind placed over us the demons,
who are a superior race, and they, with great care and pleasure
to themselves and no less to us, taking care of us and giving us
place and reverence and order and justice never failing, made the
tribes of men happy and peacefu....  for Cronos knew that no human
nature, invested with supreme power, is able to order human affairs
and not overflow with insolence and wrong."

In other words, this tradition refers to an ancient time when the
forefathers of the Greeks were governed by Chronos, of the Cronian
Sea (the Atlantic), king of Atlantis, through civilized Atlantean
governors, who by their wisdom preserved peace and created a
golden age for all the populations under their control--they were
the demons, that is, "the knowing ones," the civilized.

Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates these words ("Dialogues,
Cratylus," p. 397):  "My notion would be that the sun, moon, and
stars, earth, and heaven, which are still the gods of many barbarians,
were the only gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes....  What shall
follow the gods? Must not demons and heroes and men come next....
Consider the real meaning of the word demons.  You know Hesiod uses
the word.  He speaks of 'a golden race of men' who came first.  He
says of them,

But now that fate has 'closed over this race',
They are holy demons upon earth,
Beneficent averters of ills, guardians of mortal men.'

He means by the golden men not men literally made of gold, but good
and noble men; he says we are of the 'age of iron.' He called them
demons because they were dah'mones (knowing or wise)."

This is made the more evident when we read that this region of
the gods, of Chronos and Uranos and Zeus, passed through, first,
a Golden Age, then a Silver Age--these constituting a great period
of peace and happiness; then it reached a Bronze Age; then an Iron
Age, and finally perished by a great flood, sent upon these people
by Zeus as a punishment for their sins.  We read:

"Men were rich then (in the Silver Age), as in the Golden Age of
Chronos, and lived in plenty; but still they wanted the innocence
and contentment which were the true sources of bu man happiness
in the former age; and accordingly, while living in luxury and
delicacy, they became overbearing in their manners to the highest
degree, were never satisfied, and forgot the gods, to whom, in their
confidence of prosperity and com fort, they denied the reverence
they owed....  Then followed the Bronze Age, a period of constant
quarrelling and deeds of violence.  Instead of cultivated lands,
and a life of peaceful occupations and orderly habits, there came
a day when every where might was right, and men, big and powerful
as they were, became physically worn out....  Finally came the Iron
Age, in which enfeebled mankind had to toil for bread with their
hands, and, bent on gain, did their best to overreach each other.
Dike, or Astræa, the goddess of justice and good faith, modesty
and truth, turned her back on such scenes, and retired to Olympus,
while Zeus determined to destroy the human race by a great flood.
The whole of Greece lay under water, and none but Deucalion and
his wife Pyrrha were saved." (Murray's "Mythology" p. 44.)

It is remarkable that we find here the same succession of the Iron
Age after the Bronze Age that has been revealed to scientific men
by the patient examination of the relies of antiquity in Europe.  And
this identification of the land that was destroyed by a flood--the
land of Chronos and Poseidon and Zeus--with the Bronze Age, confirms
the view expressed in Chapter VIII. (page 237, 'ante'), that the
bronze implements and weapons of Europe were mainly imported from

And here we find that the Flood that destroyed this land of the
gods was the Flood of Deucalion, and the Flood of Deucalion was
the Flood of the Bible, and this, as we have shown, was "the last
great Deluge of all," according to the Egyptians, which destroyed

The foregoing description of the Golden Age of Chronos, when "men
were rich and lived in plenty," reminds us of Plato's description
of the happy age of Atlantis, when "men despised everything but
virtue, not caring for their present state of life, and thinking
lightly of the possession of gold and other property;" a time when,
as the chants of the Delaware Indians stated it (page 109, ante),
"all were willingly pleased, all were well-happified." While the
description given by Murray in the above extract of the degeneracy
of mankind in the land of the gods, "a period of constant quarrelling
and deeds of violence, when might was right," agrees with Plato's
account of the Atlanteans, when they became "aggressive," "unable
to bear their fortune," "unseemly," "base," "filled with unrighteous
avarice and power,"--and "in a most wretched state." And here again
I might quote from the chant of the Delaware Indians--"they became
troubled, hating each other; both were fighting, both were spoiling,
both were never peaceful." And in all three instances the gods
punished the depravity of mankind by a great deluge.  Can all these
precise coincidences be the result of accident?

May we not even suppose that the very word "Olympus" is
a transformation from "Atlantis" in accordance with the laws that
regulate the changes of letters of the same class into each other?
Olympus was written by the Greeks "Olumpos." The letter a in Atlantis
was sounded by the ancient world broad and full, like the 'a' in
our words 'all' or 'altar'; in these words it approximates very
closely to the sound of 'o'. It is not far to go to convert Otlontis
into Oluntos, and this into Olumpos.  We may, therefore, suppose
that when the Greeks said that their gods dwelt in "Olympus," it
was the same as if they said that they dwelt in "Atlantis."

Nearly all the gods of Greece are connected with Atlantis.  We
have seen the twelve principal gods all dwelling on the mountain
of Olympus, in the midst of an island in the ocean in the far west,
which was subsequently destroyed by a deluge on account of the
wickedness of its people.  And when we turn to Plato's description
of Atlantis (p. 13, 'ante') we find that Poseidon and Atlas dwelt
upon a mountain in the midst of the island; and on this mountain
were their magnificent temples and palaces, where they lived,
separated by great walls from their subjects.

It may be urged that Mount Olympus could not have referred to any
mountain in Atlantis, because the Greeks gave that name to a group
of mountains partly in Macedonia and partly in Thessaly.  But in
Mysia, Lycia, Cyprus, and elsewhere there were mountains called
Olympus; and on the plain of Olympia, in Elis, there was an eminence
bearing the same designation.  There is a natural tendency among
uncivilized peoples to give a "local habitation" to every general

"Many of the oldest myths," says Baldwin (" Prehistoric Nations,"
p.  376), "relate to Spain, North-western Africa, and other regions
on the Atlantic, such as those concerning Hercules, the Cronidæ,
the Hyperboreans, the Hesperides, and the Islands of the Blessed.
Homer described the Atlantic region of Europe in his account of the
wanderings of Ulysses....  In the ages previous to the decline of
Phoenician influence in Greece and around the Ægean Sea, the people
of those regions must have had a much better knowledge of Western
Europe than prevailed there during the Ionian or Hellenic period."

The mythology of Greece is really a history of the kings of Atlantis.
The Greek heaven was Atlantis.  Hence the references to statues,
swords, etc., that fell from heaven, and were preserved in the temples
of the different states along the shores of the Mediterranean from
a vast antiquity, and which were regarded as the most precious
possessions of the people.  They were relics of the lost race
received in the early ages.  Thus we read of the brazen or bronze
anvil that was preserved in one city, which fell from heaven, and
was nine days and nine nights in falling; in other words, it took
nine days and nights of a sailing-voyage to bring it from Atlantis.

The modern theory that the gods of Greece never had any personal
existence, but represented atmospheric and meteorological myths,
the movements of clouds, planets, and the sun, is absurd.  Rude
nations repeat, they do not invent; to suppose a barbarous people
creating their deities out of clouds and sunsets is to reverse
nature.  Men first worship stones, then other men, then spirits.
Resemblances of names prove nothing; it is as if one would show
that the name of the great Napoleon meant "the lion of the desert"
(Napo-leon), and should thence argue that Napoleon never existed,
that he was a myth, that he represented power in solitude, or some
such stuff.  When we read that Jove whipped his wife, and threw
her son out of the window, the inference is that Jove was a man,
and actually did something like the thing described; certainly gods,
sublimated spirits, aerial sprites, do not act after this fashion;
and it would puzzle the mythmakers to prove that the sun, moon, or
stars whipped their wives or flung recalcitrant young men out of
windows.  The history of Atlantis could be in part reconstructed
out of the mythology of Greece; it is a history of kings, queens,
and princes; of love-making, adulteries, rebellions, wars, murders,
sea-voyages, and colonizations; of palaces, temples, workshops,
and forges; of sword-making, engraving and metallurgy; of wine,
barley, wheat, cattle, sheep, horses, and agriculture generally.
Who can doubt that it represents the history of a real people?

Uranos was the first god; that is to say, the first king of the
great race.  As he was at the commencement of all things, his symbol
was the sky.  He probably represented the race previous even to the
settlement of Atlantis.  He was a son of Gæa (the earth). He seems
to have been the parent of three races--the Titans, the Hekatoncheires,
and the Kyklopes or Cyclops.

I incline to the belief that these were civilized races, and that
the peculiarities ascribed to the last two refer to the vessels in
which they visited the shores of the barbarians.


The empire of the Titans was clearly the empire of Atlantis. "The
most judicious among our mythologists" (says Dr.  Rees, "New British
Cyclopædia," art. 'Titans')--"such as Gerard Vossius, Marsham,
Bochart, and Father Thomassin--are of opinion that the partition
of the world among the sons of Noah-Shem, Ham, and Japheth--was
the original of the tradition 'of the same partition among Jupiter,
Neptune, and Pluto'," upon the breaking up of the great empire of
the Titans. "The learned Pezron contends that the division which
was made of this vast empire came, in after-times, to be taken for
the partition of the whole world; that Asia remaining in the hands
of Jupiter (Zeus), the most potent of the three brothers, made him
looked upon as the god of Olympus; that the sea and islands which
fell to Neptune occasioned their giving him the title of 'god of
the sea;' and that Spain, the extremity of the then known world,
thought to be a very low country in respect of Asia, and famous for
its excellent mines of gold and silver, failing to Pluto, occasioned
him to be taken for the 'god of the infernal regions.'" We should
suppose that Pluto possibly ruled over the transatlantic possessions
of Atlantis in America, over those "portions of the opposite
continent" which Plato tells us were dominated by Atlas and his
posterity, and which, being far beyond or below sunset, were the
"under-world" of the ancients; while Atlantis, the Canaries, etc.,
constituted the island division with Western Africa and Spain.
Murray tells us ("Mythology," p. 58) that Pluto's share of the
kingdom was supposed to lie "in the remote west." The under-world
of the dead was simply the world below the western horizon; "the
home of the dead has to do with that 'far west' region where the
sun dies at night." ("Anthropology," p. 350.) "On the coast of
Brittany, where Cape Raz stands out westward into the ocean, there
is 'the Bay of Souls,' the launching-place where the departed spirits
'sail off across the sea'." ('Ibid'.) In like manner, Odysseus found
the land of the dead in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
There, indeed, was the land of the mighty dead, the grave of the
drowned Atlanteans.

"However this be," continues F. Pezron, "the empire of the Titans,
according to the ancients, was very extensive; they possessed Phrygia,
Thrace, a part of Greece, the island of Crete, and several other
provinces to the inmost recesses of Spain.  To these Sanchoniathon
seems to join Syria; and Diodorus adds a part of Africa, and the
kingdoms of Mauritania." The kingdoms of Mauritania embraced all
that north-western region of Africa nearest to Atlantis in which
are the Atlas Mountains, and in which, in the days of Herodotus,
dwelt the Atlantes.

Neptune, or Poseidon, says, in answer to a message from Jupiter,

No vassal god, nor of his train am I.
Three brothers, deities, from Saturn came,
And ancient Rhea, earth's immortal dame;
Assigned by lot our triple rule we know;
Infernal Pluto sways the shades below:
O'er the wide clouds, and o'er the starry plain
Ethereal Jove extends his high domain;
My court beneath the hoary waves I keep,
And hush the roaring of the sacred deep.

Iliad, book xviii.

Homer alludes to Poseidon as

"The god whose liquid arms are hurled
Around the globs, whose earthquakes rock the world."

Mythology tells us that when the Titans were defeated by Saturn they
retreated into the interior of Spain; Jupiter followed them up, and
beat them for the last time near Tartessus, and thus terminated a
ten-years' war.  Here we have a real battle on an actual battle-field.

If we needed any further proof that the empire of the Titans was
the empire of Atlantis, we would find it in the names of the Titans:
among these were 'Oceanus', Saturn or Chronos, and 'Atlas'; they
were all the sons of Uranos.  Oceanus was at the base of the Greek
mythology.  Plato says ("Dialogues," Timæus, vol. ii., p. 533):
"Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from
these sprung Phorcys, and Chronos, and Rhea, and many more with
them; and from Chronos and Rhea sprung Zeus and Hera, and 'all
those whom we know as their brethren, and others who were their
children'." In other words, all their gods came out of the ocean;
they were rulers over some ocean realm; Chronos was the son of
Oceanus, and Chronos was an Atlantean god, and from him the Atlantic
Ocean was called by tho ancients "the Chronian Sea." The elder
Minos was called "the Son of the Ocean:" he first gave civilization
to the Cretans; he engraved his laws on brass, precisely as Plato
tells us the laws of Atlantis were engraved on pillars of brass.

The wanderings of Ulysses, as detailed in the "Odyssey" of Homer,
are strangely connected with the Atlantic Ocean.  The islands of
the Phoenicians were apparently in mid-ocean:

We dwell apart, afar
Within the unmeasured deep, amid its waves
The most remote of men; no other race
Hath commerce with us.--'Odyssey', book vi.

The description of the Phæacian walls, harbors, cities, palaces,
ships, etc., seems like a recollection of Atlantis.  The island
of Calypso appears also to have been in the Atlantic Ocean, twenty
days' sail from the Phæacian isles; and when Ulysses goes to the
land of Pluto, "the under-world," the home of the dead, he

"Reached the far confines of Oceanus,"

beyond the Pillars of Hercules.  It would be curious to inquire
how far the poems of Homer are Atlantean in their relations and
inspiration.  Ulysses's wanderings were a prolonged struggle with
Poseidon, the founder and god of Atlantis.

"The Hekatoncheires, or Cetimæni, beings each with a hundred hands,
were three in number--Kottos, Gyges or Gyes, and Briareus--and
represented the frightful crashing of waves, and its resemblance to
the convulsions of earthquakes." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 26.) Are
not these hundred arms the oars of the galleys, and the frightful
crashing of the waves their movements in the water?

"The Kyklopes also were three in number--Brontes, with his thunder;
Steropes, with his lightning; and Arges, with his stream of light.
They were represented as having only one eye, which was placed at
the juncture between the nose and brow.  It was, however, a large,
flashing eye, as became beings who were personifications of the
storm-cloud, with its flashes of destructive lightning and peals
of thunder."

We shall show hereafter that the invention of gunpowder dates back
to the days of the Phoenicians, and may have been derived by them
from Atlantis.  It is not impossible that in this picture of the
Kyklopes we see a tradition of sea-going ships, with a light burning
at the prow, and armed with some explosive preparation, which, with
a roar like thunder, and a flash like lightning, destroyed those
against whom it was employed? It at least requires less strain upon
our credulity to suppose these monsters were a barbarian's memory
of great ships than to believe that human beings ever existed with
a hundred arms, and with one eye in the middle of the forehead,
and giving out thunder and lightning.

The natives of the West India Islands regarded the ships of Columbus
as living creatures, and that their sails were wings.

Berosus tells us, speaking of the ancient days of Chaldea, "In the
first year there appeared, from that part of the Erythræan Sea
which borders upon Babylonia, an animal endowed with reason, by name
Oannes, whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodorus)
was that of a fish; that under the fish's head he had another head,
with feet also below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the
fish's tail.  His. voice too and language was articulate and human,
and a representation of him is preserved even unto this day.  This
being was accustomed to pass the day among men, but took no food at
that season, and he gave them an insight into letters and arts of
all kinds.  He taught them to construct cities, to found temples,
to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical
knowledge.  He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and
showed them how to collect the fruits; in short, be instructed
them in everything which could tend to soften manners and humanize
their laws. 'From that time nothing material has been added by way
of improvement to his instructions'. And when the sun set, this
being, Oannes, retired again into the sea, and passed the night in
the deep, for he was amphibious.  After this there appeared other
animals like Oannes."

This is clearly the tradition preserved by a barbarous people of
the great ships of a civilized nation, who colonized their coast
and introduced the arts and sciences among them.  And here we see
the same tendency to represent the ship as a living thing, which
converted the war-vessels of the Atlanteans (the Kyklopes) into
men with one blazing eye in the middle of the forehead.

Uranos was deposed from the throne, and succeeded by his son
Chronos.  He was called "the ripener, the harvest-god," and was
probably identified with the beginning of the Agricultural Period.
He married his sister Rhea, who bore him Pluto, 'Poseidon', Zeus,
Hestia, Demeter, and Hera.  He anticipated that his sons would dethrone
him, as he had dethroned his father, Uranos, and he swallowed his
first five children, and would have swallowed the sixth child,
Zeus, but that his wife Rhea deceived him with a stone image of
the child; and Zeus was conveyed to the island of Crete, and there
concealed in a cave and raised to manhood.  Subsequently Chronos
"yielded back to the light the children he had swallowed." This
myth probably means that Chronos had his children raised in some
secret place, where they could not be used by his enemies as the
instruments of a rebellion against his throne; and the stone image
of Zeus, palmed off upon him by Rhea, was probably some other child
substituted for his own.  His precautions seem to have been wise;
for as soon as the children returned to the light they commenced a
rebellion, and drove the old gentleman from his throne.  A rebellion
of the Titans followed.  The struggle was a tremendous one, and
seems to have been decided at last by the use of gunpowder, as I
shall show farther on.

We have seen Chronos identified with the Atlantic, called by the
Romans the "Chronian Sea." He was known to the Romans under the
name of Saturn, and ruled over "a great Saturnian continent" in the
Western Ocean.  Saturn, or Chronos, came to Italy:  he presented
himself to the king, Janus, "and proceeded to instruct the subjects
of the latter in agriculture, gardening, and many other arts then
quite unknown to them; as, for example, how to tend and cultivate
the vine.  By such means he at length raised the people from a rude
and comparatively barbarous condition to one of order and peaceful
occupations, in consequence of which he was everywhere held in high
esteem, and, in course of time, was selected by Janus to share with
him the government of the country, which thereupon assumed the name
of Saturnia--'a land of seed and fruit.' The period of Saturn's
government was sung in later days by poets as a happy time, when
sorrows were unknown, when innocence, freedom, and gladness reigned
throughout the land in such a degree as to deserve the title of
the Golden Age." (Murray's Mythology," p. 32.)

All this accords with Plato's story.  He tells us that the rule
of the Atlanteans extended to Italy; that they were a civilized,
agricultural, and commercial people.  The civilization of Rome was
therefore an outgrowth directly from the civilization of Atlantis.

The Roman 'Saturnalia' was a remembrance of the Atlantean
colonization.  It was a period of joy and festivity; master and
slave met as equals; the distinctions of poverty and wealth were
forgotten; no punishments for crime were inflicted; servants and
slaves went about dressed in the clothes of their masters; and
children received presents from their parents or relatives.  It
was a time of jollity and mirth, a recollection of the Golden Age.
We find a reminiscence of it in the Roman "Carnival."

The third and last on the throne of the highest god was Zeus.  We
shall see him, a little farther on, by the aid of some mysterious
engine overthrowing the rebels, the Titans, who rose against his
power, amid the flash of lightning and the roar of thunder.  He
was called "the thunderer," and "the mighty thunderer." He was
represented with thunder-bolts in his hand and an eagle at his

During the time of Zeus Atlantis seems to have reached its greatest
height of power.  He was recognized as the father of the whole
world; he everywhere rewarded uprightness, truth, faithfulness,
and kindness; be was merciful to the poor, and punished the cruel.
To illustrate his rule on earth the following story is told:

"Philemon and Baukis, an aged couple of the poorer class, were
living peacefully and full of piety toward the gods in their cottage
in Phrygia, when Zeus, who often visited the earth, disguised, to
inquire into the behavior of men, paid a visit, in passing through
Phrygia on such a journey, to these poor old people, and was received
by them very kindly as a weary traveller, which he pretended to
be.  Bidding him welcome to the house, they set about preparing
for their guest, who was accompanied by Hermes, as excellent a meal
as they could afford, and for this purpose were about to kill the
only goose they had left, when Zeus interfered; for he was touched
by their kindliness and genuine piety, and that all the more because
be had observed among the other inhabitants of the district nothing
but cruelty of disposition and a habit of reproaching and despising
the gods.  To punish this conduct he determined to visit the country
with a flood, but to save from it Philemon and Baukis, the good
aged couple, and to reward them in a striking manner.  To this end
he revealed himself to them before opening the gates of the great
flood, transformed their poor cottage on the hill into a splendid
temple, installed the aged pair as his priest and priestess, and
granted their prayer that they might both die together.  When,
after many years, death overtook them, they were changed into two
trees, that side by side in the neighborhood--an oak and a linden."
(Murray's "Mythology," p. 38.)

Here we have another reference to the Flood, and another identification
with Atlantis.

Zeus was a kind of Henry VIII., and took to himself a number
of wives.  By Demeter (Ceres) he had Persephone (Proserpine); by
Leto, Apollo and Artemis (Diana); by Dione, Aphrodite (Venus); by
Semele, Dionysos (Bacchus); by Maia, Hermes (Mercury); by Alkmene,
Hercules, etc., etc.

We have thus the whole family of gods and goddesses traced back to

Hera, or Juno, was the first and principal wife of Zeus.  There
were numerous conjugal rows between the royal pair, in which, say
the poets, Juno was generally to blame.  She was naturally jealous
of the other wives of Zeus.  Zeus on one occasion beat her, and threw
her son Hephæstos out of Olympus; on another occasion he hung her
out of Olympus with her arms tied and two great weights attached
to her feet--a very brutal and ungentlemanly trick--but the Greeks
transposed this into a beautiful symbol:  the two weights, they
say, represent the earth and sea, "an illustration of how all the
phenomena of the visible sky were supposed to hang dependent on the
highest god of heaven!" ('Ibid'., p.  47.) Juno probably regarded
the transaction in an altogether different light; and she therefore
United with Poseidon, the king's brother, and his daughter Athena,
in a rebellion to put the old fellow in a strait-jacket, "and would
have succeeded had not Thetis brought to his aid the sea-giant
Ægæon," probably a war-ship.  She seems in the main, however, to
have been a good wife, and was the type of all the womanly virtues.

Poseidon, the first king of Atlantis, according to Plato, was,
according to Greek mythology, a brother of Zeus, and a son of
Chronos.  In the division of the kingdom he fell heir to the ocean
and its islands, and to the navigable rivers; in other words, he
was king of a maritime and commercial people.  His symbol was the
horse. "He was the first to train and employ horses;" that is to
say, his people first domesticated the horse.  This agrees with
what Plato tells us of the importance attached to the horse in
Atlantis, and of the baths and race-courses provided for him.  He
was worshipped in the island of Tenos "in the character of a
physician," showing that he represented an advanced civilization.
He was also master of an agricultural people; "the ram with the
golden fleece for which the Argonauts sailed was the offspring
of Poseidon." He carried in his hand a three-pronged symbol, the
trident, doubtless an emblem of the three continents that were
embraced in the empire of Atlantis.  He founded many colonies along
the shores of the Mediterranean; "he helped to build the walls
of Troy;" the tradition thus tracing the Trojan civilization to
an Atlantean source.  He settled Attica and founded Athens, named
after his niece Athena, daughter of Zeus, who had no mother, but
had sprung from the bead of Zeus, which probably signified that her
mother's name was not known--she was a foundling.  Athena caused
the first olive-tree to grow on the Acropolis of Athens, parent
of all the olive-trees of Greece.  Poseidon seems to have had
settlements at Corinth, Ægina, Naxos, and Delphi.  Temples were
erected to his honor in nearly 'all the seaport towns Of Greece'.
He sent a sea-monster, to wit, a slip, to ravage part of the Trojan

In the "Iliad" Poseidon appears "as ruler of the sea, inhabiting a
brilliant palace in its depths, traversing its surface in a chariot,
or stirring the powerful billows 'until the earth shakes' as they
crash upon the shores....  He is also associated with well-watered
plains and valleys." (Murray's "Mythology," p, 51.) The palace in
the depths of the sea was the palace upon Olympus in Atlantis; the
traversing of the sea referred to the movements of a mercantile
race; the shaking of


the earth was an association with earthquakes; the "well-watered
plains and valleys" remind us of the great plain of Atlantis
described by Plato.

All the traditions of the coming of civilization into Europe point
to Atlantis.

For instance, Keleos, who lived at Eleusis, near Athens, hospitably
received Demeter, the Greek Ceres, the daughter of Poseidon, when
she landed; and in return she taught him the use of the plough,
and presented his son with the seed of barley, and sent him out to
teach mankind bow to sow and utilize that grain.  Dionysos, grandson
of Poseidon, travelled "through all the known world, even into the
remotest parts of India, instructing the people, as be proceeded,
how to tend the vine, and how to practise many other arts of peace,
besides teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings."
(Murray's "Mythology," p. 119.) The Greeks celebrated great festivals
in his honor down to the coming of Christianity.

"The Nymphs of Grecian mythology were a kind of middle beings between
the gods and men, communicating with both, loved and respected
by both; ... living like the gods on ambrosia.  In extraordinary
cases they were summoned, it was believed, to the councils of the
Olympian gods; but they usually remained in their particular spheres,
in secluded grottoes and peaceful valleys, occupied in spinning,
weaving, bathing, singing sweet songs, dancing, sporting, or
accompanying deities who passed through their territories--hunting
with Artemis (Diana), rushing about with Dionysos (Bacchus), making
merry with Apollo or Hermes (Mercury), but always in a hostile
attitude toward the wanton and excited Satyrs."

The Nymphs were plainly the female inhabitants of Atlantis dwelling
on the plains, while the aristocracy lived on the higher lands.
And this is confirmed by the fact that part of them were called
'Atlantids', offspring of Atlantis.  The Hesperides were also
"daughters of Atlas;" their mother was Hesperis, a personification
of "the region of the West." Their home was an island in the ocean,"
Off the north or west coast of Africa.

And here we find a tradition which not only points to Atlantis,
but also shows some kinship to the legend in Genesis of the tree
and the serpent.

Titæa, "a goddess of the earth," gave Zeus a tree bearing golden
apples on it.  This tree was put in the care of the Hesperides, but
they 'could not resist the temptation to pluck and eat its fruit';
thereupon a serpent named Ladon was put to watch the tree.  Hercules
slew the serpent, and gave the apples to the Hesperides.

Heracles (Hercules), we have seen, was a son of Zeus, king of
Atlantis.  One of his twelve labors (the tenth) was the carrying
off the cattle of Geryon.  The meaning of Geryon is the red glow
of the 'sunset'." He dwelt on the island of "Erythea, in the remote
west, beyond the Pillars of Hercules." Hercules took a ship, and
after encountering a storm, reached the island and placed himself
on Mount Abas.  Hercules killed Geryon, stole the cattle, put them
on the ship, and landed them safely, driving them "through Iberia,
Gaul, and over the Alps down into Italy." (Murray's "Mythology,"
p. 257.) This was simply the memory of a cattle raid made by
an uncivilized race upon the civilized, cattle-raising people of

It is not necessary to pursue the study of the gods of Greece any
farther.  They were simply barbarian recollections of the rulers
of a great civilized people who in early days visited their shores,
and brought with them the arts of peace.

Here then, in conclusion, are the proofs of our proposition that
the gods of Greece had been the kings of Atlantis:

1. They were not the makers, but the rulers of the world.

2. They were human in their attributes; they loved, sinned, and
fought battles, the very sites of which are given; they founded
cities, and civilized the people of the shores of the Mediterranean.

3. They dwelt upon an island in the Atlantic,." in the remote west.
. .  . where the sun shines after it has ceased to shine on Greece."

4. Their land was destroyed in a deluge.

5. They were ruled over by Poseidon and Atlas.

6. Their empire extended to Egypt and Italy and the shores of
Africa, precisely as stated by Plato.

7. They existed during the Bronze Age and at the beginning of the
Iron Age.

The entire Greek mythology is the recollection, by a degenerate
race, of a vast, mighty, and highly civilized empire, which in a
remote past covered large parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.



Not alone were the gods of the Greeks the deified kings of Atlantis,
but we find that the mythology of the Phoenicians was drawn from
the same source.

For instance, we find in the Phoenician cosmogony that the Titans
(Rephaim) derive their origin from the Phoenician gods Agrus and
Agrotus.  This connects the Phoenicians with that island in the
remote west, in the midst of ocean, where, according to the Greeks,
the Titans dwelt.

According to Sanchoniathon, 'Ouranos' was the son of Autochthon,
and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings
of Atlantis.  He married his sister Ge.  He is the Uranos of the
Greeks, who was the son of 'Gæa' (the earth), whom he married.  The
Phoenicians tell us, "Ouranos had by Ge four sons:  Ilus (El), who
is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies
bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz?)." Here, again, we have the names of
two other kings of Atlantis.  These four sons probably represented
four races, the offspring of the earth.  The Greek Uranos was the
father of Chronos, and the ancestor of Atlas.  The Phoenician god
Ouranos had a great many other wives:  his wife Ge was jealous;
they quarrelled, and he attempted to kill the children he had by
her.  This is the legend which the Greeks told of Zeus and Juno.
In the Phoenician mythology Chronos raised a rebellion against
Ouranos, and, after a great battle, dethroned him.  In the Greek
legends it is Zeus who attacks and overthrows his father, Chronos.
Ouranos had a daughter called Astarte (Ashtoreth), another called
Rhea. "And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn and the plough,
was called Zeus-Arotrius."

We find also, in the Phoenician legends, mention made of Poseidon,
founder and king of Atlantis.

Chronos gave Attica to his daughter Athena, as in the Greek
legends.  In a time of plague be sacrificed his son to Ouranos,
and "circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same
thing." It would thus appear that this singular rite, practised as
we have seen by the Atlantidæ of the Old and New Worlds, the Egyptians,
the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans, and
the red men of America, dates back, as we might have expected, to

"Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world."

He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the
alphabet.  The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented
among them as "the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world,"
bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.

This not only connects the Phoenicians with Atlantis, but shows
the relations of Egyptian civilization to both Atlantis and the

There can be no doubt that the royal personages who formed the gods
of Greece were also the gods of the Phoenicians.  We have seen the
Autochthon of Plato reappearing in the Autochthon of the Phoenicians;
the Atlas of Plato in the Atlas of the Phoenicians; the Poseidon
of Plato in the Poseidon of the Phoenicians; while the kings Mestor
and Mneseus of Plato are probably the gods Misor and Amynus of the

Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by
which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down
their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, "and
they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom
one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the
brother of Chua, who is called the first Phoenician." (Lenormant
and Chevallier, "Ancient History of the East," vol. ii., p. 228.)

This would show that the first Phoenician came long after this line
of the kings or gods, and that he was a foreigner, as compared with
them; and, therefore, that it could not have been the Phoenicians
proper who made the several inventions narrated by Sanchoniathon,
but some other race, from whom the Phoenicians might have been

And in the delivery of their records to the foreigner Osiris,
the god of Egypt, we have another evidence that Egypt derived her
civilization from Atlantis.

Max Müller says:

"The Semitic languages also are all varieties of one form of speech.
Though we do not know that primitive language from which the Semitic
dialects diverged, yet we know that at one time such language must
have existed....  We cannot derive Hebrew from Sanscrit, or Sanscrit
from Hebrew; but we can well understand bow both may have proceeded
from one common source.  They are both channels supplied from one
river, and they carry, though not always on the surface, floating
materials of language which challenge comparison, and have already
yielded satisfactory results to careful analyzers." ("Outlines of
Philosophy of History," vol. i., p. 475.)

There was an ancient tradition among the Persians that the Phoenicians
migrated from the shores of the Erythræan Sea, and this has been
supposed to mean the Persian Gulf; but there was a very old city
of Erythia, in utter ruin in the time of Strabo, which was built
in some ancient age, long before the founding of Gades, near the
site of that town, on the Atlantic coast of Spain.  May not this
town of Erythia have given its name to the adjacent sea? And this may
have been the starting-point of the Phoenicians in their European
migrations.  It would even appear that there was an island
of Erythea.  In the Greek mythology the tenth labor of Hercules
consisted in driving away the cattle of Geryon, who lived in the
island of Erythea, "an island somewhere in the remote west, 'beyond
the Pillars of Hercules'." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 257.) Hercules
stole the cattle from this remote oceanic island, and, returning
drove them "through Iberia, Gaul, over the Alps, and through
Italy." ('Ibid'.) It is probable that a people emigrating from the
Erythræan Sea, that is, from the Atlantic, first gave their name
to a town on the coast of Spain, and at a later date to the Persian
Gulf--as we have seen the name of York carried from England to the
banks of the Hudson, and then to the Arctic Circle.

The builders of the Central American cities are reported to have
been a bearded race.  The Phoenicians, in common with the Indians,
practised human sacrifices to a great extent; they worshipped
fire and water, adopted the names of the animals whose skins they
wore--that is to say, they had the totemic system--telegraphed by
means of fires, poisoned their arrows, offered peace before beginning
battle, and used drums.  (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p.

The extent of country covered by the commerce of the Phoenicians
represents to some degree the area of the old Atlantean Empire.
Their colonies and trading-posts extended east and west from the
shores of the Black Sea, through the Mediterranean to the west
coast of Africa and of Spain, and around to Ireland and England;
while from north to south they ranged from the Baltic to the Persian
Gulf.  They touched every point where civilization in later ages
made its appearance.  Strabo estimated that they had three hundred
cities along the west coast of Africa.  When Columbus sailed
to discover a new world, or re-discover an old one, he took his
departure from a Phoenician seaport, founded by that great race
two thousand five hundred years previously.  This Atlantean sailor,
with his Phoenician features, sailing from an Atlantean port, simply
re-opened the path of commerce and colonization which had been
closed when Plato's island sunk in the sea.  And it is a curious
fact that Columbus had the antediluvian world in his mind's eye
even then, for when he reached the mouth of the Orinoco he thought
it was the river Gihon, that flowed out of Paradise, and he wrote
home to Spain, "There are here great indications suggesting the
proximity of the earthly Paradise, for not only does it correspond
in mathematical position with the opinions of the holy and learned
theologians, but all other signs concur to make it probable."

Sanchoniathon claims that the learning of Egypt, Greece, and Judæa
was derived from the Phoenicians.  It would appear probable that,
while other races represent the conquests or colonizations of
Atlantis, the Phoenicians succeeded to their arts, sciences, and
especially their commercial supremacy; and hence the close resemblances
which we have found to exist between the Hebrews, a branch of the
Phoenician stock, and the people of America.

Upon the Syrian sea the people live
Who style themselves Phoenicians....
These were 'the first great founders of the world'--
Founders of cities and of mighty states--
Who showed a path through seas before unknown.
In the first ages, when the sons of men
Knew not which way to turn them, they assigned
To each his first department; they bestowed
Of land a portion and of sea a lot,
And sent each wandering tribe far off to share
A different soil and climate.  Hence arose
The great diversity, so plainly seen,
'Mid nations widely severed.

Dyonysius of Susiana, A.D. 3,



In the Scandinavian mythology the chief god was Odin, the Woden,
Wotan, or Wuotan of the Germans.  He is represented with many of
the attributes of the Greek god Zeus, and is supposed by some to
be identical with him.  He dwelt with the 'twelve' Æsir, or gods,
upon Asgard, the Norse Olympus, which arose out of Midgard, a
land half-way between the regions of frost and fire (to wit, in a
temperate climate). The Scandinavian Olympus was probably Atlantis.
Odin is represented as a grave-looking elderly man with a long
beard, carrying in his hand a spear, and accompanied by two dogs
and two ravens.  He was the father of poetry, and the inventor of
Runic writing.

The Chiapenese of Central America (the people whose language we
have seen furnishing such remarkable resemblances to Hebrew) claim
to have been the first people of the New World.  Clavigero tells
us ("Hist.  Antiq. del Messico," Eng. trans., 1807, vol. i.) that
according to the traditions of the Chiapenese there was a Votan
who was the grandson of the man who built the ark to save himself
and family from the Deluge; he was one of those who undertook
to build the tower that should reach to heaven., The Lord ordered
him to people America. "He came 'from the East'." He brought seven
families with him.  He had been preceded in America by two others,
Igh and Imox.  He built a great city in America called "Nachan,"
City of the Serpents (the serpent that tempted Eve was Nahash),
from his own race, which was named Chan, a serpent.  This Nachan is
supposed to have been Palenque.  The date of his journey is placed
in the legends in the year 3000 of the world, and in the tenth
century B.C.  He also founded three tributary monarchies, whose
capitals were Tulan, Mayapan, and Chiquimala.  He wrote a book
containing a history of his deeds, and proofs that he belonged to
the tribe of Chanes (serpents). He states that "he is the third of
the Votans; that he conducted seven families from Valum-Votan to
this continent, and assigned lands to them; that be determined to
travel until he came to the root of heaven and found his relations,
the Culebres, and made himself known to them; that he accordingly
made four voyages to Chivim; that he arrived in Spain; that he
went to Rome; that he saw the house of God building; that be went
by the road which his brethren, the Culebres, had bored; that
he marked it, and that he passed by the houses of the thirteen
Culebres.  He relates that, in returning from one of his voyages,
he found seven other families of the Tzequil nation who had joined
the first inhabitants, and recognized in them the same origin as
his own, that is, of the Culebres; he speaks of the place where
they built the first town, which from its founders received the
name of Tzequil; he affirms that, having taught them the refinement
of manners in the use of the table, table-cloths, dishes, basins,
cups, and napkins, they taught him the knowledge of God and his
worship; his first ideas of a king, and obedience to him; that he
was chosen captain of all these united families."

It is probable that Spain and Rome are interpolations.  Cabrera
claims that the Votanites were Carthaginians.  He thinks the Chivim
of Votan were the Hivim, or Givim, who were descended of Heth, son
of Canaan, Phoenicians; they were the builders of Accaron, Azotus,
Ascalon, and Gaza.  The Scriptures refer to them as Hivites (Givim)
in Deuteronomy (chap. ii., verse 32), and Joshua (chap. xiii.,
verse 4). He claims that Cadmus and his wife Hermione were of this
stock; and according to Ovid they were metamorphosed into snakes
(Culebres). The name Hivites in Phoenician signifies a snake.

Votan may not, possibly, have passed into Europe; be may have
travelled altogether in Africa.  His singular allusion to "a way
which the Culebres had bored" seems at first inexplicable; but
Dr.  Livingstone's last letters, published 8th November, 1869, in
the "Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society," mention that
"tribes live in underground houses in Rua.  Some excavations are
said to be thirty miles long, and have running rills in them; a
whole district can stand a siege in them.  The 'writings' therein,
I have been told by some of the people, are drawings of animals,
and not letters; otherwise I should have gone to see them.  People
very dark, well made, and outer angle of eyes slanting inward."

And Captain Grant, who accompanied Captain Speke in his famous
exploration of the sources of the Nile, tells of a tunnel or subway
under the river Kaoma, on the highway between Loowemba and Marunga,
near Lake Tanganyika.  His guide Manua describes it to him:

"I asked Manua if he had ever seen any country resembling it.  His
reply was, 'This country reminds me of what I saw in the country
to the south of the Lake Tanganyika, when travelling with an Arab's
caravan from Unjanyembeh.  There is a river there called the Kaoma,
running into the lake, the sides of which are similar in precipitousness
to the rocks before us.' I then asked, 'Do the people cross this
river in boats?' 'No; they have no boats; and even if they had,
the people could not land, as the sides are too steep:  they pass
underneath the river by a natural tunnel, or subway.' He and all
his party went through it on their way from Loowemba to Ooroongoo,
and returned by it.  He described its length as having taken them
from sunrise till noon to pass through it, and so high that, if
mounted upon camels, they could not touch the top.  Tall reeds,
the thickness of a walking-stick, grew inside, the road was strewed
with white pebbles, and so wide--four hundred yards--that they
could see their way tolerably well while passing through it.  The
rocks looked as if they had been planed by artificial means.
Water never came through from the river overhead; it was procured
by digging wells.  Manua added that the people of Wambweh take
shelter in this tunnel, and live there with their families and
cattle, when molested by the Watuta, a warlike race, descended from
the Zooloo Kafirs.

But it is interesting to find in this book of Votan, however little
reliance we may place in its dates or details, evidence that there
was actual intercourse between the Old World and the New in remote

Humboldt remarks:

"We have fixed the special attention of our readers upon this Votan,
or Wodan, an American who appears of the same family with the Wods
or Odins of the Goths and of the people of Celtic origin.  Since,
according to the learned researches of Sir William Jones, Odin
and Buddha are probably the same person, it is curious to see the
names of 'Bondvar', 'Wodansday', and Votan designating in India,
Scandinavia, and in Mexico the day of a brief period." ("Vues des
Cordilleras," p. 148, ed. 1810.)

There are many things to connect the mythology of the Gothic nations
with Atlantis; they had, as we have seen, flood legends; their gods
Krodo and Satar were the Chronos and Saturn of Atlantis; their Baal
was the Bel of the Phoenicians, who were closely connected with
Poseidon and Atlas; and, as we shall see hereafter, their language
has a distinct relationship with the tongues of the Arabians,
Cushites, Chaldeans, and Phoenicians.



No fact is better established than the reverence shown to the sign
of the Cross in all the ages prior to Christianity.  We cannot do
better than quote from an able article in the Edinburgh Review of
July, 1870, upon this question:

"From the dawn of organized Paganism in the Eastern world to the
final establishment of Christianity in the Western, the Cross was
undoubtedly one of the commonest and most sacred of symbolical
monuments; and, to a remarkable extent, it is so still in almost
every land where that of Calvary is unrecognized or unknown.  Apart
from any distinctions of social or intellectual superiority, of
caste, color, nationality, or location in either hemisphere, it
appears to have been the aboriginal possession of every people in
antiquity--the elastic girdle, so to say, which embraced the most
widely separated heathen communities--the most significant token
of a universal brotherhood, to which all the families of mankind
were severally and irresistibly drawn, and by which 'their common
descent was emphatically expressed', or by means of which each
and all preserved, amid every vicissitude of fortune, a knowledge
of 'the primeval happiness and dignity of their species'. Where
authentic history is silent on the subject, the material relics
of past and long since forgotten races are not wanting to confirm
and strengthen this supposition.  Diversified forms of the symbol
are delineated more or less artistically, according to the progress
achieved in civilization at the period, on the ruined walls of
temples and palaces, on natural rocks and sepulchral galleries, on
the hoariest monoliths and the rudest statuary; on coins, medals,
and vases of every description; and, in not a few instances, are
preserved in the architectural proportions of subterranean as well
as superterranean structures, of tumuli as well as fanes.  The
extraordinary sanctity attaching to the symbol, in every age and
under every variety of circumstance, justified any expenditure
incurred in its fabrication or embellishment; hence the most
persistent labor, the most consummate ingenuity, were lavished
upon it.  Populations of essentially different culture, tastes, and
pursuits--the highly-civilized and the demi-civilized, the settled
and nomadic--vied with each other in their efforts to extend the
knowledge of its exceptional import and virtue among their latest
posterities.  The marvellous rock-hewn caves of Elephanta and
Ellora, and the stately temples of Mathura and Terputty, in the
East, may be cited as characteristic examples of one laborious method
of exhibiting it; and the megalithic structures of Callernish and
Newgrange, in the West, of another; while a third may be instanced.
in the great temple at Mitzla, 'the City of the Moon,' in Ojaaca,
Central America. also excavated in the living rock, and manifesting
the same stupendous labor and ingenuity as are observable in
the cognate caverns of Salsette--of endeavors, we repeat, made by
peoples as intellectually as geographically distinct, and followers
withal of independent and unassociated deities, to magnify and
perpetuate some grand primeval symbol....

"Of the several varieties of the Cross still in vogue, as national
or ecclesiastical emblems, in this and other European states, and
distinguished by the familiar appellations of St.  George, St.
Andrew, the Maltese, the Greek, the Latin, etc., etc., there is
not one among them the existence of which may not be traced to the
remotest antiquity.  They were the common property of the Eastern
nations.  No revolution or other casualty has wrought any perceptible
difference in their several forms or delineations; they have passed
from one hemisphere to the other intact; have survived dynasties,
empires, and races; have been borne on the crest of each successive
wave of Aryan population in its course toward the West; and, having
been reconsecrated in later times by their lineal descendants, are
still recognized as military and national badges of distinction....

Among the earliest known types is the 'crux ansata', vulgarly
called 'the key of the Nile,' because of its being found sculptured
or otherwise represented so frequently upon Egyptian and Coptic
monuments.  It has, however, a very much older and more sacred
signification than this.  It was the symbol of symbols, the mystical
Tau, 'the bidden wisdom,' not only of the ancient Egyptians but also
of the Chaldeans, Phoenicians, Mexicans, Peruvians, and of every
other ancient people commemorated in history, in either hemisphere,
and is formed very similarly to our letter T, with a roundlet,
or oval, placed immediately above it.  Thus it was figured on the
gigantic emerald or glass statue of Serapis, which was transported
(293 B.C.) by order of Ptolemy Soter from Sinope, on the southern
shores of the Black Sea, re-erected within that famous labyrinth
which encompassed the banks of Lake Moeris, and destroyed by
the victorious army of Theodosius (A.D. 389), despite the earnest
entreaties of the Egyptian priesthood to spare it, because it was
the emblem of their god and of 'the life to come.' Sometimes, as
may be seen on the breast of an Egyptian mummy in the museum of the
London University, the simple T only is planted on the frustum of
a cone; and sometimes it is represented as springing from a heart;
in the first instance signifying goodness; in the second, hope or
expectation of reward.  As in the oldest temples and catacombs of
Egypt, so this type likewise abounds in the ruined cities of Mexico
and Central America, graven as well upon the most ancient cyclopean
and polygonal walls as upon the more modern and perfect examples of
masonry; and is displayed in an equally conspicuous manner upon the
breasts of innumerable bronze statuettes which have been recently
disinterred from the cemetery of Juigalpa (of unknown antiquity)
in Nicaragua."

When the Spanish missionaries first set foot upon the soil of
America, in the fifteenth century, they were amazed to find the
Cross was as devoutly worshipped by the red Indians as by themselves,
and were in doubt whether to ascribe the fact to the pious labors
of St.  Thomas or to the cunning device of the Evil One.  The
hallowed symbol challenged their attention on every hand and in
almost every variety of form.  It appeared on the bass-reliefs of
ruined and deserted as well as on those of inhabited palaces, and
was the most conspicuous ornament in the great temple of Gozumel,
off the coast of Yucatan.  According to the particular locality, and
the purpose which it served, it was formed of various materials--of
marble and gypsum in the open spaces of cities and by the way-side;
of wood in the teocallis or chapels on pyramidal summits and in
subterranean sanctuaries; and of emerald or jasper in the palaces
of kings and nobles.

When we ask the question how it comes that the sign of the Cross
has thus been reverenced. from the highest antiquity by the races
of the Old and New Worlds, we learn that it is a reminiscence of
the Garden of Eden, in other words, of Atlantis.

Professor Hardwicke says:

"All these and similar traditions are but mocking satires of the
old Hebrew story--jarred and broken notes of the same strain; but
with all their exaggerations they intimate how in the background
of man's vision lay a paradise of holy joy--a paradise secured from
every kind of profanation, and made inaccessible to the guilty; a
paradise full of objects that were calculated to delight the senses
and to elevate the mind a paradise that granted to its tenant rich
and rare immunities, and that fed with its perennial streams the
tree of life and immortality."

To quote again from the writer in the 'Edinburgh Review', already

"Its undoubted antiquity, no less than its extraordinary diffusion,
evidences that it must have been, as it may be said to be still in
unchristianized lands, emblematical of some fundamental doctrine
or mystery.  The reader will not have failed to observe that it is
most usually associated with water; it was 'the key of the Nile,'
that mystical instrument by means of which, in the popular judgment
of his Egyptian devotees, Osiris produced the annual revivifying
inundations of the sacred stream; it is discernible in that
mysterious pitcher or vase portrayed on the brazen table of Bembus,
before-mentioned, with its four lips discharging as many streams of
water in opposite directions; it was the emblem of the water-deities
of the Babylonians in the East and of the Gothic nations in the
West, as well as that of the rain-deities respectively of the mixed
population in America.  We have seen with what peculiar rites the
symbol was honored by those widely separated races in the western
hemisphere; and the monumental slabs of Nineveh, now in the museums
of London and Paris, show us how it was similarly honored by the
successors of the Chaldees in the eastern....


"In Egypt, Assyria, and Britain it was emblematical of creative
power and eternity; in India, China, and Scandinavia, of heaven
and immortality; in the two Americas, of rejuvenescence and freedom
from physical suffering; while in both hemispheres it was the common
symbol of the resurrection, or 'the sign of the life to come;'
and, finally, in all heathen communities, without exception, it
was the emphatic type, the sole enduring evidence, of the Divine
Unity.  This circumstance alone determines its extreme antiquity--an
antiquity, in all likelihood, long antecedent to the foundation of
either of the three great systems of religion in the East.  And,
lastly, we have seen how, as a rule, it is found in conjunction with
a stream or streams of water, with exuberant vegetation, and with
a bill or a mountainous region--in a word, 'with a land of beauty,
fertility, and joy'. Thus it was expressed upon those circular and
sacred cakes of the Egyptians, composed of the richest materials-of
flour, of honey, of milk--and with which the serpent and bull, as
well as other reptiles and beasts consecrated to the service of
Isis and their higher divinities, were daily fed; and upon certain
festivals were eaten with extraordinary ceremony by the people and
their priests. 'The cross-cake,' says Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 'was
their hieroglyph for civilized land;' obviously 'a land superior
to their own, as it was, indeed, to all other mundane territories';
for it was that 'distant, traditional country of sempiternal
contentment and repose', of exquisite delight and serenity, where
Nature, unassisted by man, produces all that is necessary for his

And this land was the Garden of Eden of our race.  This was the
Olympus of the Greeks, where

"This same mild season gives the blooms to blow, The buds to harden
and the fruits to grow."

In the midst of it was a sacred and glorious eminence--the
'umbilicus orbis terrarum'--"toward which the heathen in all parts
of the world, and in all ages, turned a wistful gaze in every act
of devotion, and to which they hoped to be admitted, or, rather,
to be restored, at the close of this transitory scene."

In this "glorious eminence" do we not see Plato's mountain in the
middle of Atlantis, as he describes it:

"Near the plain and in the centre of the island there was a mountain,
not very high on any side.  In this mountain there dwelt one of
the earth-born primeval men of that country, whose name was Evenor,
and he had a wife named Leucippe, and they had an only daughter,
who was named Cleito.  Poseidon married her.  He enclosed the hill
in which she dwelt all around, making alternate zones of sea and
land, larger and smaller, encircling one another; there were two
of land and three of wate....  so that no man could get to the
island....  He brought streams of water under the earth to this
mountain-island, and made all manner of food to grow upon it.  This
island became the seat of Atlas, the over-king of the whole island;
upon it they built the great temple of their nation; they continued
to ornament it in successive generations, every king surpassing
the one who came before him to the utmost of his power, until they
made the building a marvel to behold for size and beauty....  And
they had such an amount of wealth as was never before possessed by
kings and potentates--as is not likely ever to be again."

The gardens of Alcinous and Laertes, of which we read in Homeric
song, and those of Babylon, were probably transcripts of Atlantis.
"The sacred eminence in the midst of a 'superabundant, happy region
figures more or less distinctly in a]most every mythology, ancient
or modern.  It was the Mesomphalos of the earlier Greeks, and the
Omphalium of the Cretans, dominating the Elysian fields, upon whose
tops, bathed in pure, brilliant, incomparable light, the gods passed
their days in ceaseless joys."

"The Buddhists and Brahmans, who together constitute nearly half
the population of the world, tell us that the decussated figure
(the cross), whether in a simple or a complex form, symbolizes the
traditional happy abode of their primeval ancestors--that 'Paradise
of Eden toward the East,' as we find expressed in the Hebrew.  And,
let us ask, what better picture, or more significant characters,
in the complicated alphabet of symbolism, could have been selected
for the purpose than a circle and a cross:  the one to denote a
region of absolute purity and perpetual felicity; the other, those
four perennial streams that divided and watered the several quarters
of it?" ('Edinburgh Review', January, 1870.)

And when we turn to the mythology of the Greeks, we find that
the origin of the world was ascribed to 'Okeanos', the ocean, The
world was at first an island surrounded by the ocean, as by a great

"It was a region of wonders of all kinds; Okeanos lived there
with his wife Tethys:  these were the Islands of the Blessed, the
gardens of the gods, the sources of nectar and ambrosia, on which
the gods lived.  Within this 'circle of water' the earth lay spread
out like a disk, 'with mountains rising from it', and the vault of
heaven appearing to rest upon its outer edge all around." (Murray's
"Manual of Mythology," pp. 23, 24, 'et seq.')

On the mountains dwelt the gods; they had palaces on these mountains,
with store-rooms, stabling, etc.

"The Gardens of the Hesperides, with their golden apples, were
believed to exist i'n some island of the ocean', or, as it was
sometimes thought, 'in the islands' off the north or 'west coast
of Africa'. They were far famed in antiquity; for it was there that
springs of nectar flowed by the couch of Zeus, and there that the
earth displayed the rarest blessings of the gods; it was another
Eden." ('Ibid.', p. 156.)

Homer described it in these words:

"Stern winter smiles on that auspicious clime,
The fields are florid with unfading prime,
From the bleak pole no winds inclement blow.
Mould the round hail, or flake the fleecy snow;
But from the breezy deep the blessed inhale
The fragrant murmurs of the western gale."

"It was the sacred Asgard of the Scandinavians, springing from
the centre of a fruitful land, which was watered by four primeval
rivers of milk, severally flowing in the direction of the cardinal
points, 'the abode of happiness, and the height of bliss.' It
is the Tien-Chan, 'the celestial mountain-land....  the enchanted
gardens' of the Chinese and Tartars, watered by the four perennial
fountains of Tychin, or Immortality; it is the hill-encompassed Ilá
of the Singhalese and Thibetians, 'the everlasting dwelling-place
of the wise and just.' It is the Sineru of the Buddhist, on the
summit of which is Tawrutisa, the habitation of Sekrá, the supreme
god, from which proceed the four sacred streams, running in as many
contrary directions.

It is the Slávratta, 'the celestial earth,' of the Hindoo, the summit
of his golden mountain Meru, the city of Brahma, in the centre of
Jambadwípa, and from the four sides of which gush forth the four
primeval rivers, reflecting in their passage the colorific glories
of their source, and severally flowing northward, southward,
eastward, and westward."

It is the Garden of Eden of the Hebrews:

"And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he
put the man whom he had formed.  And out of the ground made the Lord
God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for
food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the
tree of knowledge of good and evil.  And a river went out of Eden
to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into
'four' heads.  The name of the first is Pison; that is it which
compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the
gold of that land is good:  there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that
compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.  And the name of the third
river is Hiddekel:  that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria.
And the fourth river is Euphrates.  And the Lord God took the man
and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it."
(Gen. ii., 8-1-5.)

As the four rivers named in Genesis are not branches of any one
stream, and head in very different regions, it is evident that there
was an attempt, on the part of the writer of the Book, to adapt an
ancient tradition concerning another country to the known features
of the region in which be dwelt.

Josephus tells us (chap. i., p. 41), "Now the garden (of Eden)
was watered by one river, 'which ran round about the whole earth',
and was parted into four parts." Here in the four parts we see the
origin of the Cross, while in the river running around the whole
earth we have the wonderful canal of Atlantis, described by Plato,
which was "carried around the whole of the plain," and received the
streams which came down from the mountains.  The streams named by
Josephus would seem to represent the migrations of people from Atlantis
to its colonies.  "Phison," he tells us, "denotes a multitude; it
ran into India; the Euphrates and Tigris go down into the Red Sea
while the Geon runs through Egypt."

We are further told (chap. ii., p. 42) that when Cain, after the
murder of.  Abel, left the land of Adam, "he travelled over many
countries" before be reached the land of Nod; 'and the land of Nod
was to the eastward of Adam's home'. In other words, the original
seat of mankind was in the West, that is to say, in the direction
of Atlantis.  Wilson tells us that the Aryans of India believed
that they originally came "from the West." Thus the nations on the
west of the Atlantic look to the 'east' for their place of origin;
while on the east of the Atlantic they look to the 'west':  thus
all the lines of tradition converge upon Atlantis.

But here is the same testimony that in the Garden of Eden there
were four rivers radiating from one parent stream.  And these four
rivers, as we have seen, we find in the Scandinavian traditions,
and in the legends of the Chinese, the Tartars, the Singhalese,
the Thibetians, the Buddhists, the Hebrews, and the Brahmans.

And not only do we find this tradition of the Garden of Eden in
the Old World, but it meets us also among the civilized races of
America.  The elder Montezuma said to Cortez, "Our fathers dwelt
in that happy and prosperous place which they called Aztlan, which
means 'whiteness'. . .  . In this place 'there is a great mountain
in the middle of the water' which is called Culhuacan, because it
has the point somewhat turned over toward the bottom; and for this
cause it is called Culhuacan, which means 'crooked mountain.'" He
then proceeds to describe the charms of this favored land, abounding
in birds, game, fish, trees, "fountains enclosed with elders and
junipers, and alder-trees both large and beautiful." The people
planted "maize, red peppers, tomatoes, beans, and all kinds of
plants, 'in furrows'."

Here we have the same mountain in the midst of the water which Plato
describes--the same mountain to which all the legends of the most
ancient races of Europe refer.

The inhabitants of Aztlan were 'boatmen'. (Bancroft's "Native
Races," vol. v., p. 325.) E. G. Squier, in his "Notes on Central
America," p.  349, says, "It is a significant fact that in the map
of their migrations, presented by Gemelli, the place of the origin
of the Aztecs is designated by the sign of water, 'Atl' standing
for 'Atzlan', a 'pyramidal temple' with grades, and near these
a palm-tree." This circumstance did not escape the attention of
Humboldt, who says, I am astonished at finding a palm-tree near
this teocalli.  This tree certainly does not indicate a northern
origin....  The possibility that an unskilful artist should
unintentionally represent a tree of which he had no knowledge is
so great, that any argument dependent on it hangs upon a slender
thread." ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 266.)

The Miztecs, a tribe dwelling on the outskirts of Mexico, had a
tradition that the gods, "in the day of obscurity and darkness,"
built "a sumptuous palace, a masterpiece of skill, in which they
male their abode upon a mountain.  The rock was called 'The Place of
Heaven;' there the gods first abode on earth, living many years in
great rest and content, as in a happy and delicious land, though the
world still lay in obscurity and darkness.  The children of these
gods made to themselves a garden, in which they put many trees, and
fruit-trees, and flowers, and roses, and odorous herbs.  Subsequently
there came a great deluge, in which many of the sons and daughters
of the gods perished." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p.
71.) Here we have a distinct reference to Olympus, the Garden of
Plato, and the destruction of Atlantis.

And in Plato's account of Atlantis we have another description of
the Garden of Eden and the Golden Age of the world:

"Also, whatever fragrant things there are in the earth, whether
roots, or herbage, or woods, or distilling drops of flowers and
fruits, grew and thrived in that land; and again the cultivated
fruits of the earth, both the edible fruits and other species of
food which we call by the name of legumes, and the fruits having
a hard rind, affording drinks and meats and ointment....  all
these that sacred island, lying beneath the sun, brought forth in
abundance....  For many generations, as long as the divine nature
lasted in them, they were obedient to the laws, and well affectioned
toward the gods, who were their kinsmen; for they possessed true
and in every way great spirits, practising gentleness and wisdom
in the various chances of life, and in their intercourse with one
another.  They despised everything but virtue, not caring for their
present state of life, and thinking lightly of the possession of
gold and other property, which seemed only a burden to them; neither
were they intoxicated by luxury; nor did wealth deprive them of
their self-control; but they were sober, and saw clearly that all
these goods were increased by virtuous friendship with one another,
and that by excessive zeal for them, and honor of them, the good
of them is lost, and friendship perishes with them."

All this cannot be a mere coincidence; it points to a common
tradition of a veritable land, where four rivers flowed down in
opposite directions from a central mountain-peak.  And these four
rivers, flowing to the north, south, east, and west, constitute
the origin of that sign of the Cross which we have seen meeting us
at every point among the races who were either descended from the
people of Atlantis, or who, by commerce and colonization, received
their opinions and civilization from them.

Let us look at the question of the identity of the Garden of Eden
with Atlantis from another point of view:

If the alphabet of the Phoenicians is kindred with the Maya alphabet,
as I think is clear, then the Phoenicians were of the same race, or
of some race with which the Mayas were connected; in other words,
they were from Atlantis.

Now we know that the Phoenicians and Hebrews were of the same stock,
used the same alphabet, and spoke almost precisely the same language.

The Phoenicians preserved traditions, which have come down to
us in the writings, of Sanchoniathon, of all the great essential
inventions or discoveries which underlie civilization.  The first
two human beings, they tell us, were Protogonos and Aion (Adam and
'Havath), who produce Genos and Genea (Qên and Qênath), from whom
again are descended three brothers, named Phos, Phur, and Phlox
(Light, Fire, and Flame), because they "have discovered how to
produce fire by the friction of two pieces of wood, and have taught
the use of this element." In another fragment, at the origin of the
human race we see in succession the fraternal couples of Autochthon
and Technites (Adam and Quen--Cain?), inventors of the manufacture
of bricks; Agros and Agrotes (Sade and Cêd), fathers of the
agriculturists and hunters; then Amynos and Magos, "who taught to
dwell in villages and rear flocks."

The connection between these Atlantean traditions and the Bible
record is shown in many things.  For instance, "the Greek text,
in expressing the invention of Amynos, uses the words kw'mas kai`
poi'mnas, which are precisely the same as the terms 'ôhel umiqneh',
which the Bible uses in speaking of the dwellings of the descendants
of Jabal (Gen., chap. iv., v. 20). In like manner Lamech, both
in the signification of his name and also iv the savage character
attributed to him by the legend attached to his memory, is a true
synonyme of Agrotes."

"And the title of A?lh~tai, given to Agros and Agrotes in the Greek
of the Phoenician history, fits in wonderfully with the physiognomy
of the race of the Cainites in the Bible narrative, whether we
take a?lh~tai simply as a Hellenized transcription of the Semitic
'Elim', 'the strong, the mighty,' or whether we take it in its Greek
acceptation, 'the wanderers;' for such is the destiny of Cain and
his race according to the very terms of the condemnation which
was inflicted upon him after his crime (Gen. iv., 14), and this is
what is signified by the name of his grandson 'Yirad.  Only, in
Sanchoniathon the genealogy does not end with Amynos and Magos,
as that of the Cainites in the Bible does with the three sons of
Lamech.  These two personages are succeeded by Misôr and Sydyk,
'the released and the just,' as Sanchoniathon translates them, but
rather the 'upright and the just' (Mishôr and Çüdüq), 'who invent
the use of salt.' To Misôr is born Taautos (Taût), to whom we owe
letters; and to Sydyk the Cabiri or Corybantes, the institutors of
navigation." (Lenormant, "Genealogies between Adam and the Deluge."
'Contemporary Review', April, 1880.)

We have, also, the fact that the Phoenician name for their goddess
Astynome (Ashtar No'emâ), whom the Greeks called Nemaun, was the
same as the name of the sister of the three sons of Lamech, as
given in Genesis--Na'emah, or Na'amah.

If, then, the original seat of the Hebrews and Phoenicians was the
Garden of Eden, to the west of Europe, and if the Phoenicians are
shown to be connected, through their alphabets, with the Central
Americans, who looked to an island in the sea, to the eastward,
as their starting-point, the conclusion becomes irresistible that
Atlantis and the Garden of Eden were one and the same.

'The Pyramid'.--Not only are the Cross and the Garden of Eden
identified with Atlantis, but in Atlantis, the habitation of the
gods, we find the original model of all those pyramids which extend
from India to Peru.

This singular architectural construction dates back far beyond
the birth of history.  In the 'Purânas' of the Hindoos we read of
pyramids long anterior in time to any which have survived to our
day.  Cheops was preceded by a countless host of similar erections
which have long since mouldered into ruins.

If the reader will turn to page 104 of this work he will see, in the
midst of the picture of Aztlan, the starting-point of the Aztecs,
according to the Botturini pictured writing, a pyramid with
worshippers kneeling before it.

Fifty years ago Mr.  Faber, in his "Origin of Pagan Idolatry,"
placed artificial tumuli, pyramids, and pagodas in the same category,
conceiving that all were transcripts of the holy mountain which
was generally supposed to have stood in the centre of Eden; or,
rather. as intimated in more than one place by the Psalmist, the
garden itself was situated on an eminence. (Psalms, chap. iii., v.
4, and chap. lxviii., vs. 15, 16, 18.)

The pyramid is one of the marvellous features of that problem which
confronts us everywhere, and which is insoluble without Atlantis.

The Arabian traditions linked the pyramid with the Flood.  In
a manuscript preserved in the Bodleian Library, and translated by
Dr.  Sprenger, Abou Balkhi says:

"The wise men, 'previous to the Flood', foreseeing an impending
Judgment from heaven, either by submersion or fire, which would
destroy every created thing, built upon the tops of the mountains
in Upper Egypt many pyramids of stone, in order to have some refuge
against the approaching calamity.  Two of these buildings exceeded
the rest in height, being four hundred cubits, high and as many
broad and as many long.  They were built with large blocks of marble,
and they were so well put together that the joints were scarcely
perceptible.  Upon the exterior of the building every charm and
wonder of physic was inscribed."

This tradition locates these monster structures upon the mountains
of Upper Egypt, but there are no buildings of such dimensions to
be found anywhere in Egypt.  Is it not probable that we have here
another reference to the great record preserved in the land of the
Deluge? Were not the pyramids of Egypt and America imitations of
similar structures in Atlantis? Might not the building of such a
gigantic edifice have given rise to the legends existing on both
continents in regard to a Tower of Babel?

How did the human mind hit upon this singular edifice--the pyramid?
By what process of development did it reach it? Why should these
extraordinary structures crop out on the banks of the Nile, and
amid the forests and plains of America? And why, in both countries,
should they stand with their sides square to the four cardinal
points of the compass? Are they in this, too, a reminiscence of the
Cross, and of the four rivers of Atlantis that ran to the north,
south, east, and west?

"There is yet a third combination that demands a specific notice.
The decussated symbol is not unfrequently planted upon what Christian
archæologists designate 'a calvary,' that is, upon a mount or a
cone.  Thus it is represented in both hemispheres.  The megalithic
structure of Callernish, in the island of Lewis before mentioned,
is the most perfect example of the practice extant in Europe.
The mount is preserved to this day.  This, to be brief, was the
recognized conventional mode of expressing a particular primitive
truth or mystery from the days of the Chaldeans to those of
the Gnostics, or from one extremity of the civilized world to the
other.  It is seen in the treatment of the ash Yggdrasill of the
Scandinavians, as well as in that of the Bo-tree of the Buddhists.
The prototype was not the Egyptian, but the Babylonian 'crux
ansata', the lower member of which constitutes a conical support
for the oval or sphere above it.  With the Gnostics, who occupied
the debatable ground between primitive Christianity and philosophic
paganism, and who inscribed it upon their tombs, the cone symbolized
death as well as life.  In every heathen mythology it was the
universal emblem of the goddess or mother of heaven, by whatsoever
name she was addressed--whether as Mylitta, Astarte, Aphrodite,
Isis, Mata, or Venus; and the several eminences consecrated to her
worship were, like those upon which Jupiter was originally adored,
of a conical or pyramidal shape.  This, too, is the ordinary form
of the altars dedicated to the Assyrian god of fertility.  In
exceptional instances the cone is introduced upon one or the other
of the sides, or is distinguishable in the always accompanying
mystical tree." ('Edinburgh Review', July, 1870.)

If the reader will again turn to page 104 of this work he will see
that the tree appears on the top of the pyramid or mountain in both
the Aztec representations of Aztlan, the original island-home of
the Central American races.

The writer just quoted believes that Mr.  Faber is correct in his
opinion that the pyramid is a transcript of the sacred mountain which
stood in the midst of Eden, the Olympus of Atlantis.  He adds:

"Thomas Maurice, who is no mean authority, held the same view.  He
conceived the use to which pyramids in particular were anciently
applied to have been threefold-namely, as tombs, temples, and
observatories; and this view he labors to establish in the third
volume of his 'Indian Antiquities.' Now, whatever may be their
actual date, or with whatsoever people they may have originated,
whether in Africa or Asia, in the lower valley of the Nile or in
the plains of Chaldea, the pyramids of Egypt were unquestionably
destined to very opposite purposes.  According, to Herodotus, they
were introduced by the Hyksos; and Proclus, the Platonic philosopher,
connects them with the science of astronomy--a science which,
he adds, the Egyptians derived from the Chaldeans.  Hence we may
reasonably infer that they served as well for temples for planetary
worship as for observatories.  Subsequently to the descent of the
shepherds, their hallowed precincts were invaded by royalty, from
motives of pride and superstition; and the principal chamber in
each was used as tombs."

The pyramidal imitations, dear to the hearts of colonists of the
sacred mountain upon which their gods dwelt, was devoted, as perhaps
the mountain itself was, to sun and fire worship.  The same writer

"That Sabian worship once extensively prevailed in the New World
is a well-authenticated fact; it is yet practised to some extent
by the wandering tribes on the Northern continent, and was the
national religion of the Peruvians at the time of the Conquest.
That it was also the religion of their more highly civilized
predecessors on the soil, south of the equator more especially,
is evidenced by the remains of fire-altars, both round and square,
scattered about the shores of lakes Umayu and Titicaca, and which
are the counterparts of the Gueber dokh mehs overhanging the
Caspian Sea.  Accordingly, we find, among these and other vestiges
of antiquity that indissolubly connected those long-since extinct
populations in the New with the races of the Old World, the
well-defined symbol of the Maltese Cross.  On the Mexican feroher
before alluded to, and which is most elaborately carved in bass-relief
on a massive piece of polygonous granite, constituting a portion
of a cyclopean wall, the cross is enclosed within the ring, and
accompanying it are four tassel-like ornaments, graved equally well.
Those accompaniments, however, are disposed without any particular
regard to order, but the four arms of the cross, nevertheless,
severally and accurately point to the cardinal quarters, The same
regularity is observable on a much smaller but not less curious
monument, which was discovered some time since in an ancient Peruvian
huaca or catacomb--namely, a syrinx or pandean pipe, cut out of
a solid mass of 'lapis ollaris', the sides of which are profusely
ornamented, not only with Maltese crosses, but also with other
symbols very similar in style to those inscribed on the obelisks
of Egypt and on the monoliths of this country.  The like figure
occurs on the equally ancient Otrusco black pottery.  But by far
the most remarkable example of this form of the Cross in the New
World is that which appears on a second type of the Mexican feroher,
engraved on a tablet of gypsum, and which is described at length
by its discoverer, Captain du Paix, and depicted by his friend,
M. Baradère.  Here the accompaniments--a shield, a hamlet, and a
couple of bead-annulets or rosaries--are, with a single exception,
identical in even the minutest particular with an Assyrian monument
emblematical of the Deity....

"No country in the world can compare with India for the exposition
of the pyramidal cross.  There the stupendous labors of Egypt are
rivalled, and sometimes surpassed.  Indeed, but for the fact of
such monuments of patient industry and unexampled skill being still
in existence, the accounts of some others which have long since
disappeared, having succumbed to the ravages of time and the fury
of the bigoted Mussulman, would sound in our ears as incredible
as the story of Porsenna's tomb, which 'o'ertopped old Pelion,'
and made 'Ossa like a wart.' Yet something not very dissimilar
in character to it was formerly the boast of the ancient city of
Benares, on the banks of the Ganges.  We allude to the great temple
of Bindh Madhu, which was demolished in the seventeenth century by
the Emperor Aurungzebe.  Tavernier, the French baron, who travelled
thither about the year 1680, has preserved a brief description
of it.  The body of the temple was constructed in the figure of a
colossal cross (i. e., a St.  Andrew's Cross), with a lofty dome
at the centre, above which rose a massive structure of a pyramidal
form.  At the four extremities of the cross there were four other
pyramids of proportionate dimensions, and which were ascended from
the outside by steps, with balconies at stated distances for places
of rest, reminding us of the temple of Belus, as described in the
pages of Herodotus.  The remains of a similar building are found
at Mhuttra, on the banks of the Jumna.  This and many others,
including the subterranean temple at Elephanta and the caverns of
Ellora and Salsette, are described at length in the well-known work
by Maurice; who adds that, besides these, there was yet another
device in which the Hindoo displayed the all-pervading sign; this
was by pyramidal towers placed crosswise.  At the famous temple of
Chillambrum, on the Coromandel coast, there were seven lofty walls,
one within the other, round the central quadrangle, and as many
pyramidal gate-ways in the midst of each side which forms the limbs
of a vast cross."

In Mexico pyramids were found everywhere.  Cortez, in a letter to
Charles V., states that he counted four hundred of them at Cholula.
Their temples were on those "high-places." The most ancient pyramids
in Mexico are at Teotihuacan, eight leagues from the city of Mexico;
the two largest were dedicated to the sun and moon respectively,
each built of cut stone, with a level area at the summit, and four
stages leading up to it.  The larger one is 680 feet square at the
base, about 200 feet high, and covers an area of eleven acres.  The
Pyramid of Cholula, measured by Humboldt, is 160 feet high, 1400
feet square at the base, and covers forty five acres! The great
pyramid of Egypt, Cheops, is 746 feet square, 450 feet high, and
covers between twelve and thirteen acres.  So that it appears that
the base of the Teotihuacan structure is nearly as large as that
of Cheops, while that of Cholula covers nearly four times as much
space.  The Cheops pyramid, however, exceeds very much in height
both the American structures.

Señor Garcia y Cubas thinks the pyramids of Teotihuacan (Mexico)
were built for the same purpose as those of Egypt.  He considers
the analogy established in eleven particulars, as follows:  1,
the site chosen is the same; 2, the structures are orientated with
slight variation; 3, the line through the centres of the structures
is in the astronomical meridian; 4, the construction in grades
and steps is the same; 5, in both cases the larger pyramids are
dedicated to the sun; 6, the Nile has "a valley of the dead," as
in Teotihuacan there is "a street of the dead;" 7, some monuments
in each class have the nature of fortifications; 8, the smaller
mounds are of the same nature and for the same purpose; 9, both
pyramids have a small mound joined to one of their faces; 10, the
openings discovered in the Pyramid of the Moon are also found in
some Egyptian pyramids; 11, the interior arrangements of the pyramids
are analogous. ("Ensayo de un Estudio.")

It is objected that the American edifices are different in form
from the Egyptian, in that they are truncated, or flattened at the
top; but this is not an universal rule.

"In many of the ruined cities of Yucatan one or more pyramids have
been found upon the summit of which no traces of any building could
be discovered, although upon surrounding pyramids such structures
could be found.  There is also some reason to believe that perfect
pyramids have been found in America.  Waldeck found near Palenque
two pyramids in a state of perfect preservation, square at the base,
pointed at the top, and thirty-one feet high, their sides forming
equilateral triangles." (Bancroft's Native Races," vol. v., p. 58.)

Bradford thinks that some of the Egyptian pyramids, and those
which with some reason it has been supposed are the most ancient,
are precisely similar to the Mexican 'teocalli'." ("North Americans
of Antiquity" p.  423.)

And there is in Egypt another form of pyramid called the 'mastaba',
which, like the Mexican, was flattened on the top; while in Assyria
structures flattened like the Mexican are found. "In fact," says
one writer, "this form of temple (the flat-topped) has been found
from Mesopotamia to the Pacific Ocean." The Phoenicians also built
pyramids.  In the thirteenth century the Dominican Brocard visited
the ruins of the Phoenician city of Mrith or Marathos, and speaks
in the strongest terms of admiration of those pyramids of surprising
grandeur, constructed of blocks of stone from twenty-six to twenty
eight feet long, whose thickness exceeded the stature of a tall
man. ("Prehistoric Nations," p.  144.)

"If," says Ferguson, "we still hesitate to pronounce that there
was any connection between the builders of the pyramids of Suku
and Oajaca, or the temples of Xochialco and Boro Buddor, we must
at least allow that the likeness is startling, and difficult to
account for on the theory of mere accidental coincidence."


The Egyptian pyramids all stand with their sides to the cardinal
points, while many of the Mexican pyramids do likewise.  The
Egyptian pyramids were penetrated by small passage-ways; so were
the Mexican.  The Pyramid of Teotihuacan, according to Almarez, has,
at a point sixty-nine feet from the base, a gallery large enough
to admit a man crawling on hands and knees, which extends, inward,
on an incline, a distance of twenty feet, and terminates in two
square wells or chambers, each five feet square and one of them
fifteen feet deep.  Mr.  Löwenstern states,


according to Mr.  Bancroft ("Native Races," vol. iv., p. 533), that
"the gallery is one hundred and fifty-seven feet long, increasing
in height to over six feet and a half as it penetrates the pyramid;
that the well is over six feet square, extending (apparently) down
to the base and up to the summit; and that other cross-galleries
are blocked up by débris." In the Pyramid of Cheops there is a
similar opening or passage-way forty-nine feet above the base; it
is three feet eleven inches high, and three feet five and a half
inches wide; it leads down a slope to a sepulchral chamber or well,
and connects with other passage-ways leading up into the body of
the pyramid.


In both the Egyptian the American pyramids the outside of the
structures was covered with a thick coating of smooth, shining

Humboldt considered the Pyramid of Cholula of the same type as the
Temple of Jupiter Belus, the pyramids of Meidoun Dachhour, and the
group of Sakkarah, in Egypt.


In both America and Egypt the pyramids were used as places of
sepulture; and it is a remarkable fact that the system of earthworks
and mounds, kindred to the pyramids, is found even in England.
Silsbury Hill, at Avebury, is an artificial mound 'one hundred and
seventy feet high'. It is connected with ramparts, avenues (fourteen
hundred and eighty yards long), circular ditches, and stone circles,
almost identical with those found in the valley of the Mississippi.
In Ireland the dead were buried in vaults of stone, and the earth
raised over them in pyramids flattened on the top.  They were called
"moats" by the people.  We have found the stone vaults at the base
of similar truncated pyramids in Ohio.  There can be no doubt that
the pyramid was a developed and perfected mound, and that the parent
form of these curious structures is to be found in Silsbury Hill,
and in the mounds of earth of Central America and the Mississippi

We find the emblem of the Cross in pre-Christian times venerated
as a holy symbol on both sides of the Atlantic; and we find it
explained as a type of the four rivers of the happy island where
the civilization of the race originated.

We find everywhere among the European and American nations the
memory of an Eden of the race, where the first men dwelt in primeval
peace and happiness, and which was afterward destroyed by water.

We find the pyramid on both sides of the Atlantic, with its four
sides pointing, like the arms of the Cross, to the four cardinal
points-a reminiscence of Olympus; and in the Aztec representation
of Olympos (Aztlan) we find the pyramid as the central and typical

Is it possible to suppose all these extraordinary coincidences
to be the result of accident? We might just as well say that the
similarities between the American and English forms of government
were not the result of relationship or descent, but that men placed
in similar circumstances had spontaneously and necessarily reached
the same results.



Money is the instrumentality by which man is lifted above
the limitations of barter.  Baron Storch terms it "the marvellous
instrument to which we are indebted for our wealth and civilization."

It is interesting to inquire into the various articles which have
been used in different countries and ages as money.  The following
is a table of some of them:

'Articles of Utility.'

| Indi....  ....  ....  | Cakes of tea....  ....  |
| Chin....  ....  ....  | Pieces of silk....  ....
| Abyssini....  ......  | Salt....  ....  ....  |
| Iceland and Newfoundland... Codfish....  .... ....
| Illinois (in early days)... Coon-skins....  ....    |
| Bornoo (Africa....  ....  Cotton shirts....   ....
| Ancient Russi....   ....  Skins of wild animals.....
| West India Islands (1500... Cocoa-nuts....  ....    |
| Massachusetts Indian....  | Wampum and musket-balls.    |
| Virginia (1700....  ....  Tobacco....  .... ....
| British West India Islands  | Pins, snuff, and whiskey.   |
| Central South Americ....  | Soap, chocolate, and eggs.  |
| Ancient Roman....   ....  Cattle....  ....  ....
| Ancient Greec....   ....  Nails of copper and iron.   |
| The Lacedemonian......  | Iron....  ....  ....  |
| The Burman Empir......  | Lead....  ....  ....  |
| Russia (1828 to 1845....  | Platinum....  ........
| Rome (under Numa Pompilius) | Wood and leather........
| Rome (under the Cæsars....  Land....  ....  ....  |
| Carthaginian....  ....  | Leather....  .... ....
| Ancient Britons Cattle....  slaves, brass, and iron.    |
| England (under James II.... Tin, gun-metal, and pewter. |
| South Sea Island......  | Axes and hammers........

'Articles of Ornament.'

| Ancient Jew....  ...... | Jewels....   |
| The Indian Islands and Africa | Cowrie shells, |

'Conventional Signs.'

| Holland (1574) | Pieces of pasteboard.....
| China (1200... Bark of the mulberry-tree. |

It is evident that every primitive people uses as money those
articles upon which they set the highest value--as cattle, jewels,
slaves, salt, musket-balls, pins, snuff, whiskey, cotton shirts,
leather, axes, and hammers; or those articles for which there was
a foreign demand, and which they could trade off to the merchants
for articles of necessity--as tea, silk, codfish, coonskins,
cocoa-nuts, and tobacco.  Then there is a later stage, when the
stamp of the government is impressed upon paper, wood, pasteboard,
or the bark of trees, and these articles are given a legal-tender

When a civilized nation comes in contact with a barbarous people
they seek to trade with them for those things which they need; a
metal-working people, manufacturing weapons of iron or copper, will
seek for the useful metals, and hence we find iron, copper, tin,
and lead coming into use as a standard of values--as money; for
they can always be converted into articles of use and weapons of
war.  But when we ask bow it chanced that gold and silver came to
be used as money, and why it is that gold is regarded as so much
more valuable than silver, no answer presents itself.  It was
impossible to make either of them into pots or pans, swords or
spears; they were not necessarily more beautiful than glass or the
combinations of tin and copper.  Nothing astonished the American
races more than the extraordinary value set upon gold and silver by
the Spaniards; they could not understand it.  A West Indian savage
traded a handful of gold-dust with one of the sailors accompanying
Columbus for some tool, and then ran for his life to the woods
lest the sailor should repent his bargain and call him back.  The
Mexicans had coins of tin shaped like a letter T. We can understand
this, for tin was necessary to them in hardening their bronze
implements, and it may have been the highest type of metallic value
among them.  A round copper coin with a serpent stamped on it was
found at Palenque, and T-shaped copper coins are very abundant
in the ruins of Central America.  This too we can understand, for
copper was necessary in every work of art or utility.

All these nations were familiar with gold and silver, but they
used them as 'sacred metals' for the adornment of the temples of
the sun and moon.  The color of gold was something of the color
of the sun's rays, while the color of silver resembled the pale
light of the moon, and hence they were respectively sacred to the
gods of the sun and moon.  And this is probably the origin of the
comparative value of these metals:  they became the precious metals
because they were the sacred metals, and gold was more valuable
than silver--just as the sun-god was the great god of the nations,
while the mild moon was simply an attendant upon the sun.

The Peruvians called gold "the tears wept by the sun." It was not
used among the people for ornament or money.  The great temple
of the sun at Cuzco was called the "Place of Gold." It was, as I
have shown, literally a mine of gold.  Walls, cornices, statuary,
plate, ornaments, all were of gold; the very ewers, pipes, and
aqueducts--even the agricultural implements used in the garden of
the temple--were of gold and silver.  The value of the jewels which
adorned the temple was equal to one hundred and eighty millions of
dollars! The riches of the kingdom can be conceived when we remember
that from a pyramid in Chimu a Spanish explorer named Toledo took,
in 1577, $4,450,284 in gold and silver.  ("New American Cyclopædia,"
art. 'American Antiquities'.) The gold and silver of Peru largely
contributed to form the metallic currency upon which Europe has
carried on her commerce during the last three hundred years.

Gold and silver were not valued in Peru for any intrinsic usefulness;
they were regarded as sacred because reserved for the two great
gods of the nation.  As we find gold and silver mined and worked
on both sides of the Atlantic at the earliest periods of recorded
history, we may fairly conclude that they were known to the
Atlanteans; and this view is confirmed by the statements of Plato,
who represents a condition of things in Atlantis exactly like that
which Pizarro found in Peru.  Doubtless the vast accumulations of
gold and silver in both countries were due to the fact that these
metals were not permitted to be used by the people.  In Peru the
annual taxes of the people were paid to the Inca in part in gold and
silver from the mines, and they were used to ornament the temples;
and thus the work of accumulating the sacred metals went on from
generation to generation.  The same process doubtless led to the
vast accumulations in the temples of Atlantis, as described by

Now, as the Atlanteans carried on an immense commerce with all the
countries of Europe and Western Asia, they doubtless inquired and
traded for gold and silver for the adornment of their temples, and
they thus produced a demand for and gave a value to the two metals
otherwise comparatively useless to man--a value higher than any other
commodity which the people could offer their civilized customers;
and as the reverence for the great burning orb of the sun, master
of all the manifestations of nature, was tenfold as great as
the veneration for the smaller, weaker, and variable goddess of
the night, so was the demand for the metal sacred to the sun ten
times as great as for the metal sacred to the moon.  This view is
confirmed by the fact that the root of the word by which the Celts,
the Greeks, and the Romans designated gold was the Sanscrit word
karat, which means, "'the color of the sun'." Among the Assyrians
gold and silver were respectively consecrated to the and moon
precisely as they were in Peru.  A pyramid belonging to the palace
of Nineveh is referred to repeatedly in the inscriptions.  It was
composed of seven stages, equal in height, and each one smaller in
area than the one beneath it; each stage was covered with stucco
of different colors, "a different color representing each of the
heavenly bodies, the least important being at the base:  white
(Venus); black (Saturn); purple (Jupiter); blue (Mercury); vermillion
(Mars); 'silver' (the Moon); and 'gold' (the Sun)." (Lenormant's
"Ancient History of the East," vol. i., p. 463.) "In England, to
this day the new moon is saluted with a bow or a courtesy, as well
as the curious practice of 'turning one's silver,' which seems
a relic of the offering of 'the moon's proper metal'." (Tylor's
"Anthropology", p. 361.) The custom of wishing, when one first
sees the new moon, is probably a survival of moon-worship; the wish
taking the place of the prayer.

And thus has it come to pass that, precisely as the physicians of
Europe, fifty years ago, practised bleeding, because for thousands
of years their savage ancestors had used it to draw away the evil
spirits out of the man, so the business of our modern civilization
is dependent upon the superstition of a past civilization, and the
bankers of the world are to-day perpetuating the adoration of "the
tears wept by the sun" which was commenced ages since on the island
of Atlantis.

And it becomes a grave question--when we remember that the rapidly
increasing business of the world, consequent upon an increasing
population, and a civilization advancing with giant steps, is measured
by the standard of a currency limited by natural laws, decreasing
annually in production, and incapable of expanding proportionately
to the growth of the world--whether this Atlantean superstition may
not yet inflict more incalculable injuries on mankind than those
which resulted from the practice of phlebotomy.





The western shores of Atlantis were not far distant from the West
India Islands; a people possessed of ships could readily pass from
island to island until they reached the continent.  Columbus found
the natives making such voyages in open canoes.  If, then, we will
suppose that there was no original connection between the inhabitants
of the main-land and of Atlantis, the commercial activity of
the Atlanteans would soon reveal to them the shores of the Gulf.
Commerce implies the plantation of colonies; the trading-post is
always the nucleus of a settlement; we have seen this illustrated
in modern times in the case of the English East India Company and
the Hudson Bay Company.  We can therefore readily believe that
commercial intercourse between Atlantis and Yucatan, Honduras and
Mexico, created colonies along the shores of the Gulf which gradually
spread into the interior, and to the high table-lands of Mexico.
And, accordingly, we find, as I have already shown, that all the
traditions of Central America and Mexico point to some country in
the East, and beyond the sea, as the source of their first civilized
people; and this region, known among them as "Aztlan," lived in
the memory of the people as a beautiful and happy land, where their
ancestors had dwelt in peace for many generations.

Dr.  Le Plongeon, who spent four years exploring Yucatan, says:

"One-third of this tongue (the Maya) is pure Greek.  Who brought
the dialect of Homer to America? or who took to Greece that of
the Mayas?  Greek is the offspring of the Sanscrit.  Is Maya? or
are they coeval? . .  . The Maya is not devoid of words from the

That the population of Central America (and in this term I include
Mexico) was at one time very dense, and had attained to a high
degree of civilization, higher even than that of Europe in the time
of Columbus, there can be no question; and it is also probable,
as I have shown, that they originally belonged to the white race.
Dêsirè Charnay, who is now exploring the ruins of Central America,
says ('North American Review', January, 1881, p. 48), "The Toltecs
were 'fair, robust, and bearded'. I have often seen Indians of
pure blood with blue eyes." Quetzalcoatl was represented as large,
"with a big head and a heavy beard." The same author speaks (page
44) of "the ocean of ruins all around, not inferior in size to
those of Egypt" At Teotihuacan he measured one building two thousand
feet wide on each side, and fifteen pyramids, each nearly as large
in the base as Cheops. "The city is indeed of vast exten....  the
whole ground, over a space of five or six miles in diameter, is
covered with heaps of ruins--ruins which at first make no impression,
so complete is their dilapidation." He asserts the great antiquity
of these ruins, because be found the very highways of the ancient
city to be composed of broken bricks and pottery, the débris left
by earlier populations. "This continent," he says (page 43), "is
the land of mysteries; we here enter an infinity whose limits we
cannot estimate. .  ... shall soon have to quit work in this place.
The long avenue on which it stands is lined with ruins of public
buildings and palaces, forming continuous lines, as in the streets
of modern cities.  Still, all these edifices and balls were as
nothing compared with the vast substructures which strengthened
their foundations."

We find the strongest resemblances to the works of the ancient
European races:  the masonry is similar; the cement is the same;
the sculptures are alike; both peoples used the arch; in both
continents we find bricks, glassware, and even porcelain ('North
American Review', December, 1880, pp. 524, 525), "with blue figures
on a white ground;" also bronze composed of the same elements of
copper and tin in like proportions; coins made of copper, round
and T-shaped, and even metallic candlesticks.

Dêsirè Charnay believes that he has found in the ruins of Tula
the bones of swine, sheep, oxen, and horses, in a fossil state,
indicating an immense antiquity.  The Toltecs possessed a pure and
simple religion, like that of Atlantis, as described by Plato, with
the same sacrifices of fruits and flowers; they were farmers; they
raised and wove cotton; they cultivated fruits; they used the sign
of the Cross extensively; they cut and engraved precious stones; among
their carvings have been found representations of the elephant and
the lion, both animals not known in America.  The forms of sepulture
were the same as among the ancient races of the Old World; they
burnt the bodies of their great men, and enclosed the dust in funeral
urns; some of their dead were buried in a sitting position, others
reclined at full length, and many were embalmed like the Egyptian

When we turn to Mexico, the same resemblances present themselves.

The government was an elective monarchy, like that of Poland,
the king being selected from the royal family by the votes of the
nobles of the kingdom.  There was a royal family, an aristocracy,
a privileged priesthood, a judiciary, and a common people.  Here we
have all the several estates into which society in Europe is divided.

There were thirty grand nobles in the kingdom, and the vastness of
the realm may be judged by the fact that each of these could muster
one hundred thousand vassals from their own estates, or a total
of three millions.  And we have only to read of the vast hordes
brought into the field against Cortez to know that this was not an

They even possessed that which has been considered the crowning
feature of European society, the feudal system.  The nobles held
their lands upon the tenure of military service.

But the most striking feature was the organization of the judiciary.
The judges were independent even of the king, and held their offices
for life.  There were supreme judges for the larger divisions of the
kingdom, district judges in each of the provinces, and magistrates
chosen by the people throughout the country.

There was also a general legislative assembly, congress, or parliament,
held every eighty days, presided over by the king, consisting of
all the judges of the realm, to which the last appeal lay

"The rites of marriage," says Prescott, "were celebrated with as
much formality as in any Christian country; and the institution
was held in such reverence that a tribunal was instituted for the
sole purpose of determining questions relating to it.  Divorces
could not be obtained until authorized by a sentence of the court,
after a patient hearing of the parties."

Slavery was tolerated, but the labors of the slave were light, his
rights carefully guarded, and his children were free.  The slave
could own property, and even other slaves.

Their religion possessed so many features similar to those of the
Old World, that the Spanish priests declared the devil had given
them a bogus imitation of Christianity to destroy their souls. "The
devil," said they, "stole all he could."

They had confessions, absolution of sins, and baptism.  When their
children were named, they sprinkled their lips and bosoms with
water, and "the Lord was implored to permit the holy drops to wash
away the sin that was given it before the foundation of the world."

The priests were numerous and powerful.  They practised fasts,
vigils, flagellations, and many of them lived in monastic seclusion.

The Aztecs, like the Egyptians, had progressed through all the three
different modes of writing--the picture-writing, the symbolical,
and the phonetic.  They recorded all their laws, their tribute-rolls
specifying the various imposts, their mythology, astronomical
calendars, and rituals, their political annals and their chronology.
They wrote on cotton-cloth, on skins prepared like parchment, on
a composition of silk and gum, and on a species of paper, soft and
beautiful, made from the aloe.  Their books were about the size and
shape of our own, but the leaves were long strips folded together
in many folds.

They wrote poetry and cultivated oratory, and paid much attention
to rhetoric.  They also had a species of theatrical performances.

Their proficiency in astronomy is thus spoken of by Prescott:

"That they should be capable of accurately adjusting their festivals
by the movements of the heavenly bodies, and should fix the true
length of the tropical year 'with a precision unknown to the great
philosophers of antiquity', could be the result only of a long series
of nice and patient observations, evincing no slight progress in

"Their women," says the same author, "are described by the
Spaniards as pretty, though with a serious and rather melancholy
cast of countenance.  Their long, black hair might generally be seen
wreathed with flowers, or, among the richer people, with strings
of precious stones and pearls from the Gulf of California.  They
appear to have been treated with much consideration by their husbands;
and passed their time in indolent tranquillity, or in such feminine
occupations as spinning, embroidery, and the like; while their
maidens beguiled the hours by the rehearsal of traditionary tales
and ballads.

"Numerous attendants of both sexes waited at the banquets.  The
balls were scented with perfumes, and the courts strewed with
odoriferous herbs and flowers, which were distributed in profusion
among the guests as they arrived.  Cotton napkins and ewers of
water were placed before them as they took their seats at the board.
Tobacco was them offered, in pipes, mixed with aromatic substances,
or in the form of cigars inserted in tubes of tortoise-shell or
silver.  It is a curious fact that the Aztecs also took the dried
tobacco leaf in the pulverized form of snuff.

"The table was well supplied with substantial meats, especially
game, among which the most conspicuous was the turkey.  Also, there
were found very delicious vegetables and. fruits of every variety
native to the continent.  Their palate was still further regaled
by confections and pastry, for which their maize-flower and sugar
furnished them ample materials.  The meats were kept warm with
chafing-dishes.  The table was ornamented with vases of silver
and sometimes gold of delicate workmanship.  The favorite beverage
was 'chocolatl', flavored with vanilla and different spices.  The
fermented juice of the maguey, with a mixture of sweets and acids,
supplied various agreeable drinks of different degrees of strength."

It is not necessary to describe their great public works, their
floating gardens, their aqueducts, bridges, forts, temples,


palaces, and gigantic pyramids, all ornamented with wonderful


We find a strong resemblance between the form of arch used in the
architecture of Central America and that of the oldest buildings
of Greece.  The Palenque arch is made by the gradual overlapping of
the strata of the building, as shown in the accompanying cut from
Baldwin's "Ancient America," page 100. It was the custom of these
ancient architects to fill in the arch itself with masonry, as
shown in the picture


on page 355 of the Arch of Las Monjas, Palenque.  If now we took
at the representation of the "Treasure-house of Atreus" at Mycenæ,
on page 354-one of the oldest structures in Greece--we find precisely
the same form of arch, filled in in the same way.

Rosengarten ("Architectural Styles," p. 59) says:

"The base of these treasure-houses is circular, and the covering
of a dome shape; it does not, however, form an arch, but courses
of stone are laid horizontally over one another in such a way that
each course projects beyond the one below it, till the space at
the highest course becomes so narrow that a single stone covers it.
Of all those that have survived to the present day the treasure-house
at Atreus is the most venerable."

The same form of arch is found among the ruins of that interesting
people, the Etruscans.

"Etruscan vaults are of two kinds.  The more curious and probably
the most ancient are 'false arches', formed of horizontal courses
of stone, each a little overlapping the other, and carried on until
the aperture at the top could be closed by a single superincumbent
slab.  Such is the construction of the Regulini-Galassi vault, at
Cervetere, the ancient Cære." (Rawlinson's "Origin of Nations," p.

It is sufficient to say, in conclusion, that Mexico, under European
rule, or under her own leaders, has never again risen to her former
standard of refinement, wealth, prosperity, or civilization.



What proofs have we that the Egyptians were a colony from Atlantis?

1. They claimed descent from "the twelve great gods," which must
have meant the twelve gods of Atlantis, to wit, Poseidon and Cleito
and their ten sons.

2. According to the traditions of the Phoenicians, the Egyptians
derived their civilization from them; and as the Egyptians far
antedated the rise of the Phoenician nations proper, this must have
meant that Egypt derived its civilization from the same country
to which the Phoenicians owed their own origin.  The Phoenician
legends show that Misor, from whom, the Egyptians were descended,
was the child of the Phoenician gods Amynus and Magus.  Misor gave
birth to Taaut, the god of letters, the inventor of the alphabet,
and Taaut became Thoth, the god of history of the Egyptians.
Sanchoniathon tells us that "Chronos (king of Atlantis) visited
the South, and gave all Egypt to the god Taaut, that it might be
his kingdom." "Misor" is probably the king "Mestor" named by Plato.

3. According to the Bible, the Egyptians were descendants of Ham,
who was one of the three sons of Noah who escaped from the Deluge,
to wit, the destruction of Atlantis.

4. The great similarity between the Egyptian civilization and that
of the American nations.

5. The fact that the Egyptians claimed to be red men.

6. The religion of Egypt was pre-eminently sun-worship, and Ra was
the sun-god of Egypt, Rama, the sun of the Hindoos, Rana, a god of
the Toltecs, Raymi, the great festival of the sun of the Peruvians,
and Rayam, a god of Yemen.

7. The presence of pyramids in Egypt and America.

8. The Egyptians were the only people of antiquity who were
well-informed as to the history of Atlantis.  The Egyptians were
never a maritime people, and the Atlanteans must have brought that
knowledge to them.  They were not likely to send ships to Atlantis.

9. We find another proof of the descent of the Egyptians from
Atlantis in their belief as to the "under-world." This land of the
dead was situated in the West--hence the tombs were all placed,
whenever possible, on the west bank of the Nile.  The constant cry
of the mourners as the funeral procession moved forward was, "To
the west; to the west." This under-world was 'beyond the water',
hence the funeral procession always crossed a body of water. "Where
the tombs were, as in most cases, on the west bank of the Nile,
the Nile was crossed; where they were on the eastern shore the
procession passed over a sacred lake." (R. S.  Poole, 'Contemporary
Review', August, 1881, p. 17.) In the procession was "'a sacred
ark' of the sun."

All this is very plain:  the under-world in the West, the land of
the dead, was Atlantis, the drowned world, the world beneath the
horizon, beneath the sea, to which the peasants of Brittany looked
from Cape Raz, the most western cape projecting into the Atlantic.
It was only to be reached from Egypt by crossing the water, and it
was associated with the ark, the emblem of Atlantis in all lands.

The soul of the dead man was supposed to journey to the under-world
by "'a water progress'" ('Ibid'., p. 18), his destination was the
Elysian Fields, where mighty corn grew, and where he was expected
to cultivate the earth; "this task was of supreme importance."
('Ibid'., p. 19.) The Elysian Fields were the "Elysion" of the
Greeks, the abode of the blessed, which we have seen was an island
'in the remote west'." The Egyptian belief referred to a real
country; they described its cities, mountains, and rivers; one
of the latter was called 'Uranes', a name which reminds us of the
Atlantean god Uranos.  In connection with all this we must not
forget that Plato described Atlantis as "that 'sacred' island lying
beneath the sun." Everywhere in the ancient world we find the minds
of men looking to the west for the land of the dead.  Poole says,
"How then can we account for this strong conviction? Surely it must
be a survival of an ancient belief which flowed in the very veins
of the race." ('Contemporary Review', 1881, p. 19.) It was based
on an universal tradition that under "an immense ocean," in "the
far west," there was an "under-world," a world comprising millions
of the dead, a mighty race, that had been suddenly swallowed up in
the greatest catastrophe known to man since he had inhabited the

10. There is no evidence that the civilization of Egypt was developed
in Egypt itself; it must have been transported there from some
other country.  To use the words of a recent writer in 'Blackwood',

"Till lately it was believed that the use of the papyrus for writing
was introduced about the time of Alexander the Great; then Lepsius
found the hieroglyphic sign of the papyrus-roll on monuments of the
twelfth dynasty; afterward be found the same sign on monuments of
the fourth dynasty, which is getting back pretty close to Menes,
the protomonarch; and, indeed, little doubt is entertained that
the art of writing on papyrus was understood as early as the days
of Menes himself.  The fruits of investigation in this, as m many
other subjects, are truly most marvellous.  Instead of exhibiting
the rise and progress of any branches of knowledge, they tend to
prove that nothing had any rise or progress, but that everything
is referable to the very earliest dates.  The experience of the
Egyptologist must teach him to reverse the observation of Topsy,
and to '`spect that nothing growed,' but that as soon as men were
planted on the banks of the Nile they were 'already the cleverest
men that ever lived, endowed with more knowledge and more power
than their successors for centuries and centuries could attain to'.
Their system of writing, also, is found to have been complete from
the very first....

"But what are we to think when the antiquary, grubbing in the
dust and silt of five thousand years ago to discover some traces
of infant effort--some rude specimens of the ages of Magog and
Mizraim, in which we may admire the germ that has since developed
into a wonderful art--breaks his shins against an article so perfect
that it equals if it does not excel the supreme stretch of modern
ability? How shall we support the theory if it come to our knowledge
that, before Noah was cold in his grave, his descendants were adepts
in construction and in the fine arts, and that their achievements
were for magnitude such as, if we possess the requisite skill, we
never attempt to emulate....

"As we have not yet discovered any trace of the rude, savage Egypt,
but have seen her in her very earliest manifestations already
skilful, erudite, and strong, it is impossible to determine the
order of her inventions.  Light may yet be thrown upon her rise and
progress, but our deepest researches have hitherto shown her to us
as only the mother of a most accomplished race.  How they came by
their knowledge is matter for speculation; that they possessed it
is matter of fact.  We never find them without the ability to organize
labor, or shrinking from the very boldest efforts in digging canals
and irrigating, in quarrying rock, in building, and in sculpture."

The explanation is simple:  the waters of the Atlantic now flow over
the country where all this magnificence and power were developed
by slow stages from the rude beginnings of barbarism.

And how mighty must have been the parent nation of which this Egypt
was a colony!

Egypt was the magnificent, the golden bridge, ten thousand years
long, glorious with temples and pyramids, illuminated and illustrated
by the most complete and continuous records of human history, along
which the civilization of Atlantis, in a great procession of kings
and priests, philosophers and astronomers, artists and artisans,
streamed forward to Greece, to Rome, to Europe, to America.  As
far back in the ages as the eye can penetrate, even where the
perspective dwindles almost to a point, we can still see the swarming
multitudes, possessed of all the arts of the highest civilization,
pressing forward from out that other and greater empire of which
even this wonderworking Nile-land is but a faint and imperfect

Look at the record of Egyptian greatness as preserved in her works:
The pyramids, still in their ruins, are the marvel of mankind.  The
river Nile was diverted from its course by monstrous embankments
to make a place for the city of Memphis.  The artificial lake of
Moeris was created as a reservoir for the waters of the Nile:  it
was 'four hundred and fifty miles in circumference' and three hundred
and fifty feet deep, with subterranean channels, flood-gates, locks,
and dams, by which the wilderness was redeemed from sterility.  Look
at the magnificent mason-work of this ancient people! Mr.  Kenrick,
speaking of the casing of the Great Pyramid, says, "The joints
are scarcely perceptible, and 'not wider than the thickness of
silver-paper', and the cement so tenacious that fragments of the
casing-stones still remain in their original position, notwithstanding
the lapse of so many centuries, and the violence by which they
were detached." Look at the ruins of the Labyrinth, which aroused
the astonishment of Herodotus; it had three thousand chambers,
half of them above ground and half below--a combination of courts,
chambers, colonnades, statues, and pyramids.  Look at the Temple
of Karnac, covering a square each side of which is eighteen hundred
feet.  Says a recent writer, "Travellers one and all appear to
have been unable to find words to express the feelings with which
these sublime remains inspired them.  They have been astounded and
overcome by the magnificence and the prodigality of workmanship
here to be admired.  Courts, halls, gate-ways, pillars, obelisks,
monolithic figures, sculptures, rows of sphinxes, are massed in
such profusion that the sight is too much for modern comprehension."
Denon says, "It is hardly possible to believe, after having seen
it, in the reality of the existence of so many buildings collected
on a single point--in their dimensions, in the resolute perseverance
which their construction required, and in the incalculable expense
of so much magnificence." And again, "It is necessary that the reader
should fancy what is before him to be a dream, as he who views the
objects themselves occasionally yields to the doubt whether he be
perfectly awake." There were lakes and mountains within the periphery
of the sanctuary. "'The cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris could be
set inside one of the halls of Karnac, and not touch the walls!....
The whole valley and delta of the Nile, from the Catacombs to
the sea, was covered with temples, palaces, tombs, pyramids, and
pillars." Every stone was covered with inscriptions.

The state of society in the early days of Egypt approximated very
closely to our modern civilization.  Religion consisted in the
worship of one God and the practice of virtue; forty-two commandments
prescribed the duties of men to themselves, their neighbors,
their country, and the Deity; a heaven awaited the good and a hell
the vicious; there was a judgment-day when the hearts of men were

"He is sifting out the hearts of men
Before his judgment-seat."

Monogamy was the strict rule; not even the kings, in the early
days, were allowed to have more than one wife.  The wife's rights
of separate property and her dower were protected by law; she was
"the lady of the house;" she could "buy, sell, and trade on her
own account;" in case of divorce her dowry was to be repaid to her,
with interest at a high rate.  The marriage-ceremony embraced an
oath not to contract any other matrimonial alliance.  The wife's
status was as high in the earliest days of Egypt as it is now in
the most civilized nations of Europe or America.

Slavery was permitted, but the slaves were treated with the
greatest humanity.  In the confessions, buried with the dead, the
soul is made to declare that "I have not incriminated the slave
to his master," There was also a clause in the commandments "which
protected the laboring man against the exaction of more than his
day's labor." They were merciful to the captives made in war; no
picture represents torture inflicted upon them; while the representation
of a sea-fight shows them saving their drowning enemies.  Reginald
Stuart Poole says ('Contemporary Review', August, 1881, p. 43):

"When we consider the high ideal of the Egyptians, as proved
by their portrayals of a just life, the principles they laid down
as the basis of ethics, the elevation of women among them, their
humanity in war, we must admit that their moral place ranks very
high among the nations of antiquity.

"The true comparison of Egyptian life is with that of modern
nations.  This is far too difficult a task to be here undertaken.
Enough has been said, however, to show that we need not think that
in all respects they were far behind us."

Then look at the proficiency in art of this ancient people.

They were the first mathematicians of the Old World.  Those Greeks
whom we regard as the fathers of mathematics were simply pupils of
Egypt.  They were the first land-surveyors.  They were the first
astronomers, calculating eclipses, and watching the periods of
planets and constellations.  They knew the rotundity of the earth,
which it was supposed Columbus had discovered!

"The signs of the zodiac were certainly in use among the Egyptians
1722 years before Christ.  One of the learned men of our day,
who for fifty years labored to decipher the hieroglyphics of the
ancients, found upon a mummy-case in the British Museum a delineation
of the signs of the zodiac, and the position of the planets; the
date to which they pointed was the autumnal equinox of the year
1722 B.C. Professor Mitchell, to whom the fact was communicated,
employed his assistants to ascertain the exact position of the
heavenly bodies belonging to our solar system on the equinox of that
year.  This was done, and a diagram furnished by parties ignorant
of his object, which showed that on the 7th of October, 1722 B.C.
the moon and planets occupied the exact point in the heavens marked
upon the coffin in the British Museum." (Goodrich's "Columbus," p.

They had clocks and dials for measuring time.  They possessed gold
and silver money.  They were the first agriculturists of the Old
World, raising all the cereals, cattle, horses, sheep, etc.  They
manufactured linen of so fine a quality that in the days of King
Amasis (600 years B.C.) a single thread of a garment was composed
of three hundred and sixty-five minor threads.  They worked in gold,
silver, copper, bronze, and iron; they tempered iron to the hardness
of steel.  They were the first chemists.  The word "chemistry"
comes from 'chemi', and 'chemi' means Egypt.  They manufactured
glass and all kinds of pottery; they made boats out of earthenware;
and, precisely as we are now making railroad car-wheels of paper,
they manufactured vessels of paper.  Their dentists filled teeth
with gold; their farmers hatched poultry by artificial beat.  They
were the first musicians; they possessed guitars, single and double
pipes, cymbals, drums, lyres, harps, flutes, the sambric, ashur,
etc.; they had even castanets, such as are now used in Spain.  In
medicine and surgery they had reached such a degree of perfection
that several hundred years B.C. the operation for the removal of
cataract from the eye was performed among them; one of the most
delicate and difficult feats of surgery, only attempted by us in
the most recent times. "The papyrus of Berlin" states that it was
discovered, rolled up in a case, under the feet of an Anubis in the
town of Sekhem, in the days of Tet (or Thoth), after whose death
it was transmitted to King Sent, and was then restored to the feet
of the statue.  King Sent belonged to the second dynasty, which
flourished 4751 B.C., and the papyrus was old in his day.  This
papyrus is a medical treatise; there are in it no incantations or
charms; but it deals in reasonable remedies, draughts, unguents
and injections.  The later medical papyri contain a great deal of
magic and incantations.

"Great and splendid as are the things which we know about oldest
Egypt, she is made a thousand times more sublime by our uncertainty as
to the limits of her accomplishments.  She presents not a great,
definite idea, which, though hard to receive, is, when once
acquired, comprehensible and clear.  Under the soil of the modern
country are hid away thousands and thousands of relics which may
astonish the world for ages to come, and change continually its
conception of what Egypt was.  The effect of research seems to be
to prove the objects of it to be much older than we thought them to
be--some things thought to be wholly modern having been proved to
be repetitions of things Egyptian, and other things known to have
been Egyptian being by every advance in knowledge carried back more
and more toward the very beginning of things.  She shakes our most
rooted ideas concerning the world's history; she has not ceased to
be a puzzle and a lure:  there is a spell over her still."

Renan says, "It has no archaic epoch." Osborn says, "It bursts upon
us at once in the flower of its highest perfection." Seiss says
("A, Miracle in Stone," p. 40), "It suddenly takes its place in the
world in all its matchless magnificence, without father, without
mother, and as clean apart from all evolution as if it had dropped
from the unknown heavens." It had dropped from Atlantis.

Rawlinson says ("Origin of Nations," p. 13):

"Now, in Egypt, it is notorious that there is no indication of any
early period of savagery or barbarism.  All the authorities agree
that, however far back we go, we find in Egypt no rude or uncivilized
time out of which civilization is developed.  Menes, the first
king, changes the course of the Nile, makes a great reservoir, and
builds the temple of Phthah at Memphis....  We see no barbarous
customs, not even the habit, so slowly abandoned by all people, of
wearing arms when not on military service."

Tylor says (" Anthropology," p. 192):

"Among the ancient cultured nations of Egypt and Assyria handicrafts
had already come to a stage which could only have been reached by
thousands of years of progress.  In museums still may be examined
the work of their joiners, stone-cutters, goldsmiths, wonderful in
skill and finish, and in putting to shame the modern artificer....
To see gold jewellery of the highest order, the student should examine
that of the ancients, such as the Egyptian, Greek, and Etruscan."

The carpenters' and masons' tools of the ancient Egyptians were
almost identical with those used among us to-day.

There is a plate showing an Aztec priestess in Delafield's "Antiquities
of America," p. 61, which presents a head-dress strikingly Egyptian.
In the celebrated "tablet of the cross," at Palenque, we see a
cross with a bird perched upon it, to which (or to the cross) two
priests are offering sacrifice.  In Mr.  Stephens's representation
from the Vocal Memnon we find almost the same thing, the difference
being that, instead of an ornamented Latin cross, we have a 'crux
commissa', and instead of one bird there are two, not on the cross,
but immediately above it.  In both cases the hieroglyphics, though
the characters are of course different, are disposed upon the stone
in much the same manner.  (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p.

Even the obelisks of Egypt have their counterpart in America.

Quoting from Molina ("History of Chili," tom. i., p. 169), McCullough
writes, "Between the hills of Mendoza and La Punta is a pillar of
stone 'one hundred and fifty feet high', and twelve feet in diameter."
("Researches," pp. 171, 172.) The columns of Copan stand detached
and solitary, so do the obelisks of Egypt; both are square or
four-sided, and covered with sculpture. (Bancroft's "Native Races,"
vol. v., p. 60.)

In a letter by Jomard, quoted by Delafield, we read,

"I have recognized in your memoir on the division of time among the
Mexican nations, compared with those of Asia, some very striking
analogies between the Toltec characters and institutions observed
on the banks of the Nile.  Among these analogies there is one which
is worthy of attention--it is the use of the vague year of three
hundred and sixty-five days, composed of equal months, and of
five complementary days, equally employed at Thebes and Mexico--a
distance of three thousand leagues....  In reality, the intercalation
of the Mexicans being thirteen days on each cycle of fifty-two years,
comes to the same thing as that of the Julian calendar, which is
one day in four years; and consequently supposes the duration of the
year to be three hundred and sixty-five days 'six hours'. Now such
was the length of the year among the Egyptians--they intercalated
an entire year of three hundred and seventy-five days every
one thousand four hundred and sixty years.  ... The fact of the
intercalation (by the Mexicans) of thirteen days every cycle that
is, the use of a year of three hundred and sixty-five days and a
quarter--is a proof that it was borrowed from the Egyptians, 'or
that they had a common origin'." ("Antiquities of America," pp.
52, 53.)

The Mexican century began on the 26th of February, and the 26th
of February was celebrated from the time of Nabonassor, 747 B.C.,
because the Egyptian priests, conformably to their astronomical
observations, had fixed the beginning of the month 'Toth', and
the commencement of their year, at noon on that day.  The five
intercalated days to make up the three hundred and sixty-five days
were called by the Mexicans 'Nemontemi', or useless, and on them
they transacted no business; while the Egyptians, during that epoch,
celebrated the festival of the birth of their gods, as attested by
Plutarch and others.

It will be conceded that a considerable degree of astronomical
knowledge must have been necessary to reach the conclusion that
the true year consisted of three hundred and sixty-five days 'and
six hours' (modern science has demonstrated that it consists of
three hundred and sixty-five days and five hours, less ten seconds);
and a high degree of civilization was requisite to insist that
the year must be brought around, by the intercalation of a certain
number of days in a certain period of time, to its true relation to
the seasons.  Both were the outgrowth of a vast, ancient civilization
of the highest order, which transmitted some part of its astronomical
knowledge to its colonies through their respective priesthoods.

Can we, in the presence of such facts, doubt the statements of
the Egyptian priests to Solon, as to the glory and greatness of
Atlantis, its monuments, its sculpture, its laws, its religion,
its civilization?

In Egypt we have the oldest of the Old World children of Atlantis;
in her magnificence we have a testimony to the development attained
by the parent country; by that country whose kings were the gods
of succeeding nations, and whose kingdom extended to the uttermost
ends of the earth.

The Egyptian historian, Manetho, referred to a period of thirteen
thousand nine hundred years as "the reign of the gods," and placed
this period at the very beginning of Egyptian history.  These
thirteen thousand nine hundred years were probably a recollection
of Atlantis.  Such a lapse of time, vast as it may appear, is but
as a day compared with some of our recognized geological epochs.



If we will suppose a civilized, maritime people to have planted
colonies, in the remote past, along the headlands and shores of
the Gulf of Mexico, spreading thence, in time, to the tablelands of
Mexico and to the plains and mountains of New Mexico and Colorado,
what would be more natural than that these adventurous navigators,
passing around the shores of the Gulf, should, sooner or later,
discover the mouth of the Mississippi River; and what more certain
than that they would enter it, explore it, and plant colonies along
its shores, wherever they found a fertile soil and a salubrious
climate.  Their outlying provinces would penetrate even into regions
where the severity of the climate would prevent great density of
population or development of civilization.

The results we have presupposed are precisely those which we find
to have existed at one time in the Mississippi Valley.

The Mound Builders of the United States were pre-eminently a river
people.  Their densest settlements and greatest works were near
the Mississippi and its tributaries.  Says Foster ("Prehistoric
Races," p.  110), "The navigable streams were the great highways
of the Mound Builders."

Mr.  Fontaine claims ("How the World was Peopled") that this ancient
people constructed "levees" to control and utilize the bayous of
the Mississippi for the purpose of agriculture and commerce.  The
Yazoo River is called 'Yazoo-okhinnah'--the River of Ancient Ruins.
"There is no evidence that they had reached the Atlantic coast;
no authentic remains of the Mound Builders are found in the New
England States, nor even in the State of New York." ("North Americans
of Antiquity," p. 28.) This would indicate that the civilization of
this people advanced up the Mississippi River and spread out over
its tributaries, but did not cross the Alleghany {sic} Mountains.
They reached, however, far up the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers,
and thence into Oregon.  The head-waters of the Missouri became one
of their great centres of population; but their chief sites were
upon the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.  In Wisconsin we find the
northern central limit of their work; they seem to have occupied
the southern counties of the State, and the western shores of Lake
Michigan.  Their circular mounds are found in Minnesota and Iowa,
and some very large ones in Dakota.  Illinois and Indiana were
densely populated by them:  it is believed that the vital centre
of their colonies was near the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi

The chief characteristic of the Mound Builders was that from which
they derived their name-the creation of great structures of earth
or stone, not unlike the pyramids of Mexico and Egypt.  Between
Alton and East St.  Louis is the great mound of Cahokia, which may
be selected as a type of their works:  it rises ninety-seven feet
high, while its square sides are 700 and 500 feet respectively.
There was a terrace on the south side 160 by 300 feet, reached by
a graded way; the summit of the pyramid is flattened, affording
a platform 200 by 450 feet.  It will thus be seen that the area
covered by the mound of Cahokia is about as large as that of the
greatest pyramid of Egypt, Cheops, although its height is much

The number of monuments left by the Mound Builders is extraordinarily
great.  In Ohio alone there are more than ten thousand tumuli, and
from one thousand to fifteen hundred enclosures.  Their mounds were
not cones but four-sided pyramids-their sides, like those of the
Egyptian pyramids, corresponding with the cardinal points. (Foster's
"Prehistoric Races," p. 112.)

The Mound Builders had attained a considerable degree of civilization;
they were able to form, in the construction of their works, perfect
circles and perfect squares of great accuracy, carried over the
varying surface of the country.  One large enclosure comprises
exactly forty acres.  At Hopetown, Ohio, are two walled figures--one
a square, the other a circle--each containing precisely twenty
acres.  They must have possessed regular scales of measurement,
and the means of determining angles and of computing the area to be
enclosed by the square and the circle, so that the space enclosed
by each might exactly correspond.

"The most skilful engineer of this day would find it difficult,"
says Mr.  Squier, "without the aid of instruments, to lay down an
accurate square of the great dimensions above represented, measuring,
as they do, more than four-fifths of a mile in circumference....
But we not only find accurate squares and perfect circles, but
also, as we have seen, octagons of great dimensions."

They also possessed an accurate system of weights; bracelets of
copper on the arms of a skeleton have been found to be of uniform
size, measuring each two and nine-tenth inches, and each weighing
'precisely four ounces'.

They built great military works surrounded by walls and ditches,
with artificial lakes in the centre to supply water.  One work,
Fort Ancient, on the Little Miami River, Ohio, has a circuit of
between four and five miles; the embankment was twenty feet high;
the fort could have held a garrison of sixty thousand men with
their families and provisions.

Not only do we find pyramidal structures of earth in the Mississippi
Valley very much like the pyramids of Egypt, Mexico, and Peru, but
a very singular structure is repeated in Ohio and Peru:  I refer to
the double walls or prolonged pyramids, if I may coin an expression,
shown in the cut page 375.


The Mound Builders possessed chains of fortifications reaching
from the southern line of New York diagonally across the country,
through Central and Northern Ohio to the Wabash.  It would appear
probable, therefore, that while they


advanced from the south it was from the north-east the savage races
came who drove them south or exterminated them.

At Marietta, Ohio, we find a combination of the cross and pyramid.,
(See p. 334, 'ante'.) At Newark, Ohio, are extensive


and intricate works:  they occupy an area two miles square,
embraced within embankments twelve miles long.  One of the mounds
is a threefold symbol, like a bird's foot; the central mound is
155 feet long, and the other two each 110 feet it length.  Is this
curious design a reminiscence of Atlantis and the three-pronged
trident of Poseidon? (See 4th fig., p, 242, ante.)

The Mound Builders made sun-dried brick mixed with rushes, as the
Egyptians made sun-dried bricks mixed with straw; they worked in
copper, silver, lead, and there are evidences, as we shall see,
that they wrought even in iron.

Copper implements are very numerous in the mounds.  Copper axes,
spear-heads, hollow buttons, bosses for ornaments, bracelets,
rings, etc., are found in very many of them strikingly similar to
those of the Bronze Age in Europe.  In one in Butler County, Ohio,
was found a copper fillet around the head of a skeleton, with
strange devices marked upon it.

Silver ornaments have also been found, but not in such great numbers.
They seem to have attached a high value to silver, and it is often
found in thin sheets, no thicker than paper, wrapped over copper
or stone ornaments so neatly as almost to escape detection.  The
great esteem in which they held a metal so intrinsically valueless
as silver, is another evidence that they must have drawn their
superstitions from the same source as the European nations.

Copper is also often found in this manner plated over stone pipes,
presenting an unbroken metallic lustre, the overlapping edges
so well polished as to be scarcely discoverable.  Beads and stars
made of shells have sometimes been found doubly plated, first with
copper then with silver.

The Mound Builders also understood the art of casting metals, or
they held intercourse with some race who did; a copper axe it "cast"
has been found in the State of New York. (See Lubbock's "Prehistoric
Times," p.  254, note.) Professor Foster ("Prehistoric Races," p.
259) also proves that the ancient people of the Mississippi Valley
possessed this art, and he gives us representations of various
articles plainly showing the marks of the mould upon them.

A rude article in the shape of an axe, composed of pure lead, weighing
about half a pound, was found in sinking a well within the trench
of the ancient works at Circleville.  There can be no doubt it
was the production of the Mound Builders, as galena has often been
found on the altars in the mounds.

It has been generally thought, by Mr.  Squier and others, that there
were no evidences that the Mound Builders were acquainted with the
use of iron, or that their plating was more than a simple overlaying
of one metal on another, or on some foreign substance.

Some years since, however, a mound was opened at Marietta, Ohio,
which seems to have refuted these opinions.  Dr.  S. P. Hildreth,
in a letter to the American Antiquarian Society, thus speaks of

"Lying immediately over or on the forehead of the body were found
three large circular bosses, or ornaments for a sword-belt or
buckler; they are composed of copper overlaid with a thick plate
of silver.  The fronts are slightly convex, with a depression like
a cup in the centre, and they measure two inches and a quarter
across the face of each.  On the back side, opposite the depressed
portion, is a copper rivet or nail, around which are two separate
plates by which they were fastened to the leather.  Two small
pieces of leather were found lying between the plates of one of the
bosses; they resemble the skin of a mummy, and seem to have been
preserved by the salts of copper.  Near the side of the body was
found a plate of silver, which appears to have been the upper part
of a sword scabbard; it is six inches in length, two in breadth, and
weighs one ounce.  It seems to have been fastened to the scabbard
by three or four rivets, the holes of which remain in the silver.

"Two or three pieces of copper tube were also found, 'filled with
iron rust'. These pieces, from their appearance, composed the lower
end of the scabbard, near the point of the sword.  No signs of the
sword itself were discovered, except the rust above mentioned.

"The mound had every appearance of being as old as any in the
neighborhood, and was at the first settlement of Marietta covered
with large trees.  It seems to have been made for this single
personage, as this skeleton alone was discovered.  The bones were
very much decayed, and many of them crumbled to dust upon exposure
to the air."

Mr.  Squier says, "These articles have been critically examined,
and it is beyond doubt that the copper bosses were absolutely
'plated', not simply 'overlaid', with silver.  Between the copper
and the silver exists a connection such as, it seems to me, could
only be produced by heat; and if it is admitted that. these are
genuine relies of the Mound Builders, it must, at the same time, be
admitted that they possessed the difficult art of plating one metal
upon another.  There is but one alternative, viz., that they had
occasional or constant intercourse with a people advanced in the
arts, from whom these articles were obtained.  Again, if Dr.  Hildreth
is not mistaken, 'oxydized iron' or steel was also discovered
in connection with the above remains, from which also follows the
extraordinary conclusion that 'the Mound Builders were acquainted
with the use of iron', the conclusion being, of course, subject to
the improbable alternative already mentioned."

In connection with this subject, we would refer to the interesting
evidences that the copper mines of the shore of Lake Superior
had been at some very remote period worked by the Mound Builders.
There were found deep excavations, with rude ladders, huge masses
of rock broken off, also numerous stone tools, and all the evidences
of extensive and long-continued labor.  It is even said that the
great Ontonagon mass of pure copper which is now in Washington was
excavated by these ancient miners, and that when first found its
surface showed numerous marks of their tools.

There seems to be no doubt, then, that the Mound Builders were
familiar with the use of copper, silver, and lead, and in all
probability of iron.  They possessed various mechanical contrivances.
They were very probably acquainted with the lathe.  Beads of
shell have been found looking very much like ivory, and showing
the 'circular striæ, identical with those produced by turning in
a lathe'.

In a mound on the Scioto River was found around the neck of a
skeleton triple rows of beads, made of marine shells and the tusks
of some animal. "Several of these," says Squier, "still retain
their polish, and bear marks which seem to indicate that they were
turned in some machine, instead of being carved or rubbed into
shape by hand."

"Not among the least interesting and remarkable relies," continues
the same author, "obtained from the mounds are the stone tubes.  They
are all carved from fine-grained materials, capable of receiving
a polish, and being made ornamental as well as useful.  The finest
specimen yet discovered, and which can scarcely be surpassed in the
delicacy of its workmanship, was found in a mound in the immediate
vicinity of Chillicothe.  It is composed of a compact variety of
slate.  This stone cuts with great clearness, and receives a fine
though not glaring polish.  The tube under notice is thirteen inches
long by one and one-tenth in diameter; one end swells slightly, and
the other terminates in a broad, flattened, triangular mouth-piece
of fine proportions, which is carved 'with mathematical precision'.
It is drilled throughout; the bore is seven-tenths of an inch
in diameter at the cylindrical end of the tube, and retains that
calibre until it reaches the point where the cylinder subsides into
the mouth-piece, when it contracts gradually to one-tenth of an
inch.  The inner surface of the tube is perfectly smooth till within
a short distance of the point of contraction. 'For the remaining
distance the circular striæ, formed by the drill in boring, are
distinctly marked'. The carving upon it is very fine."

That they possessed saws is proved by the fact that on some fossil
teeth found in one of the mounds the 'striæ' of the teeth of the
saw could be distinctly perceived.

When we consider that some of their porphyry carvings will turn the
edge of the best-tempered knife, we are forced to conclude that
they possessed that singular process, known to the Mexicans and
Peruvians of tempering copper to the hardness of steel.

We find in the mounds adzes similar in shape to our own, with the
edges bevelled from the inside.

Drills and gravers of copper have also been found, with chisel-shaped
edges or sharp points.

"It is not impossible," says Squier, "but, on the contrary, very
probable, from a close inspection of the mound pottery, that the
ancient people possessed the simple approximation toward the potter's
wheel; and the polish which some of the finer vessels possess is
due to other causes than vitrification."

Their sculptures show a considerable degree of progress.  They
consist of figures of birds, animals, reptiles, and the faces of
men, carved from various kinds of stones, upon the bowls of pipes,
upon toys, upon rings, and in distinct and separate figures.  We
give the opinions of those who have examined them.

Mr.  Squier observes:  "Various though not abundant specimens
of their skill have been recovered, which in elegance of model,
delicacy, and finish, as also in fineness of material, come fully
up to the best Peruvian specimens, to which they bear, in many
respects, a close resemblance.  The bowls of most of the stone pipes
are carved in miniature figures of animals, birds, reptiles, etc.
All of them are executed with strict fidelity to nature, and with
exquisite skill.  Not only are the features of the objects faithfully
represented, but their peculiarities and habits. are in some degree
exhibited....  The two heads here presented, intended to represent
the eagle, are far superior in point of finish, spirit, and
truthfulness, to any miniature carvings, ancient or modern, which
have fallen under the notice of the authors.  The peculiar defiant
expression of the king of birds is admirably preserved in the
carving, which in this respect, more than any other, displays the
skill of the artist."


Traces of cloth with "doubled and twisted fibre" have been found
in the mounds; also matting; also shuttle-like tablets, used in
weaving.  There have also been found numerous musical pipes, with
mouth-pieces and stops; lovers' pipes, curiously and delicately
carved, reminding us of Bryant's lines--

"Till twilight came, and lovers walked and wooed
In a forgotten language; and old tunes,
From instruments of unremembered forms,
Gave the soft winds a voice."

There is evidence which goes to prove that the Mound Builders had
relations with the people of a semi-tropical region in the direction
of Atlantis, Among their sculptures, in Ohio, we find accurate
representations of the lamantine, manatee, or sea-cow--found to-day
on the shores of Florida, Brazil, and Central America--and of the
toucan, a tropical and almost exclusively South American bird.
Sea-shells from the Gulf, pearls from the Atlantic, and obsidian
from Mexico, have also been found side by side in their mounds.

The antiquity of their works is now generally conceded. "From the
ruins of Nineveh and Babylon," says Mr.  Gliddon, "we have bones
of at least two thousand five hundred years old; from the pyramids
and the catacombs of Egypt both mummied and unmummied crania have
been taken, of still higher antiquity, in perfect preservation;
nevertheless, the skeletons deposited in our Indian mounds, from
the Lakes to the Gulf, are crumbling into dust through age alone."

All the evidence points to the conclusion that civilized or
semi-civilized man has dwelt on the western continent from a vast
antiquity.  Maize, tobacco, quinoa, and the mandico plants have been
cultivated so long that their wild originals have quite disappeared.

"The only species of palm cultivated by the South American Indians,
that known as the 'Gulielma speciosa', has lost through that culture
its original nut-like seed, and is dependent on the hands of its
cultivators for its life.  Alluding to the above-named plants Dr.
Brinton ("Myths of the New World," p. 37) remarks, 'Several are
sure to perish unless fostered by human care.  What numberless
ages does this suggest? How many centuries elapsed ere man thought
of cultivating Indian corn? How many more ere it had spread over
nearly a hundred degrees of latitude and lost all resemblance
to its original form?' In the animal kingdom certain animals were
domesticated by the aborigines from so remote a period that scarcely
any of their species, as in the case of the lama of Peru, were to
be found in a state of unrestrained freedom at the advent of the
Spaniards." (Short's "North Americans of Antiquity," p. 11.)

The most ancient remains of man found in Europe are distinguished
by a flattening of the tibia; and this peculiarity is found to
be present in an exaggerated form in some of the American mounds.
This also points to a high antiquity.

"None of the works, mounds, or enclosures are found on the lowest
formed of the river terraces which mark the subsidence of the
streams, and as there is no good reason why their builders should
have avoided erecting them on that terrace while they raised them
promiscuously on all the others, it follows, not unreasonably,
that this terrace has been formed since the works were erected.
(Baldwin's "Ancient America," p. 47.)

We have given some illustrations showing the similarity between
the works of the Mound Builders and those of the Stone and Bronze
Age in Europe. (See pp. 251, 260, 261, 262, 265, 266, ante.)

The Mound Builders retreated southward toward Mexico, and probably
arrived there some time between A.D. 29 and A.D. 231, under the
name of Nahuas.  They called the region they left in the Mississippi
Valley "Hue Hue Tlapalan"--'the old, old red land'--in allusion,
probably, to the red-clay soil of part of the country.

In the mounds we find many works of copper but none of bronze.  This
may indicate one of two things:  either the colonies which settled
the Mississippi Valley may have left Atlantis prior to the discovery
of the art of manufacturing bronze, by mixing one part of tin with
nine parts of copper, or, which is more probable, the manufactures
of the Mound Builders may have been made on the spot; and as they
had no tin within their territory they used copper alone, except,
it may be, for such tools as were needed to carve stone, and these,
perhaps, were hardened with tin.  It is known that the Mexicans
possessed the art of manufacturing true bronze; and the intercourse
which evidently existed between Mexico and the Mississippi Valley,
as proved by the presence of implements of obsidian in the mounds
of Ohio, renders it probable that the same commerce which brought
them obsidian brought them also small quantities of tin, or
tin-hardened copper implements necessary for their sculptures.

The proofs, then, of the connection of the Mound Builders with
Atlantis are:

1. Their race identity with the nations of Central America
who possessed Flood legends, and whose traditions all point to an
eastern, over-sea origin; while the many evidences of their race
identity with the ancient Peruvians indicate that they were part
of one great movement of the human race, extending from the Andes
to Lake Superior, and, as I believe, from Atlantis to India.

2. The similarity of their civilization, and their works of stone
and bronze, with the civilization of the Bronze Age in Europe.

3. The presence of great truncated mounds, kindred to the pyramids
of Central America, Mexico, Egypt, and India.

4. The representation of tropical animals, which point to an
intercourse with the regions around the Gulf of Mexico, where the
Atlanteans were colonized.

5. The fact that the settlements of the Mound Builders were confined
to the valley of the Mississippi, and were apparently densest at
those points where a population advancing up that, stream would
first reach high, healthy, and fertile lands.

6. The hostile nations which attacked them came from the north; and
when the Mound Builders could no longer hold the country, or when
Atlantis stink in the sea, they retreated in the direction whence
they came, and fell back upon their kindred races in Central America,
as the Roman troops in Gaul and Britain drew southward upon the
destruction of Rome.

7. The Natchez Indians, who are supposed to have descended from
the Mound Builders, kept a perpetual fire burning before an altar,
watched by old men who were a sort of priesthood, as in Europe.

8. If the tablet said to have been found in a mound near Davenport,
Iowa, is genuine, which appears probable, the Mound Builders must
either have possessed an alphabet, or have held intercourse with
some people who did. (See "North Americans of Antiquity," p. 38.)
This singular relic exhibits what appears to be a sacrificial
mound with a fire upon it; over it are the sun, moon, and stars,
and above these a mass of hieroglyphics which bear some resemblance
to the letters of European alphabets, and especially to that unknown
alphabet which appears upon the inscribed bronze celt found near
Rome. (See p. 258 of this work.) For instance, one of the letters
on the celt is this, ; on the Davenport tablet we find this sign, ;
on the celt we have ; on the tablet, ; on the celt we have
; on the tablet, .



At the farthest point in the past to which human knowledge extends a
race called Iberian inhabited the entire peninsula of Spain, from
the Mediterranean to the Pyrenees.  They also extended over the
southern part of Gaul as far as the Rhone.

"It is thought that the Iberians from Atlantis and the north-west
part of Africa," says Winchell, "settled in the Southwest of Europe
at a period earlier than the settlement of the Egyptians in the
north-east of Africa.  The Iberians spread themselves over Spain,
Gaul, and the British Islands as early as 4000 or 5000 B.C....  The
fourth dynasty (of the Egyptians), according to Brugsch, dates from
about 3500 B.C. At this time the Iberians had become sufficiently
powerful to attempt the conquest of the known world." ("Preadamites,"
p. 443.)

"The Libyan-Amazons of Diodorus--that is to say, the Libyans of
the Iberian race--must be identified with the Libyans with brown
and grizzly skin, of whom Brugsch has already pointed out the
representations figured on the Egyptian monuments of the fourth
dynasty." ('Ibid'.)

The Iberians, known as Sicanes, colonized Sicily in the ancient
days.  They were the original settlers in Italy and Sardinia.  They
are probably the source of the dark-haired stock in Norway and
Sweden.  Bodichon claims that the Iberians embraced the Ligurians,
Cantabrians, Asturians, and Aquitanians.  Strabo says, speaking of
the Turduli and Turdetani, "they are the most cultivated of all the
Iberians; they employ the art of writing, and have written books
containing memorials of ancient times, and also poems and laws set
in verse, for which they claim an antiquity of six thousand years."
(Strabo, lib. iii., p. 139.)

The Iberians are represented to-day by the Basques.

The Basque are "of middle size, compactly built, robust and agile, 'of
a darker complexion than the Spaniards', with gray eyes and black
hair.  They are simple but proud, impetuous, merry, and hospitable.
The women are beautiful, skilful in performing men's work, and
remarkable for their vivacity and grace.  The Basques are much
attached to dancing, and are very fond of the music of the bagpipe."
("New American Cyclopædia," art. 'Basques'.)

"According to Paul Broca their language stands quite alone, or has
mere 'analogies with the American type'. Of all Europeans, we must
provisionally hold the Basques to be the oldest inhabitants of our
quarter of the world." (Peschel, "Races of Men," p. 501.)

The Basque language--the Euscara--"has some common traits with the
Magyar, Osmanli, and other dialects of the Altai family, as, for
instance, with the Finnic on the old continent, as well as the
'Algonquin-Lenape language and some others in America'." ("New
American Cyclopædia," art. 'Basques'.)

Duponceau says of the Basque tongue:

"This language, preserved in a corner of Europe by a few thousand
mountaineers, is the sole remaining fragment of, perhaps, a hundred
dialects constructed on the same plan, which probably existed and
were universally spoken at a remote period in that quarter of the
world.  Like the bones of the mammoth, it remains a monument of
the destruction produced by a succession of ages.  It stands single
and alone of its kind, Surrounded by idioms that have no affinity
with it."

We have seen them settling, in the earliest ages, in Ireland.  They
also formed the base of the dark-haired population of England and
Scotland.  They seem to have race affinities with the Berbers, on
the Mediterranean coast of Africa.

Dr.  Bodichon, for fifteen years a surgeon in Algiers, says

"Persons who have inhabited Brittany, and then go to Algeria, are
struck with the resemblance between the ancient Armoricans (the
'Brètons') and the Cabyles (of Algiers). In fact, the moral and
physical character is identical.  The Breton of pure blood has a
long head, light yellow complexion of bistre tinge, eyes black or
brown, stature short, and the black hair of the Cabyle.  Like him,
he instinctively hates strangers; in both are the same perverseness
and obstinacy, same endurance of fatigue, same love of independence,
same inflexion of the voice, same expression of feelings.  Listen
to a Cabyle speaking his native ton(rue, and you will think you
bear a Breton talking Celtic."

The Bretons, he tells us, form a strong contrast to the people
around them, who are "Celts of tall stature, with blue eyes, white
skins, and blond hair:  they are communicative, impetuous, versatile;
they pass rapidly from courage to despair.  The Bretons are entirely
different: they are taciturn, hold strongly to their ideas and
usages, are persevering and melancholic; in a word, both in 'morale'
and 'physique' they present the type of a southern race--of the

By Atlanteans Dr.  Bodichon refers to the inhabitants of the Barbary
States--that being one of the names by which they were known to
the Greeks and Romans.  He adds:

"The Atlanteans, among the ancients, passed for the favorite
children of Neptune; they made known the worship of this god to
other nations-to the Egyptians, for example.  In other words, the
Atlanteans were the first known navigators.  Like all navigators,
they must have planted colonies at a distance.  The Bretons, in
our opinion, sprung from one of them."

Neptune was Poseidon, according to Plato, founder of Atlantis.

I could multiply proofs of the close relationship between the
people of the Bronze Age of Europe and the ancient inhabitants of
Northern Africa, which should be read remembering that "connecting
ridge" which, according to the deep-sea soundings, united Africa
and Atlantis.



If we look at the map of Atlantis, as revealed by the deep sea
soundings, we will find that it approaches at one point, by its
connecting ridge, quite closely to the shore of South.  America,
above the mouth of the Amazon, and that probably it was originally
connected with it.

If the population of Atlantis expanded westwardly, it naturally
found its way in its ships up the magnificent valley of the Amazon
and its tributaries; and, passing by the low and fever-stricken lands
of Brazil, it rested not until it had reached the high, fertile,
beautiful, and healthful regions of Bolivia, from which it would
eventually cross the mountains into Peru.

Here it would establish its outlying colonies at the terminus of
its western line of advance, arrested only by the Pacific Ocean,
precisely as we have seen it advancing up the valley of the
Mississippi, and carrying on its mining operations on the shores of
Lake Superior; precisely as we have seen it going eastward up the
Mediterranean, past the Dardanelles, and founding Aryan, Hamitic,
and probably Turanian colonies on the farther shores of the Black
Sea and on the Caspian.  This is the universal empire over which,
the Hindoo books tell us, Deva Nahusha was ruler; this was "the
great and aggressive empire" to which Plato alludes; this was the
mighty kingdom, embracing the whole of the then known world, from
which the Greeks obtained their conception of the universal father
of all men in King Zeus.  And in this universal empire Señor Lopez
must find an explanation of the similarity which, as we shall
show, exists between the speech of the South American Pacific coast
on the one hand, and the speech of Gaul, Ireland, England, Italy,
Greece, Bactria, and Hindostan on the other.

Montesino tells us that at some time near the date of the Deluge,
in other words, in the highest antiquity, America was invaded
by a people with four leaders, named Ayar-manco-topa, Ayar-chaki,
Ayar-aucca, and Ayar-uyssu. "Ayar," says Señor Lopez, "is the
Sanscrit 'Ajar', or 'aje', and means primitive chief; and 'manco',
'chaki', 'aucca', and 'uyssu', mean believers, wanderers, soldiers,
husbandmen.  We have here a tradition of castes like that preserved
in the four tribal names of Athens." The laboring class (naturally
enough in a new colony) obtained the supremacy, and its leader was
named Pirhua-manco, revealer of 'Pir', light (pu~r, Umbrian 'pir').
Do the laws which control the changes of language, by which a labial
succeeds a labial, indicate that the Mero or Merou of Theopompus,
the name of Atlantis, was carried by the colonists of Atlantis to
South America (as the name of old York was transplanted in a later
age to New York), and became in time Pérou or Peru? Was not the
Nubian "Island of Merou," with its pyramids built by "red men," a
similar transplantation? And when the Hindoo priest points to his
sacred emblem with five projecting points upon it, and tells us
that they typify "Mero and the four quarters of the world," does
he not refer to Atlantis and its ancient universal empire?

'Manco', in the names of the Peruvian colonists, it has been urged,
was the same as Mannus, Manu, and the Santhal Maniko.  It reminds
us of Menes, Minos, etc., who are found at the beginning of so many
of the Old World traditions.

The Quichuas--this invading people--were originally a fair skinned
race, with blue eyes and light and even auburn hair; they had regular
features, large heads, and large bodies.  Their descendants are to
this day an olive-skinned people, much lighter in color than the
Indian tribes subjugated by them.

They were a great race.  Peru, as it was known to the Spaniards,
held very much the same relation to the ancient Quichua civilization
as England in the sixteenth century held to the civilization
of the empire of the Cæsars.  The Incas were simply an offshoot,
who, descending from the mountains, subdued the rude races of the
sea-coast, and imposed their ancient civilization upon them.

The Quichua nation extended at one time over a region of country
more than two thousand miles long.  This whole region, when the
Spaniards arrived, "was a populous and prosperous empire, complete
in its civil organization, supported by an efficient system of
industry, and presenting a notable development of some of the more
important arts of civilized life." (Baldwin's "Ancient America,"
p. 222.)

The companions of Pizarro found everywhere the evidences of a
civilization of vast antiquity.  Cieça de Leon mentions it great
edifices "that were in ruins at Tiahuanaca, "an artificial hill
raised on a groundwork of stone," and "two stone idols, apparently
made by skilful artificers," ten or twelve feet high, clothed in
long robes. "In this place, also," says De Leon, "there are stones
so large and so overgrown that our wonder is excited, it being
incomprehensible how the power of man could have placed them where
we see them.  They are variously wrought, and some of them, having
the form of men, must have been idols.  Near the walls are many
caves and excavations under the earth; but in another place, farther
west, are other and greater monuments, such as large gate-ways
with hinges, platforms, and porches, each made of a single stone.
It surprised me to see these enormous gate-ways, made of great
masses of stone, some of which were thirty feet long, fifteen high,
and six thick."

The capital of the Chimus of Northern Peru at Gran-Chimu was conquered
by the Incas after a long and bloody struggle, and the capital was
given up to barbaric ravage and spoliation. "But its remains exist
to-day, the marvel of the Southern Continent, 'covering not less
than twenty square miles'. Tombs. temples, and palaces arise on every
hand, ruined but still traceable.  Immense pyramidal structures,
some of them 'half a mile in circuit'; vast areas shut in by
massive walls, each containing its water-tank, its shops, municipal
edifices, and the dwellings of its inhabitants, and each a branch
of a larger organization; prisons, furnaces for smelting metals,
and almost every concomitant of civilization, existed in the ancient
Chimu capital.  One of the great pyramids, called the "Temple of
the Sun," is 812 feet long by 470 wide, and 150 high.  These vast
structures have been ruined for centuries, but still the work of
excavation is going on.

One of the centres of the ancient Quichua civilization was around
Lake Titicaca.  The buildings here, as throughout Peru, were all
constructed of hewn stone, and had doors and windows with posts,
sills, and thresholds of stone.

At Cuelap, in Northern Peru, remarkable ruins were found. "They
consist of a wall of wrought stones 3600 feet long, 560 broad, and
150 high, constituting a solid mass with a level summit.  On this
mass was another 600 feet long, 500 broad, and 150 high," making
'an aggregate height of three hundred feet!' In it were rooms and
cells which were used as tombs.

Very ancient ruins, showing remains of large and remarkable edifices,
were found near Huamanga, and described by Cieça de Leon.  The
native traditions said this city was built "by bearded white men,
who came there long before the time of the Incas, and established
a settlement."

"The Peruvians made large use of aqueducts, which they built with
notable skill, using hewn stones and cement, and making them very
substantial." One extended four hundred and fifty miles across
sierras and over rivers.  Think of a stone aqueduct reaching from
the city of New York to the State of North Carolina!

The public roads of the Peruvians were most remarkable; they were
built on masonry.  One of the-se roads ran along the mountains
through the whole length of the empire, from Quito to Chili; another,
starting from this at Cuzco, went down to the coast, and extended
northward to the equator.  These roads were from twenty to twenty-five
feet wide, were macadamized with pulverized stone mixed with lime
and bituminous cement, and were walled in by strong walls "more
than a fathom in thickness." In many places these roads were cut
for leagues through the rock; great ravines were filled up with
solid masonry; rivers were crossed by suspension bridges, used here
ages before their introduction into Europe.  Says Baldwin, "The
builders of our Pacific Railroad, with their superior engineering
skill and mechanical appliances, might reasonably shrink from the
cost and the difficulties of such a work as this.  Extending from
one degree north of Quito to Cuzco, and from Cuzco to Chili, 'it
was quite as long as the two Pacific railroads', and its wild route
among the mountains was far more difficult." Sarmiento, describing
it, said, "It seems to me that if the emperor (Charles V.) should
see fit to order the construction of another road like that which
leads from Quito to Cuzco, or that which from Cuzco goes toward
Chili, I certainly think be would not be able to make it, with all
his power." Humboldt said, "This road was marvellous; none of the
Roman roads I had seen in Italy, in the south of France, or in
Spain, appeared to me more imposing than this work of the ancient

Along these great roads caravansaries were established for the
accommodation of travellers.

These roads were ancient in the time of the Incas.  They were
the work of the white, auburn-haired, bearded men from Atlantis,
thousands of years before the time of the Incas.  When Huayna Capac
marched his army over the main road to invade Quito, it was so old
and decayed "that he found great difficulties in the passage," and
he immediately ordered the necessary reconstructions.

It is not necessary, in a work of this kind, to give a detailed
description of the arts and civilization of the Peruvians.. They
were simply marvellous.  Their works in cotton and wool exceeded in
fineness anything known in Europe at that time.  They had carried
irrigation, agriculture, and the cutting of gems to a point equal
to that of the Old World.  Their accumulations of the precious
metals exceeded anything previously known in the history of the
world.  In the course of twenty-five years after the Conquest the
Spaniards sent from Peru to Spain 'more than eight hundred millions
of dollars of gold', nearly all of it taken from the Peruvians as
"booty." In one of their palaces "they had an artificial garden,
the soil of which was made of small pieces of fine gold, and this
was artificially planted with different kinds of maize, which were
of gold, their stems, leaves, and cars.  Besides this, they had more
than twenty sheep (llamas) with their lambs, attended by shepherds,
all made of gold." In a description of one lot of golden articles,
sent to Spain in 1534 by Pizarro, there is mention of "four llamas,
ten statues of women of full size, and a cistern of gold, so curious
that it excited the wonder of all."

Can any one read these details and declare Plato's description of
Atlantis to be fabulous, simply because he tells us of the enormous
quantities of gold and silver possessed by the people? Atlantis was
the older country, the parent country, the more civilized country;
and, doubtless, like the Peruvians, its people regarded the precious
metals as sacred to their gods; and they had been accumulating them
from all parts of the world for countless ages.  If the story of
Plato is true, there now lies beneath the waters of the Atlantic,
covered, doubtless, by hundreds of feet of volcanic débris,
an amount of gold and silver exceeding many times that brought to
Europe from Peru, Mexico, and Central America since the time of
Columbus; a treasure which, if brought to light, would revolutionize
the financial values of the world.

I have already shown, in the chapter upon the similarities between
the civilizations of the Old and New Worlds, some of the remarkable
coincidences which existed between the Peruvians and the ancient
European races; I will again briefly, refer to a few of them:

1. They worshipped the sun, moon, and planets.

2. They believed in the immortality of the soul.

3. They believed in the resurrection of the body, and accordingly
embalmed their dead.

4. The priest examined the entrails of the animals offered
in sacrifice, and, like the Roman augurs, divined the future from
their appearance.

5. They had an order of women vowed to celibacy-vestal virgins-nuns;
and a violation of their vow was punished, in both continents, by
their being buried alive.

6. They divided the year into twelve months.

7. Their enumeration was by tens; the people were divided into
decades and hundreds, like the Anglo-Saxons; and the whole nation
into bodies of 500, 1000, and 10,000, with a governor over each.

8. They possessed castes; and the trade of the father descended to
the son, as in India.

9. They had bards and minstrels, who sung at the great festivals.

10. Their weapons were the same as those of the Old World, and made
after the same pattern.

11. They drank toasts and invoked blessings.

12. They built triumphal arches for their returning heroes, and
strewed the road before them with leaves and flowers.

13. They used sedan-chairs.

14. They regarded agriculture as the principal interest of the
nation, and held great agricultural fairs and festivals for the
interchange of the productions of the farmers.

15. The king opened the agricultural season by a great celebration,
and, like the kings of Egypt, be put his hand to the plough, and
ploughed the first furrow.

16. They had an order of knighthood, in which the candidate knelt
before the king; his sandals were put on by a nobleman, very much
as the spurs were buckled on the European knight; he was then
allowed to use the girdle or sash around the loins, corresponding
to the 'toga virilis' of the Romans; he was then crowned with
flowers.  According to Fernandez, the candidates wore white shirts,
like the knights of the Middle Ages, with a cross embroidered in

17. There was a striking resemblance between the architecture of the
Peruvians and that of some of the nations of the Old World.  It is
enough for me to quote Mr.  Ferguson's words, that the coincidence
between the buildings of the Incas and the Cyclopean remains attributed
to the Pelasgians in Italy and Greece, "is the most remarkable in
the history of architecture."


The illustrations on page 397 strikingly confirm Mr.  Ferguson's

"The sloping jambs, the window cornice, the polygonal masonry, and
other forms so closely resemble what is found in the old Pelasgic
cities of Greece and Italy, that it is difficult to resist the
conclusion that there may be some relation between them."

Even the mode of decorating their palaces and temples finds a
parallel in the Old World.  A recent writer says:

"We may end by observing, what seems to have escaped Señor Lopez,
that the 'interior' of an Inca palace, with its walls covered with
gold, as described by Spaniards, with its artificial golden flowers
and golden beasts, must have been exactly like the interior of the
house of Alkinous or Menelaus--

"'The doors were framed of gold,
Where underneath the brazen floor doth glass
Silver pilasters, which with grace uphold
Lintel of silver framed; the ring was burnished gold,
And dogs on each side of the door there stand,
Silver and golden.'"

"I can personally testify" (says Winchell, "Preadamites," p. 387)
"that a study of ancient Peruvian pottery has constantly reminded
me of forms with which we are familiar in Egyptian archæology."

Dr.  Schliemann, in his excavations of the ruins of Troy, found
a number of what he calls "owl-headed idols" and vases.  I give
specimens on page 398 and page 400.

In Peru we find vases with very much the same style of face.

I might pursue those parallels much farther; but it seems to me
that these extraordinary coincidences must have arisen either from
identity of origin or long-continued ancient intercourse.  There
can be little doubt that a fair-skinned, light-haired, bearded
race, holding the religion which Plato says prevailed in Atlantis,
carried an Atlantean civilization at an early day up the valley
of the Amazon to the heights of Bolivia and Peru, precisely as
a similar emigration of Aryans went westward to the shores of the
Mediterranean and Caspian, and it is very likely that these diverse
migrations habitually spoke the same language.

Señor Vincente Lopez, a Spanish gentleman of Montevideo, in 1872
published a work entitled "Les Races Aryennes in Pérou," in which
he attempts to prove that the great Quichua language, which the
Incas imposed on their subjects over a vast extent of territory,
and which is still a living tongue in Peru and Bolivia, is really
a branch of the great Aryan or Indo-European speech.  I quote Andrew
Lang's summary of the proofs on this point:


"Señor Lopez's view, that the Peruvians were Aryans who left the
parent stock long before the Teutonic or Hellenic races entered
Europe, is supported by arguments drawn from language, from the
traces of institutions, from religious beliefs, from legendary
records, and artistic remains.  The evidence from language is
treated scientifically, and not as a kind of ingenious guessing.
Señor Lopez first combats the idea that the living dialect of Peru
is barbarous and fluctuating.  It is not one of the casual and
shifting forms of speech produced by nomad races.  To which of the
stages of language does this belong--the agglutinative, in which
one root is fastened on to another, and a word is formed in which
the constitutive elements are obviously distinct, or the inflexional,
where the auxiliary roots get worn down and are only distinguishable
by the philologist? As all known Aryan tongues are inflexional,
Señor Lopez may appear to contradict himself when be says that
Quichua is an 'agglutinative Aryan language'. But he quotes Mr.
Max Müller's opinion that there must have been a time when the
germs of Aryan tongues had not yet reached the inflexional stage,
and shows that while the form of Quichua is agglutinative, as in
Turanian, the 'roots of words' are Aryan.  If this be so, Quichua
may be a linguistic missing link.

"When we first look at Quichua, with its multitude of words, beginning
with 'hu', and its great preponderance of 'q''s, it seems almost
as odd as Mexican.  But many of these forms are due to a scanty
alphabet, and really express familiar sounds; and many, again,
result from the casual spelling of the Spaniards.  We must now
examine some of the-forms which Aryan roots are supposed to take
in Quichua.  In the first place, Quichua abhors the shock of two
consonants.  Thus, a word like ple'w in Greek would be unpleasant
to the Peruvian's ear, and he says 'pillui', 'I sail.' The 'plu',
again, in 'pluma', a feather, is said to be found in 'pillu', 'to
fly.' Quichua has no 'v', any more than Greek has, and just as the
Greeks had to spell Roman words beginning with 'V' with 'Ou', like
Valerius--Ou?ale'rios--so, where Sanscrit has 'v', Quichua has
sometimes 'hu'. Here is a list of words in 'hu':

| QUICHUA....  ....  | SANSCRIT....  ....   ....
| 'Huakia', to call....  'Vacc', to speak....   ....
| 'Huasi', a house.....  'Vas', to inhabit....  ....
| 'Huayra', air, au?'ra. | 'Vâ', to breathe....   ....
| 'Huasa', the back....  'Vas', to be able ('pouvoir'). |

"There is a Sanscrit root, 'kr', to act, to do:  this root is found
In more than three hundred names of peoples and places in Southern
America.  Thus there are the Caribs, whose name may have the same
origin as that of our old friends the Carians, and mean the Braves,
and their land the home of the Braves, like Kaleva-la, in Finnish.
The same root gives 'kara', the hand, the Greek xei'r, and 'kkalli',
brave, which a person of fancy may connect with kalo's.  Again,
Quichua has an 'alpha privative'--thus 'A-stani' means 'I change a
thing's place;' for 'ni' or 'mi' is the first person singular, and,
added to the root of a verb, is the sign of the first person of the
present indicative.  For instance, can means being, and 'Can-mi',
or 'Cani', is, 'I am.' In the same way 'Munanmi', or 'Munani', is
'I love,' and 'Apanmi', or 'Apani', 'I carry.' So Lord Strangford
was wrong when he supposed that the last verb in 'mi' lived with
the last patriot in Lithuania.  Peru has stores of a grammatical
form which has happily perished in Europe.  It is impossible to
do more than refer to the supposed Aryan roots contained in the
glossary, but it may be noticed that the future of the Quichuan
verb is formed in 's'-I love, 'Munani'; I shall love, 'Munasa'--and
that the affixes denoting cases in the noun are curiously like the
Greek prepositions."

The resemblance between the Quichua and Mandan words for I or
me--'mi'--will here be observed.

Very recently Dr.  Rudolf Falb has announced ('Neue Freie Presse',
of Vienna) that be has discovered that the relation of the Quichua
and Aimara languages to the Aryan and Semitic tongues is very close;
that, in fact, they "exhibit the most astounding affinities with
the Semitic tongue, and particularly the Arabic, in which tongue
Dr.  Falb has been skilled from his boyhood.  Following, up the
lines of this discovery, Dr.  Falb has found (1) a connecting link
with the Aryan roots, and (2) has ultimately arrived face to face
with the surprising revelation that "the Semitic roots are universally
Aryan." The common stems of all the variants are found in their
purest condition in Quichua and Aimara, from which fact Dr.  Falb
derives the conclusion that the high plains of Peru and Bolivia
must be regarded as the point of exit of the present human race.

[Since the above was written I have received a letter from Dr.
Falb, dated Leipsic, April 5th, 1881. Scholars will be glad to
learn that Dr.  Falb's great work on the relationship of the Aryan
and Semitic languages to the Quichua and Aimara tongues will be
published in a year or two; the manuscript contains over two thousand
pages, and Dr.  Falb has devoted to it ten years of study.  A work
from such a source, upon so curious and important a subject, will
be looked for with great interest.]

But it is impossible that the Quichuas and Aimaras could have
passed across the wide Atlantic to Europe if there had been no
stepping-stone in the shape of Atlantis with its bridge-like ridges
connecting the two continents.

It is, however, more reasonable to suppose that the Quichuas and
Aimaras were a race of emigrants from Plato's island than to think
that Atlantis was populated from South America.  The very traditions
to which we have referred as existing among the Peruvians, that
the civilized race were white and bearded, and that they entered or
invaded the country, would show that civilization did not originate
in Peru, but was a transplantation from abroad, and only in the
direction of Atlantis can we look for a white and bearded race.

In fact, kindred races, with the same arts, and speaking the
same tongue in an early age of the world, separated in Atlantis
and went east and west--the one to repeat the civilization of the
mother-country along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, which,
like a great river, may be said to flow out from the Black Sea,
with the Nile as one of its tributaries, and along the shores of the
Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; while the other emigration advanced
up the Amazon, and created mighty nations upon its head-waters in
the valleys of the Andes and on the shores of the Pacific.



Africa, like Europe and America, evidences a commingling of different
stocks:  the blacks are not all black, nor all woolly-haired; the
Africans pass through all shades, from that of a light Berber, no
darker than the Spaniard, to the deep black of the Iolofs, between
Senegal and Gambia.

The traces of red men or copper-colored races are found in many
parts of the continent.  Prichard divides the true negroes into
four classes; his second class is thus described:

"2. Other tribes have forms and features like the European;
their complexion is black, or a 'deep olive', or a 'copper color'
approaching to black, while their hair, though often crisp and
frizzled, is not in the least woolly.  Such are the Bishari and
Danekil and Hazorta, and the darkest of the Abyssinians.

"The complexion and hair of the Abyssinians vary very much, their
complexion ranging from almost white to dark brown or black, and
their hair from straight to crisp, frizzled, and almost woolly."
(Nott and Gliddon, "Types of Mankind," p. 194.)

"Some of the Nubians are copper-colored or black, with a tinge of
red." ('Ibid'., p. 198.)

Speaking of the Barbary States, these authors further say ('Ibid'.,
p.  204):

"On the northern coast of Africa, between the Mediterranean and
the Great Desert, including Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and
Benzazi, there is a continuous system of highlands, which have
been included under the general term Atlas--anciently Atlantis, now
the Barbary States....  Throughout Barbary we encounter a peculiar
group of races, subdivided into many tribes of various shades, now
spread over a vast area, but which formerly had its principal and
perhaps 'aboriginal abode along the mountain slopes of Atlas'....
The real name of the Berbers is 'Mazirgh', with the article prefixed
or suffixed--T-amazirgh or Amazirgh-T--meaning 'free', 'dominant',
or ''noble race'.....  We have every reason to believe the Berbers
existed in the remotest times, with all their essential moral
and physical peculiarities....  They existed in the time of Menes
in the same condition in which they were discovered by Phoenician
navigators previously to the foundation of Carthage.  They are an
indomitable, nomadic people, who, since the introduction of camels,
have penetrated in considerable numbers into the Desert, and even
as far as Nigritia....  'Some of these clans are white', others
black, with woolly hair."

Speaking of the Barbary Moors, Prichard says:

"Their figure and stature are nearly the same as those of the
southern Europeans, and their complexion, if darker, is only so in
proportion to the higher temperature of the country.  It displays
great varieties."

Jackson says:

"The men of Temsena and Showiah are of a strong, robust make, and
of a copper color; the women are beautiful.  The women of Fez are
fair as the Europeans, but hair and eyes always dark.  The women of
Mequinas are very beautiful, and 'have the red-and-white complexion
of English women'."

Spix and Martins, the German travellers, depict the Moors as follows:

A high forehead, an oval countenance, large, speaking, black eyes,
shaded by arched and strong eyebrows, a thin, rather long, but not
too pointed nose, rather broad lips, meeting in an acute angle,
'brownish-yellow complexion', thick, smooth, and black hair, and
a stature greater than the middle height."

Hodgson states:

"The Tuarycks are a white people, of the Berber race; the Mozabiaks
are a remarkably white people, and mixed with the Bedouin Arabs.
The Wadreagans and Wurgelans are of a 'dark bronze', with woolly

The Foolahs, Fulbe (sing. 'Pullo'), Fellani, or Fellatah, are
a people of West and Central Africa.  It is the opinion of modern
travellers that the Foolahs are destined to become the dominant
people of Negro-land.  In language, appearance, and history they
present striking differences from the neighboring tribes, to whom
they are superior in intelligence, but inferior, according to
Garth, in physical development.  Golbery describes them as "robust
and courageous, of a 'reddish'-black color, with regular features,
hair longer and less woolly than that of the common negroes, and
high mental capacity." Dr.  Barth found great local differences in
their physical characteristics, as Bowen describes the Foolahs of
Bomba as being some black, some almost white, and many of a mulatto
color, varying from dark to very bright.  Their features and skulls
were cast in the European mould.  They have a tradition that their
ancestors were whites, and certain tribes call themselves white
men.  They came from Timbuctoo, which lies to the north of their
present location.

The Nubians and Foolahs are classed as Mediterraneans.  They are not
black, but yellowish-brown, or red-brown.  The hair is not woolly
but curly, and sometimes quite straight; it is either dark-brown
or black, with a fuller growth of beard than the negroes.  The oval
face gives them a Mediterranean type.  Their noses are prominent,
their lips not puffy, and their languages have no connection with
the tongues of the negroes proper. ("American Cyclopædia," art.
'Ethnology', p. 759.)

"The Cromlechs ('dolmens') of Algeria" was the subject of an address
made by General Faidherbe at the Brussels International Congress.
He considers these structures to be simply sepulchral monuments,
and, after examining five or six thousand of them, maintains that
the dolmens of Africa and of Europe were all constructed by the
same race, during their emigration from the shores of the Baltic
to the southern coast of the Mediterranean.  The author does not,
however, attempt to explain the existence of these monuments in
other countries--Hindostan, for instance, and America. "In Africa,"
he says, "cromlechs are called tombs of the idolaters"--the
'idolaters' being neither Romans, nor Christians, nor Phoenicians,
but some antique race.  He regards the Berbers as the descendants
of the primitive dolmen-builders.  Certain Egyptian monuments tell
of invasions of Lower Egypt one thousand five hundred years before
our era by blond tribes from the West.  The bones found in the
cromlechs are those of a large and dolichocephalous race.  General
Faidherbe gives the average stature (including the women) at 1.65
or 1.74 metre, while the average stature of French carabineers is
only 1.65 metre.  He did not find a single brachycephalous skull.
The profiles indicated great intelligence.  The Egyptian documents
already referred to call the invaders Tamahu, which must have
come from the invaders' own language, as it is not Egyptian.  The
Tuaregs of the present day may be regarded as the best representatives
of the Tamahus.  They are of lofty stature, have blue eyes, and
cling to the custom of bearing long swords, to be wielded by both
bands.  In Soudan, on the banks of the Niger, dwells a negro tribe
ruled by a royal family (Masas), who are of rather fair complexion,
and claim descent from white men. 'Masas' is perhaps the same
as 'Mashash', which occurs in the Egyptian documents applied to
the Tamahus.  The Masas wear the hair in the same fashion as the
Tamahus, and General Faidherbe is inclined to think that they too
are the descendants of the dolmen-builders.

These people, according to my theory, were colonists from
Atlantis--colonists of three different races--white, yellow, and
sunburnt or red.



We have seen that beyond question Spain and France owed a great
part of their population to Atlantis.  Let us turn now to Ireland.

We would naturally expect, in view of the geographical position
of the country, to find Ireland colonized at an early day by the
overflowing population of Atlantis.  And, in fact, the Irish annals
tell us that their island was settled 'prior to the Flood'. In their
oldest legends an account is given of three Spanish fishermen who
were driven by contrary winds on the coast of Ireland before the
Deluge.  After these came the Formorians, who were led into the
country prior to the Deluge by the 'Lady Banbha', or Kesair; her
maiden name was h'Erni, or Berba; she was accompanied by fifty
maidens and three men--Bith, Ladhra, and Fintain.  Ladhra was their
conductor, who was the first buried in Hibernia.  That ancient book,
the "Cin of Drom-Snechta," is quoted in the "Book of Ballymote" as
authority for this legend.

The Irish annals speak of the Formorians as a warlike race, who,
according to the "Annals of Clonmacnois," "were a sept descended from
Cham, the son of Noeh, and lived by pyracie and spoile of other
nations, and were in those days 'very troublesome to the whole

Were not these the inhabitants of Atlantis, who, according to
Plato, carried their arms to Egypt and Athens, and whose subsequent
destruction has been attributed to divine vengeance invoked by
their arrogance and oppressions?

The Formorians were from Atlantis.  They were called 'Fomhoraicc',
'F'omoraig Afraic', and 'Formoragh', which has been rendered into
English as 'Formorians'. They possessed ships, and the uniform
representation is that they came, as the name 'F'omoraig Afraic'
indicated, from 'Africa'. But in that day Africa did not mean the
continent of Africa, as we now understand it.  Major Wilford, in
the eighth volume of the "Asiatic Researches," has pointed out that
Africa comes from 'Apar', 'Aphar', 'Apara', or 'Aparica', terms
used to signify "the West," just as we now speak of the Asiatic
world as "the East." When, therefore, the Formorians claimed to
come from Africa, they simply meant that they came from the West--in
other words, from Atlantis--for there was no other country except
America west of them.

They possessed Ireland from so early a period that by some of the
historians they are spoken of as the aborigines of the country.

The first invasion of Ireland, subsequent to the coming of the
Formorians, was led by a chief called Partholan:  his people are
known in the Irish annals as "Partholan's people." They were also
probably Atlanteans.  They were from Spain.  A British prince,
Gulguntius, or Gurmund, encountered off the Hebrides a fleet of
thirty ships, filled with men and women, led by one Partholyan, who
told him they were from Spain, and seeking some place to colonize.
The British prince directed him to Ireland. ("De Antiq. et Orig.

Spain in that day was the land of the Iberians, the Basques; that
is to say, the Atlanteans.

The Formorians defeated Partholan's people, killed Partholan, and
drove the invaders out of the country.

The Formorians were a civilized race; they had "a fleet of sixty
ships and a strong army."

The next invader of their dominions was Neimhidh; he captured one
of their fortifications, but it was retaken by the Formorians under
"Morc." Neimhidh was driven out of the country, and the Atlanteans
continued in undisturbed possession of the island for four hundred
years more.  Then came the Fir-Bolgs.  They conquered the whole
island, and divided it into five provinces.  They held possession
of the country for only thirty-seven years, when they were overthrown
by the Tuatha-de-Dananns, a people more advanced in civilization;
so much so that when their king, Nuadha, lost his hand in battle,
"Creidne, the artificer," we are told, "put a silver hand upon
him, the fingers of which were capable of motion." This great race
ruled the country for one hundred and ninety-seven years:  they
were overthrown by an immigration from Spain, probably of Basques,
or Iberians, or Atlanteans, "the sons of Milidh," or Milesius, who
"possessed a large fleet and a strong army." This last invasion took
place about the year 1700 B.C.; so that the invasion of Neimhidh
must have occurred about the year 2334 B.C.; while we will have to
assign a still earlier date for the coming of Partholan's people,
and an earlier still for the occupation of the country by the
Formorians from the West.

In the Irish historic tales called "Catha; or Battles," as given by
the learned O'Curry, a record is preserved of a real battle which
was fought between the Tuatha-de-Dananns and the Fir Bolgs, from
which it appears that these two races spoke the same language, and
that they were intimately connected with the Formorians.  As the
armies drew near together the Fir-Bolgs sent out Breas, one of
their great chiefs, to reconnoitre the camp of the strangers; the
Tuatha-de-Dananns appointed one of their champions, named Sreng,
to meet the emissary of the enemy; the two warriors met and talked
to one another over the tops of their shields, and each was delighted
to find that 'the other spoke the same language'. A battle followed,
in which Nunda, king of the Fir-Bolgs, was slain; Breas succeeded
him; he encountered the hostility of the bards, and was compelled
to resign the crown.  He went to the court of his father-in-law,
Elathe, 'a Formorian sea-king or pirate'; not being well received,
be repaired to the camp of Balor of the Evil Eye, a 'Formorian
chief'. The Formorian head-quarters seem to have been in the Hebrides.
Breas and Balor collected a vast army and navy and invaded Ireland,
but were defeated in a great battle by the Tuatha-de-Dananns.

These particulars would show the race-identity of the Fir-Bolg
and Tuatha-de-Dananns; and also their intimate connection, if not
identity with, the Formorians.

The Tuatha-de-Dananns seem to have been a civilized people; besides
possessing ships and armies and working in the metals, they had
an organized body of surgeons, whose duty it was to attend upon
the wounded in battle; and they had also a bardic or Druid class,
to preserve the history of the country and the deeds of kings and

According to the ancient books of Ireland the race known as "Partholan's
people," the Nemedians, the Fir-Bolgs, the Tuatha-de-Dananns, and
the Milesians were all descended from two brothers, sons of Magog,
son of Japheth, son of Noah, who escaped from the catastrophe which
destroyed his country.  Thus all these races were Atlantean.  They
were connected with the African colonies of Atlantis, the Berbers,
and with the Egyptians.  The Milesians lived in Egypt:  they were
expelled thence; they stopped a while in Crete, then in Scythia,
then they settled in Africa (See MacGeoghegan's "History of Ireland,"
p. 57), at a place called Gæthulighe or Getulia, and lived there
during eight generations, say two hundred and fifty years; "then
they entered Spain, where they built Brigantia, or Briganza, named
after their king Breogan:  they dwelt in Spain a considerable time.
Milesius, a descendant of Breogan, went on an expedition to Egypt,
took part in a war against the Ethiopians, married the king's
daughter, Scota:  he died in Spain, but his people soon after
conquered Ireland.  On landing on the coast they offered sacrifices
to Neptune or Poseidon"--the god of Atlantis. ('Ibid'., p. 58.)

The Book of Genesis (chap. x.) gives us the descendants of Noah's
three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.  We are told that the sons of
Japheth were Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and
Meshech, and Tiras.  We are then given the names of the descendants
of Gomer and Javan, but not of Magog.  Josephus says the sons of
Magog were the Scythians.  The Irish annals take up the genealogy
of Magog's family where the Bible leaves it.  The Book of Invasions,
the "Cin of Drom-Snechta," claims that these Scythians were the
Phoenicians; and we are told that a branch of this family were
driven out of Egypt in the time of Moses:  "He wandered through
Africa for forty-two years, and passed by the lake of Salivæ to the
altars of the Philistines, and between Rusicada and the mountains
Azure, and he came by the river Monlon, and by the sea to the
Pillars of Hercules, and through the Tuscan sea, and he made for
Spain, and dwelt there many years, and he increased and multiplied,
and his people were multiplied."

From all these facts it appears that the population of Ireland
'came from the West', and not from Asia--that it was one of the
many waves of population flowing out from the Island of Atlantis-and
herein we find the explanation of that problem which has puzzled
the Aryan scholars.  As Ireland is farther from the Punjab than
Persia, Greece, Rome, or Scandinavia, it would follow that the
Celtic wave of migration must have been the earliest sent out from
the Sanscrit centre; but it is now asserted by Professor Schleicher
and others that the Celtic tongue shows that it separated from the
Sanscrit original tongue 'later' than the others, and that it is
more closely allied to the Latin than any other Aryan tongue.  This
is entirely inexplicable upon any theory of an Eastern origin of
the Indo-European races, but very easily understood if we recognize
the Aryan and Celtic migrations as going out about the same time
from the Atlantean fountain-head.

There are many points confirmatory of this belief.  In the first
place, the civilization of the Irish dates back to a vast antiquity.
We have seen their annals laying claim to an immigration from the
direction of Atlantis prior to the Deluge, with no record that the
people of Ireland were subsequently destroyed by the Deluge.  From
the Formorians, who came before the Deluge, to the Milesians, who
came from Spain in the Historic Period, the island was continuously
inhabited.  This demonstrates (1) that these legends did not come
from Christian sources, as the Bible record was understood in the
old time to imply a destruction of all who lived before the Flood
except Noah and his family; (2) it confirms our view that the
Deluge was a local catastrophe, and did not drown the whole human
family; (3) that the coming of the Formorians having been before
the Deluge, that great cataclysm was of comparatively recent date,
to wit, since the settlement of Ireland; and (4) that as the Deluge
was a local catastrophe, it must have occurred somewhere not far
from Ireland to have come to their knowledge.  A rude people could
scarcely have heard in that day of a local catastrophe occurring
in the heart of Asia.

There are many evidences that the Old World recognized Ireland
as possessing a very ancient civilization.  In the Sanscrit books
it is referred to as Hiranya, the "Island of the Sun," to wit, of
sun-worship; in other words, as pre-eminently the centre of that
religion which was shared by all the ancient races of Europe, Asia,
Africa, and America.  It is believed that Ireland was the "Garden
of Phoebus" of the Western mythologists.

The Greeks called Ireland the "Sacred Isle" and "Ogygia."

"Nor can any one," says Camden, "conceive why they should call it
Ogygia, unless, perhaps, from its antiquity; for the Greeks called
nothing Ogygia unless what was extremely ancient." We have seen
that Ogyges was connected by the Greek legends with a first deluge,
and that Ogyges was "a quite mythical personage, lost in the night
of ages."

It appears, as another confirmation of the theory of the Atlantis
origin of these colonies, that their original religion was sun-worship;
this, as was the case in other countries, became subsequently
overlaid with idol-worship.  In the reign of King Tighernmas the
worship of idols was introduced.  The priests constituted the Order
of Druids.  Naturally many analogies have been found to exist
between the beliefs and customs of the Druids and the other religions
which were drawn from Atlantis.  We have seen in the chapter on
sun-worship how extensive this form of religion was in the Atlantean
days, both in Europe and America.

It would appear probable that the religion of the Druids passed from
Ireland to England and France.  The metempsychosis or transmigration
of souls was one of the articles of their belief long before the
time of Pythagoras; it had probably been drawn from the storehouse
of Atlantis, whence it passed to the Druids, the Greeks, and the
Hindoos.  The Druids had a 'pontifex maximus' to whom they yielded
entire obedience.  Here again we see a practice which extended to
the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Hindoos, Peruvians, and Mexicans.

The Druids of Gaul and Britain offered human sacrifices, while it
is claimed that the Irish Druids did not.  This would appear to
have been a corrupt after-growth imposed upon the earlier and purer
sacrifice of fruits and flowers known in Atlantis, and due in part
to greater cruelty and barbarism in their descendants.  Hence we
find it practised in degenerate ages on both sides of the Atlantic.

The Irish Druidical rites manifested themselves principally in sun
worship.  Their chief god was Bel or Baal--the same worshipped by
the Phoenicians--the god of the sun.  The Irish name for the sun,
'Grian', is, according to Virgil, one of the names of Apollo--another
sun-god, Gryneus.  Sun-worship continued in Ireland down to
the time of St.  Patrick, and some of its customs exist among the
peasantry of that country to this day.  We have seen that among the
Peruvians, Romans, and other nations, on a certain day all fires
were extinguished throughout the kingdom. and a new fire kindled at
the chief temple by the sun's rays, from which the people obtained
their fire for the coming year.  In Ireland the same practice was
found to exist.  A piece of land was set apart, where the four
provinces met, in the present county of Meath; here, at a palace
called Tlachta, the divine fire was kindled.  Upon the night of
what is now All-Saints-day the Druids assembled at this place to
offer sacrifice, and it was established, under heavy penalties,
that no fire should be kindled except from this source.  On the
first of May a convocation of Druids was held in the royal palace
of the King of Connaught, and two fires were lit, between which
cattle were driven, as a preventive of murrain and other pestilential
disorders.  This was called Beltinne, or the day of Bel's fire.  And
unto this day the Irish call the first day of May "Lha-Beul-tinne,"
which signifies "the day of Bel's fire." The celebration in
Ireland of St.  John's-eve by watch-fires is a relic of the ancient
sun-worship of Atlantis.  The practice of driving cattle through the
fire continued for a longtime, and Kelly mentions in his "Folk-lore"
that in Northamptonshire, in England, a calf was sacrificed in one
of these fires to "stop the murrain" 'during the present century'.
Fires are still lighted in England and Scotland as well as Ireland
for superstitious purposes; so that the people of Great Britain,
it may be said, are still in some sense in the midst of the ancient
sun-worship of Atlantis.

We find among the Irish of to-day many Oriental customs.  The game
of "jacks," or throwing up five pebbles and catching them on the
back of the hand, was known in Rome. "The Irish 'keen' (caoine), or
the lament over the dead, may still be heard in Algeria and Upper
Egypt, even as Herodotus heard it chanted by the Libyan women." The
same practice existed among the Egyptians, Etruscans, and Romans.
The Irish wakes are identical with the funeral feasts of the Greeks,
Etruscans, and Romans.  (Cusack's "History of Ireland," p. 141.)
The Irish custom of saying "God bless you!" when one sneezes, is
a very ancient practice; it was known to the Romans, and referred,
it is said, to a plague in the remote past, whose first symptom
was sneezing.

We find many points of resemblance between the customs of the Irish
and those of the Hindoo.  The practice of the creditor fasting
at the door-step of his debtor until be is paid, is known to both
countries; the kindly "God save you!" is the same as the Eastern
"God be gracious to you, my son!" The reverence for the wren in
Ireland and Scotland reminds us of the Oriental and Greek respect
for that bird.  The practice of pilgrimages, fasting, bodily
macerations, and devotion to holy wells and particular places,
extends from Ireland to India.

All these things speak of a common origin; this fact has been
generally recognized, but it has always been interpreted that the
Irish camp, from the East, and were in fact a migration of Hindoos.
There is not the slightest evidence to sustain this theory.  The
Hindoos have never within the knowledge of man sent out colonies
or fleets for exploration; but there is abundant evidence, on the
other hand, of migrations from Atlantis eastward.  And how could
the Sanscrit writings have preserved maps of Ireland, England,
and Spain, giving the shape and outline of their coasts, and their
very names, and yet have preserved no memory of the expeditions or
colonizations by which they acquired that knowledge?

Another proof of our theory is found in "the round-towers" of Ireland.
Attempts have been made to show, by Dr.  Petrie and others, that
these extraordinary structures are of modern origin, and were built
by the Christian priests, in which to keep their church-plate.  But
it is shown that the "Annals of Ulster" mention the destruction
of fifty-seven of them by an earthquake in A.D. 448; and Giraldus
Cambrensis shows that Lough Neagh was created by an inundation, or
sinking of the laud, in A.D. 65, and that in his day the fishermen

"See the round-towers of other days
In the waves beneath them shining."

Moreover, we find Diodorus Siculus, in a well-known passage,
referring to Ireland, and describing it as "an island in the ocean
over against Gaul, to the north, and not inferior in size to Sicily,
the soil of which is so fruitful that they mow there twice in the
year." He mentions the skill of their harpers, their sacred groves,
'and their singular temples of round form'.


We find similar structures in America, Sardinia, and India.  The
remains of similar round-towers are very abundant in the Orkneys
and Shetlands.  "They have been supposed by some," says Sir John
Lubbock, to be Scandinavian, but no similar buildings exist in
Norway, Sweden, or Denmark, so that this style of architecture is
no doubt anterior to the arrival of the Northmen." I give above a
picture of the Burgh or Broch of the little island of Moussa, in
the Shetlands.  It is circular in form, forty-one feet in height.
Open at the top; the central space is twenty feet in diameter,
the walls about fourteen feet thick at the base, and eight feet at
the top.  They contain a staircase, which leads to the top of the
building.  Similar structures are found in the Island of Sardinia.


In New Mexico and Colorado the remains of round-towers are very
abundant.  The illustration below represents our of these in the
valley of the Mancos, in the south-western corner of Colorado.  A
model of it is to be found in the Smithsonian collection at Washington.
The tower stands at present, in its ruined condition, twenty feet
high.  It will be seen that it resembles the towers of Ireland, not
only in its circular form but also in the fact that its door-way
is situated at some distance from the ground.

It will not do to say that the resemblance between these prehistoric
and singular towers, in countries so far apart as Sardinia, Ireland,
Colorado, and India, is due to an accidental coincidence.  It might
as well be argued that the resemblance between the roots of the
various Indo-European languages was also due to accidental coincidence,
and did not establish any similarity of origin.  In fact, we might
just as well go back to the theory of the philosophers of one
hundred and fifty years ago, and say that the resemblance between
the fossil forms in the rocks and the living forms upon them did not
indicate relationship, or prove that the fossils were the remains
of creatures that had once lived, but that it was simply a way
nature had of working out extraordinary coincidences in a kind of
joke; a sort of "plastic power in nature," as it was called.

We find another proof that Ireland was settled by the people of
Atlantis in the fact that traditions long existed among the Irish
peasantry of a land in the "Far West," and that this belief was
especially found among the posterity of the Tuatha-de-Dananns,
whose connection with the Formorians we have shown.

The Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, in a note to his translation of
the "Popol Vuh," says:

"There is an abundance of legends and traditions concerning the
passage of the Irish into America, and their habitual communication
with that continent many centuries before the time of Columbus.  We
should bear in mind that Ireland was colonized by the Phoenicians
(or by people of that race). An Irish Saint named Vigile, who lived
in the eighth century, was accused to Pope Zachary of having taught
heresies on the subject of the antipodes.  At first he wrote to
the pope in reply to the charge, but afterward he went to Rome in
person to justify himself, and there be proved to the pope that
the Irish had been 'accustomed to communicate with a transatlantic

"This fact," says Baldwin, "seems to have been preserved in the
records of the Vatican."

The Irish annals preserve the memory of St.  Brendan of Clonfert,
and his remarkable voyage to a land in the West, made A.D. 545.
His early youth was passed under the care of St.  Ita, a lady of
the princely family of the Desii.  When he was five years old he
was placed under the care of Bishop Ercus.  Kerry was his native
home; the blue waves of the Atlantic washed its shores; the coast
was full of traditions of a wonderful land in the West.  He went to
see the venerable St.  Enda, the first abbot of Arran, for counsel.
he was probably encouraged in the plan he had formed of carrying
the Gospel to this distant land. "He proceeded along the coast of
Mayo, inquiring as he went for 'traditions of the Western continent'.
On his return to Kerry he decided to set out on the important
expedition.  St.  Brendan's Hill still bears his name; and from
the bay at the foot of this lofty eminence be sailed for the 'Far
West.' Directing his course toward the southwest, with a few faithful
companions, in a well-provisioned bark, he came, after some rough
and dangerous navigation, to calm seas, where, without aid of oar
or sail, he was borne along for many weeks." He had probably entered
upon the same great current which Columbus travelled nearly one
thousand years later, and which extends from the shores of Africa
and Europe to America.  He finally reached land; he proceeded
inland until he came to a large river flowing from east to west,
supposed by some to be the Ohio.  "After an absence of seven years
he returned to Ireland, and lived not only to tell of the marvels
he had seen, but to found a college of three thousand monks at
Clonfert." There are eleven Latin MSS. in the 'Bibliothèque Impériale'
at Paris of this legend, the dates of which vary from the eleventh
to the fourteenth century, but all of them anterior to the time of

The fact that St.  Brendan sailed in search of a country in the west
cannot be doubted; and the legends which guided him were probably
the traditions of Atlantis among a people whose ancestors had been
derived directly or at second-hand from that country.

This land was associated in the minds of the peasantry with traditions
of Edenic happiness and beauty.  Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly, of
Philadelphia, has referred to it in her poem, "The Sleeper's Sail,"
where the starving boy dreams of the pleasant and plentiful land:

"'Mother, I've been on the cliffs out yonder,
Straining my eyes o'er the breakers free
To the lovely spot where the sun was setting,
Setting and sinking into the sea.

"'The sky was full of the fairest colors
Pink and purple and paly green,
With great soft masses of gray and amber,
And great bright rifts of gold between.

"'And all the birds that way were flying,
Heron and curlew overhead,
With a mighty eagle westward floating,
Every plume in their pinions red.

"'And then I saw it, the fairy city,
Far away o'er the waters deep;
Towers and castles and chapels glowing
Like blesséd dreams that we see in sleep.

"'What is its name?' 'Be still, 'acushla'
(Thy hair is wet with the mists, my boy);
Thou hast looked perchance on the Tir-na-n'oge,
Land of eternal youth and joy!

"'Out of the sea, when the sun is setting,
It rises, golden and fair to view;
No trace of ruin, or change of sorrow,
No sign of age where all is new.

"'Forever sunny, forever blooming,
Nor cloud nor frost can touch that spot,
Where the happy people are ever roaming,
The bitter pangs of the past forgot.'

This is the Greek story of Elysion; these are the Elysian Fields
of the Egyptians; these are the Gardens of the Hesperides; this is
the region in the West to which the peasant of Brittany looks from
the shores of Cape Raz; this is Atlantis.

The starving child seeks to reach this blessed land in a boat and
is drowned.

"High on the cliffs the light-house keeper
Caught the sound of a piercing scream;
Low in her hut the lonely widow
Moaned in the maze of a troubled dream;

"And saw in her sleep a seaman ghostly,
With sea-weeds clinging in his hair,
Into her room, all wet and dripping,
A drownéd boy on his bosom bear.

"Over Death Sea on a bridge of silver
The child to his Father's arms had passed!
Heaven was nearer than Tir-na-n'oge,
And the golden city was reached at last."



That eminent authority, Dr.  Max Müller, says, in his "Lectures on
the Science of Religion,"

"If we confine ourselves to the Asiatic continent, with its important
peninsula of Europe, we find that in the vast desert of drifting
human speech three, and only three, oases have been formed in which,
'before the beginning of all history', language became permanent
and traditional--assumed, in fact, a new character, a character
totally different from the original character of the floating and
constantly varying speech of human beings.  These three oases of
language are known by the name of 'Turanian', 'Aryan', and 'Semitic'.
In these three centres, more particularly in the 'Aryan' and
'Semitic', language ceased to be natural; its growth was arrested,
and it became permanent, solid, petrified, or, if you like, historical
speech.  I have always maintained that this centralization and
traditional conservation of language could only have been the result
of religious and political influences, and I now mean to show that
we really have clear evidence of three independent settlements of
religion--the 'Turanian', the 'Aryan', and the 'Semitic'--concomitantly
with the three great settlements of language."

There can be no doubt that the Aryan and another branch, which
Müller calls Semitic, but which may more properly be called Hamitic,
radiated from Noah; it is a question yet to be decided whether the
Turanian or Mongolian is also a branch of the Noachic or Atlantean

To quote again from Max Müller:

"If it can only be proved that the religions of the Aryan nations
are united by the same bonds of a real relationship which have
enabled us to treat their languages as so many varieties of the
same type--and so also of the Semitic--the field thus opened is
vast enough, and its careful clearing, and cultivation will occupy
several generations of scholars.  And this original relationship,
I believe, can be proved.  Names of the principal deities, words
also expressive of the most essential elements of religion, such
as 'prayer', 'sacrifice', 'altar', 'spirit', 'law', and 'faith',
have been preserved among the Aryan and among the Semitic nations,
and these relies admit of one explanation only.  After that, a
comparative study of the Turanian religions may be approached with
better hope of success; for that there was not only a primitive
Aryan and a primitive Semitic religion, 'but likewise a primitive
Turanian religion, before each of these primeval races was broken
up and became separated in language, worship and national sentiment,
admits, I believe, of little doubt'....  There was a period during
which the ancestors of the Semitic family had not yet been divided,
whether in language or in religion.  That period transcends the
recollection of every one of the Semitic races, in the same way as
neither Hindoos, Greeks, nor Romans have any recollection of the
time when they spoke a common language, and worshipped their Father
in heaven by a name that was as yet neither Sanscrit, nor Greek,
nor Latin.  But I do not hesitate to call this Prehistoric Period
historical in the best sense of the word.  It was a real period,
because, unless it was real, all the realities of the Semitic
languages and the Semitic religions, such as we find them after
their separation, would be unintelligible.  Hebrew, Syriac, and
Arabic point to a common source as much as Sanscrit, Greek, and
Latin; and unless we can bring ourselves to doubt that the Hindoos,
the Greeks, the Romans, and the Teutons derived the worship of
their principal deity from their common Aryan sanctuary, we shall
not be able to deny that there was likewise a primitive religion
of the whole Semitic race, and that 'El', the Strong One in heaven,
was invoked by the ancestors of all the Semitic races before there
were Babylonians in Babylon, Phoenicians in Sidon and Tyrus--before
there were Jews in Mesopotamia or Jerusalem.  The evidence of the
Semitic is the same as that of the Aryan languages:  the conclusion
cannot be different....

"These three classes of religion are not to be mistaken-as little
as the three classes of language, the Turanian, the Semitic, and
the Aryan.  They mark three events in the most ancient history of
the world, events which have determined the whole fate of the human
race, and of which we ourselves still feel the consequences in our
language, in our thoughts, and in our religion."

We have seen that all the evidence points to the fact that this
original seat of the Phoenician-Hebrew family was in Atlantis.

The great god of the so-called Semites was El, the Strong One, from
whose name comes the Biblical names 'Beth-el', the house of God;
'Ha-el', the strong one; 'El-ohim', the gods; 'El-oah', God; and
from the same name is derived the Arabian name of God, Al-lah.

Another evidence of the connection between the Greeks, Phoenicians,
Hebrews, and Atlanteans is shown in the name of Adonis.

The Greeks tell us that Adonis was the lover of Aphrodite, or Venus,
who was the offspring of Uranus--"she came out of the sea;" Uranus
was the father of Chronos, and the grandfather of Poseidon, king
of Atlantis.

Now We find 'Adonâi' in the Old Testament used exclusively as the
name of Jehovah, while among the Phoenicians Adonâi was the supreme
deity.  In both cases the root 'Ad' is probably a reminiscence of

There seem to exist similar connections between the Egyptian and
the Turanian mythology.  The great god of Egypt was Neph or Num;
the chief god of the Samoyedes is Num; and Max Müller established
an identity between the 'Num' of the Samoyedes and the god 'Yum-ala'
of the Finns, and probably with the name of the god 'Nam' of the

That mysterious people, the Etruscans, who inhabited part of Italy,
and whose bronze implements agreed exactly in style and workmanship
with those which we think were derived from Atlantis, were, it is
now claimed, a branch of the Turanian family.

"At a recent meeting of the English Philological Society great
interest was excited by a paper on Etruscan Numerals, by the Rev.
Isaac Taylor.  He stated that the long-sought key to the Etruscan
language had at last been discovered.  Two dice had been found in
a tomb, with their six faces marked with words instead of pips.  He
showed that these words were identical with the first six digits
in the Altaic branch of the Turanian family of speech.  Guided by
this clew, it was easy to prove that the grammar and vocabulary of
the 3000 Etruscan inscriptions were also Altaic.  The words denoting
kindred, the pronouns, the conjugations, and the declensions,
corresponded closely to those of the Tartar tribes of Siberia.
The Etruscan mythology proved to be essentially the same as that
of the Kalevala, the great Finnic epic."

According to Lenormant ("Ancient History of the East," vol. i.,
p. 62; vol. ii., p. 23), the early contests between the Aryans and
the Turanians are represented in the Iranian traditions as "contests
between hostile 'brothers....  the Ugro-Finnish races must, according
to all appearances, be looked upon as 'a branch, earlier detached
than the others from the Japhetic stem'."

If it be true that the first branch originating from Atlantis was
the Turanian, which includes the Chinese and Japanese, then we have
derived from Atlantis all the building and metalworking races of
men who have proved themselves capable of civilization; and we may,
therefore, divide mankind into two great classes:  those capable
of civilization, derived from Atlantis, and those essentially and
at all times barbarian, who hold no blood relationship with the
people of Atlantis.

Humboldt is sure "that some connection existed between ancient
Ethiopia and the elevated plain of Central Asia." There were
invasions which reached from the shores of Arabia into China. "An
Arabian sovereign, Schamar-Iarasch (Abou Karib), is described by
Hamza, Nuwayri, and others as a powerful ruler and conqueror, who
carried his arms successfully far into Central Asia; he occupied
Samarcand and invaded China.  He erected an edifice at Samarcand,
bearing an inscription, in Himyarite or Cushite characters, 'In
the name of God, Schamar-Iarasch has erected this edifice to the
sun, his Lord." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p.  110.) These
invasions must have been prior to 1518 B.C.

Charles Walcott Brooks read a paper before the California Academy
of Sciences, in which be says:

"According to Chinese annals, Tai-Ko-Fokee, the great stranger
king, ruled the kingdom of China.  In pictures he is represented
with two small horns, like those associated with the representations
of Moses.  He and his successor are said to have introduced into
China 'picture-writing,' like that in use in Central America at
the time of the Spanish conquest.  He taught the motions of the
heavenly bodies, and divided time into years and months; be also
introduced many other useful arts and sciences.

"Now, there has been found at Copan, in Central America, a figure
strikingly like the Chinese symbol of Fokee, with his two horns;
and, in like manner, there is a close resemblance between the
Central American and the Chinese figures representing earth and
heaven.  Either one people learned from the other, or both acquired
these forms from a common source.  Many physico-geographical facts
favor the hypothesis that they were derived in very remote ages
from America, and that from China they passed to Egypt.  Chinese
records say that the progenitors of the Chinese race came from
across the sea."

The two small horns of Tai-Ko-Fokee and Moses are probably a reminiscence
of Baal.  We find the horns of Baal represented in the remains of
the Bronze Age of Europe.  Bel sometimes wore a tiara with his bull's
horns; the tiara was the crown subsequently worn by the Persian
kings, and it became, in time, the symbol of Papal authority.  The
Atlanteans having domesticated cattle, and discovered their vast
importance to humanity, associated the bull and cow with religious
ideas, as revealed in the oldest hymns of the Aryans and the
cow-headed idols of Troy, a representation of one of which is shown
on the preceding page.  Upon the head of their great god Baal they
placed the horns of the bull; and these have descended in popular
imagination to the spirit of evil of our day.  Burns says:

"O thou! whatever title suit thee, Auld 'Hornie', Satan, Nick, or

"Clootie" is derived from the cleft hoof of a cow; while the Scotch
name for a bull is 'Bill', a corruption, probably, of Bel.  Less
than two hundred years ago it was customary to sacrifice a bull on
the 25th of August to the "God Mowrie" and "his devilans" on the
island of Inis Maree, Scotland. ("The Past in the Present," p.
165.) The trident of Poseidon has degenerated into the pitchfork
of Beelzebub!

And when we cross the Atlantic, we find in America the horns of
Baal reappearing in a singular manner.  The first cut on page 429
represents an idol of the Moquis of New Mexico:  the head is very
bull-like.  In the next figure we have a representation of the
war-god of the Dakotas, with something like a trident in his hand;
while the next illustration is taken from Zarate's "Peru," and
depicts "the god of a degrading worship." He is very much like the
traditional conception of the European devil-horns, pointed ears,
wings, and poker.  Compare this last figure, from Peru, with the
representation on page 430 of a Greek siren, one of those cruel
monsters who, according to Grecian mythology, sat in the midst of
bones and blood, tempting men to ruin by their sweet music.  Here
we have the same bird-like legs and claws as in the Peruvian demon.

Heeren shows that a great overland commerce extended in ancient
times between the Black Sea and "Great Mongolia;" he mentions a
"Temple of the Sun," and a great caravansary in the desert of Gobi.
Arminius Vámbéry, in his "Travels in Central Asia," describes very
important ruins near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, at a
place called Gömüshtepe; and connected with these are the remains
of a great wall which he followed "ten geographical miles." He
found a vast aqueduct one hundred and fifty miles long, extending
to the Persian mountains.  He reports abundant ruins in all that
country, 'extending even to China'.

The early history of China indicates contact with a superior race.
"Fuh-hi, who is regarded as a demi-god, founded the Chinese Empire
2852 B.C. He introduced cattle, taught the people how to raise
them, and taught the art of writing." ("American Cyclopædia," art.
'China'.) He might have invented his alphabet, but he did not invent
the cattle; be must have got them from some nation who, during many
centuries of civilization, had domesticated them; and from what
nation was he more likely to have obtained them than from the
Atlanteans, whose colonies we have seen reached his borders, and
whose armies invaded his territory!  "He instituted the ceremony of
marriage." ('Ibid'.) This also was an importation from a civilized
land. "His successor, Shin-nung, during a reign of one hundred and
forty years, introduced agriculture and medical science.  The next
emperor, Hwang-ti, is believed to have invented weapons, wagons,
ships, clocks, and musical instruments, and to have introduced
coins, weights, and measures." ('Ibid'.) As these various inventions
in all other countries have been the result of slow development,
running through many centuries, or are borrowed from some other
more civilized people, it is certain that no emperor of China ever
invented them all during a period of one hundred and sixty-four
years.  These, then, were also importations from the West.  In fact,
the Chinese themselves claim to have invaded China in the early
days 'from the north-west'; and their first location is placed by
Winchell near Lake Balkat, a short distance east of the Caspian,
where we have already seen Aryan Atlantean colonies planted at
an early day. "The third successor of Fuh-hi, Ti-ku, established
schools, and was the first to practise polygamy.  In 2357 his son
Yau ascended the throne, and it is from his reign that the regular
historical records begin.  A great flood, which occurred in his
reign, has been considered synchronous and identical with the Noachic
Deluge, and to Yau is attributed the merit of having successfully
battled against the waters."

There can be no question that the Chinese themselves, in their early
legends, connected their origin with a people who were destroyed
by water in a tremendous convulsion of the earth.  Associated with
this event was a divine personage called Niu-va (Noah?).

Sir William Jones says:

"The Chinese believe the earth to have been wholly covered with
water, which, in works of undisputed authenticity, they describe
as flowing abundantly, then subsiding and 'separating the higher
from the lower ages of mankind'; that this division of time, from
which their poetical history begins, just preceded the appearance
of Fo-hi on the mountains of Chin. ("Discourse on the Chinese;
Asiatic Researches," vol. ii., p.  376.)

The following history of this destruction of their ancestors vividly
recalls to us the convulsion depicted in the Chaldean and American

"The pillars of heaven were broken; the earth shook to its very
foundations; the heavens sunk lower toward the north; the sun,
the moon, and the stars changed their motions; the earth fell to
pieces, and the waters enclosed within its bosom burst forth with
violence and overflowed it.  Man having rebelled against Heaven,
the system of the universe was totally disordered.  The sun was
eclipsed, the planets altered their course, and the grand harmony
of nature was disturbed."

A learned Frenchman, M. Terrien de la Couperie, member of the
Asiatic Society of Paris, has just published a work (1880) in which
he demonstrates the astonishing fact that the Chinese language is
clearly related to the Chaldean, and that both the Chinese characters
and the cuneiform alphabet are degenerate descendants of an original
hieroglyphical alphabet.  The same signs exist for many words,
while numerous words are very much alike.  M. de la Couperie gives
a table of some of these similarities, from which I quote as follows:

| 'English.' | 'Chinese.' | 'Chaldee.' |
| To shin... Mu...... Mul....  |
| To di....  Mu...... Mit....  |
| Boo....  | Kin....  | Kin....  |
| Cloth....  Si...... Sik....  |
| Right hand | Dze....  | Zag....  |
| Her....  | Ta...... Dun....  |
| Earth....  Kien-ka... Kiengi.    |
| Co...... Lu...... Lu, lup.   |
| Brick....  K....... Ku....   |

This surprising discovery brings the Chinese civilization still
nearer to the Mediterranean head-quarters of the races, and increases
the probability that the arts of China were of Atlantean origin;
and that the name of Nai Hoang-ti, or Nai Korti, the founder of
Chinese civilization, may be a reminiscence of Nakhunta, the chief
of the gods, as recorded in the Susian texts, and this, in turn,
a recollection of the Deva-Nahusha of the Hindoos, the Dionysos of
the Greeks, the king of Atlantis, whose great empire reached to the
"farther parts of India," and embraced, according to Plato, "parts
of the continent of America."

Linguistic science achieved a great discovery when it established
the fact that there was a continuous belt of languages from Iceland
to Ceylon which were the variant forms of one mother-tongue,
the Indo-European; but it must prepare itself for a still wider
generalization.  There is abundant proof--proof with which pages
might be filled--that there was a still older mother-tongue, from
which Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic were all derived--the language
of Noah, the language of Atlantis, the language of the great
"aggressive empire" of Plato, the language of the empire of the

The Arabic word 'bin', within, becomes, when it means interval,
space, 'binnon'; this is the German and Dutch 'binnen' and Saxon
'binnon', signifying within.  The Ethiopian word 'aorf', to fall
asleep, is the root of the word 'Morpheus', the god of sleep.  The
Hebrew word 'chanah', to dwell, is the parent of the Anglo-Saxon
'inne' and Icelandic 'inni', a house, and of our word 'inn', a
hotel.  The Hebrew word 'naval' or 'nafal' signifies to fall; from
it is derived our word fall and fool (one who falls); the Chaldee
word is 'nabal', to make foul, and the Arabic word 'nabala' means
to die, that is, to fall.  From the last syllable of the Chaldee
'nasar', to saw, we can derive the Latin 'serra', the High German
'sagen', the Danish 'sauga', and our word 'to saw'. The Arabic
'nafida', to fade, is the same as the Italian 'fado', the Latin
'fatuus' (foolish, tasteless), the Dutch 'vadden', and our 'to
fade'. The Ethiopic word 'gaber', to make, to do, and the Arabic
word 'jabara', to make strong, becomes the Welsh word 'goberu', to
work, to operate, the Latin 'operor', and the English 'operate'.
The Arabic word 'abara' signifies to prick, to sting; we see this
root in the Welsh 'bar', a summit, and 'pâr', a spear, and 'per',
a spit; whence our word 'spear'. In the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic
'zug' means to join, to couple; from this the Greeks obtained zugos,
the Romans 'jugum', and we the word 'yoke'; while the Germans
obtained 'jok' or 'jog', the Dutch 'juk', the Swedes 'ok'. The
Sanscrit is 'juga'. The Arabic 'sanna', to be old, reappears in
the Latin 'senex', the Welsh 'hen', and our 'senile'. The Hebrew
'banah', to build, is the Irish 'bun', foundation, and the Latin
'fundo', 'fundare', to found.  The Arabic 'baraka', to bend the
knee, to fall on the breast, is probably the Saxon 'brecau', the
Danish 'bräkke', the Swedish bräcka, Welsh 'bregu', and our word
'to break'. The Arabic 'baraka' also signifies to rain violently;
and from this we get the Saxon 'roegn', to rain, Dutch 'regen',
to rain, Cimbric 'roekia', rain, Welsh 'rheg', rain.  The Chaldee
word 'braic', a branch, is the Irish 'braic' or 'raigh', an arm,
the Welsh 'braic', the Latin 'brachium', and the English 'brace',
something which supports like an arm.  The Chaldee 'frak', to rub,
to tread out grain, is the same as the Latin 'frico', 'frio', and
our word 'rake'. The Arabic word to rub is 'fraka'. The Chaldee
'rag', 'ragag', means to desire, to long for; it is the same as
the Greek oregw, the Latin 'porrigere', the Saxon 'roeccan', the
Icelandic 'rakna', the German 'reichen', and our 'to reach', to
rage.  The Arabic 'rauka', to strain or purify, as wine, is precisely
our English word 'rack', to rack wine.  The Hebrew word 'bara', to
create, is our word to bear, as to bear children:  a great number
of words in all the European languages contain this root in its
various modifications.  The Hebrew word 'kafar', to cover, is our
word 'to cover', and 'coffer', something which covers, and 'covert',
a secret place; from this root also comes the Latin 'cooperio' and
the French 'couvrir', to cover.  The Arabic word 'shakala', to bind
under the belly, is our word 'to shackle'. From the Arabic 'walada'
and Ethiopian 'walad', to beget, to bring forth, we get the
Welsh 'llawd', a shooting out; and hence our word 'lad'. Our word
'matter', or 'pus', is from the Arabic 'madda'; our word 'mature'
is originally from the Chaldee 'mita'. The Arabic word 'amida'
signifies to end, and from this comes the noun, a limit, a termination,
Latin 'meta', and our words 'meet' and 'mete'.

I might continue this list, but I have given enough to show that
all the Atlantean races once spoke the same language, and that the
dispersion on the plains of Shinar signifies that breaking up of
the tongues of one people under the operation of vast spaces of
time.  Philology is yet in its infancy, and the time is not far
distant when the identity of the languages of all the Noachic races
will be as clearly established and as universally acknowledged as
is now the identity, of the languages of the Aryan family of nations.

And precisely as recent research has demonstrated the relationship
between Pekin and Babylon, so investigation in Central America
has proved that there is a mysterious bond of union connecting
the Chinese and one of the races of Mexico.  The resemblances are
so great that Mr.  Short ("North Americans of Antiquity," p. 494)
says, "There is no doubt that strong analogies exist between the
Otomi and the Chinese." Señor Najera ("Dissertacion Sobre la lingua
Othomi, Mexico," pp. 87, 88) gives a list of words from which I
quote the following:

| Chinese. | Othomi. | English... Chinese. | Othomi | English.   |
| Cho....  To....  The, that. | P....  | D....  To give.   |
...... | N-....  A wound... Tsu....  Nsu... Honor....
| Ten....  Gu, mu  | Head.....  H....  | Hmu... Sir, Lord. |
| Sia....  Su....  Night....  N....  | N....  That.....
| Tie....  Ts....  Tooth....  H....  | H....  Cold.....
| Y....  | Yo....  Shining... Y....  | H....  And....  |
| K....  | Hy (ji) | Happiness. | Hoa....  Hia... Word.....
| K....  | Du....  Death....  Nug....  Nga....  ....   |
| P....  | Yo....  N....... N....  | Nuy... Thou.....
| N....  | Ta....  Ma...... Hao....  Nho... The good.  |
| Nin....  Ns....  Femal....  T....  | D....  The great. |
| Tse....  Tsi, ti | So...... L....  | T....  Gain.....
| Tso....  Ts....  To perfect | H....  | T....  Who....  |
| Kua....  Khuani  | Tru....  | P....  | P....  To leave.  |
| Sia....  Sa....  To mock... Mu, m... M....  Mother.    |

Recently Herr Forchhammer, of Leipsic, has published a truly
scientific comparison of the grammatical structure of the Choctaw,
Chickasaw, Muscogee, and Seminole languages with the Ural-Altaic
tongues, in which be has developed many interesting points of

It has been the custom to ascribe the recognized similarities
between the Indians of America and the Chinese and Japanese to a
migration by way of Behring's Strait from Asia into America; but
when we find that the Chinese themselves only reached the Pacific
coast within the Historical Period, and that they came to it from
the direction of the Mediterranean and Atlantis, and when we find
so many and such distinct recollections of the destruction of
Atlantis in the Flood le(rends of the American races, it seems more
reasonable to conclude that the resemblances between the Othomi and
the Chinese are to be accounted for by intercourse through Atlantis.

We find a confirmation in all these facts of the order in which
Genesis names the sons of Noah:

"Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah:  Shem, Ham,
and Japheth, and unto them were sons born after the flood."

Can we not suppose that those three sons represent three great
races in the order of their precedence?

The record of Genesis claims that the Phoenicians were descended
from Ham, while the Hebrews were descended from Shem; yet we find
the Hebrews and Phoenicians united by the ties of a common language,
common traditions, and common race characteristics.  The Jews are
the great merchants of the world eighteen centuries after Christ,
just as the Phoenicians were the great merchants of the world
fifteen centuries before Christ.

Moreover, the Arabians, who are popularly classed as Semites, or
sons of Shem, admit in their traditions that they are descended
from "Ad, 'the son of Ham';" and the tenth chapter of Genesis
classes them among the descendants of Ham, calling them Seba,
Havilah, Raamah, etc.  If the two great so-called Semitic stocks--the
Phoenicians and Arabians--are Hamites, surely the third member of
the group belongs to the same "sunburnt" race.

If we concede that the Jews were also a branch of the Hamitic stock,
then we have, firstly, a Semitic stock, the Turanian, embracing
the Etruscans, the Finns, the Tartars, the Mongols, the Chinese,
and Japanese; secondly, a Hamitic family, "the sunburnt" race--a
red race--including the Cushites, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Hebrews,
Berbers, etc.; and, thirdly, a Japhetic or whiter stock, embracing
the Greeks, Italians, Celts, Goths, and the men who wrote Sanscrit-in
other words, the entire Aryan family.

If we add to these three races the negro race--which cannot be
traced back to Atlantis, and is not included, according to Genesis,
among the descendants of Noah--we have the four races, the 'white',
'red', 'yellow', and 'black', recognized by the Egyptians as
embracing all the people known to them.

There seems to be some confusion in Genesis as to the Semitic stock.
It classes different races as both Semites and Hamites; as, for
instance, Sheba and Havilah; while the race of Mash, or Meshech, is
classed among the sons of Shem and the sons of Japheth.  In fact,
there seems to be a confusion of Hamitic and Semitic stocks. "This
is shown in the blending of Hamitic and Semitic in some of the
most ancient inscriptions; in the facility of intercourse between
the Semites of Asia and the Hamites of Egypt; in the peaceful and
unobserved absorption of all the Asiatic Hamites, and the Semitic
adoption of the Hamitic gods and religious system.  It is manifest
that, at a period not long previous, 'the two families' had dwelt
together and spoken the same language." (Winchell's "Pre-Adamites,"
p. 36.) Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the so-called
Semitic races of Genesis were a mere division of the Hamitic stock,
and that we are to look for the third great division of the sons
of Noah among the Turanians?

Francis Lenormant, high authority, is of the opinion that the
Turanian races are descended from Magog, the son of Japheth.  He
regards the Turanians as intermediate between the white and yellow
races, graduating insensibly into each. "The Uzbecs, the Osmanli
Turks, and the Hungarians are not to be distinguished in appearance
from the most perfect branches of the white race; on the other hand,
the Tchondes almost exactly resemble the Tongouses, who belong to
the yellow race.

The Turanian languages are marked by the same agglutinative character
found in the American races.

The Mongolian and the Indian are alike in the absence of a heavy
beard.  The royal color of the Incas was yellow; yellow is the color
of the imperial family in China.  The religion of the Peruvians was
sun-worship; "the sun was the peculiar god of the Mongols from the
earliest times." The Peruvians regarded Pachacamac as the sovereign
creator.  Camac-Hya was the name of a Hindoo goddess. 'Haylli' was
the burden of every verse of the song composed in praise of the sun
and the Incas.  Mr.  John Ranking derives the word 'Allah' from the
word 'Haylli', also the word 'Halle'-lujah.  In the city of Cuzco
was a portion of land which none were permitted to cultivate except
those of the royal blood.  At certain seasons the Incas turned up
the sod here, amid much rejoicing, and many ceremonies.  A similar
custom prevails in China:  The emperor ploughs a few furrows, and
twelve illustrious persons attend the plough after him.  (Du Halde,
"Empire of China," vol. i., p. 275.) The cycle of sixty years was
in use among most of the nations of Eastern Asia, and among the
Muyscas of the elevated plains of Bogota. 'The "quipu," a knotted
reckoning-cord, was in use in Peru and in China'. (Bancroft's "Native
Races," vol. v., p. 48.) In Peru and China "both use hieroglyphics,
which are read from above downward." ('Ibid'.)

"It appears most evident to me," says Humboldt, "that the monuments,
methods of computing time, systems of cosmogony, and many myths
of America, offer striking analogies with the ideas of Eastern
Asia--'analogies which indicate an ancient communication', and
are not simply the result of that uniform condition in which all
nations are found in the dawn of civilization." ("Exam.  Crit.,"
tom. ii., p. 68.)

"In the ruined cities of Cambodia, which lies farther to the east
of Burmah, recent research has discovered teocallis like those in
Mexico, and the remains of temples of the same type and pattern as
those of Yucatan.  And when we reach the sea we encounter at Suku,
in Java, a teocalli which is absolutely identical with that of
Tehuantepec.  Mr.  Ferguson said, 'as we advance eastward from the
valley of the Euphrates, at every step we meet with forms of art
becoming more and more like those of Central America.'" ("Builders
of Babel," p. 88.)

Prescott says:

The coincidences are sufficiently strong to authorize a belief that
the civilization of Anahuac was in some degree influenced by that
of Eastern Asia; and, secondly, that the discrepancies are such
'as to carry back the communication to a very remote period'."
("Mexico," vol. iii., p.  418.)

"All appearances," continues Lenormant ("Ancient History of the
East," vol. i., p. 64), "would lead us to regard the Turanian race
as the first branch of the family of Japheth which went forth into
the world; and by that premature separation, by an isolated and
antagonistic existence, took, or rather preserved, a completely
distinct physiognomy....  It is a type of the white race imperfectly

We may regard this yellow race as the first and oldest wave from
Atlantis, and, therefore, reaching farthest away from the common
source; then came the Hamitic race; then the Japhetic.



It may seem like a flight of the imagination to suppose that the
mariner's compass was known to the inhabitants of Atlantis.  And
yet, if my readers are satisfied that the Atlantean, were a highly
civilized maritime people, carrying on commerce with regions as
far apart as Peru and Syria, we must conclude that they possessed
some means of tracing their course in the great seas they traversed;
and accordingly, when we proceed to investigate this subject,
we find that as far back as we may go in the study of the ancient
races of the world, we find them possessed of a knowledge of the
virtues of the magnetic stone, and in the habit of utilizing it.
The people of Europe, rising a few centuries since out of a state
of semi-barbarism, have been in the habit of claiming the invention
of many things which they simply borrowed from the older nations.
This was the case with the mariner's compass.  It was believed for
many years that it was first invented by an Italian named Amalfi,
A.D. 1302. In that interesting work, Goodrich's "Life of Columbus,"
we find a curious history of the magnetic compass prior to that
time, from which we collate the following points:

"In A.D. 868 it was employed by the Northmen." ("The Landnamabok,"
vol.  i., chap. 2.) An Italian poem Of A.D. 1190 refers to it
as in use among the Italian sailors at that date.  In the ancient
language of the Hindoos, the Sanscrit--which has been a dead language
for twenty-two hundred years--the magnet was called "the precious
stone beloved of Iron." The Talmud speaks of it as "the stone of
attraction;" and it is alluded to in the early Hebrew prayers as
'Kalamitah', the same name given it by the Greeks, from the reed
upon which the compass floated.  The Phoenicians were familiar
with the use of the magnet.  At the prow of their vessels stood
the figure of a woman (Astarte) holding a cross in one hand and
pointing the way with the other; the cross represented the compass,
which was a magnetized needle, floating in water crosswise upon a
piece of reed or wood.  The cross became the coat of arms of the
Phoenicians--not only, possibly, as we have shown, as a recollection
of the four rivers of Atlantis, but because it represented the
secret of their great sea-voyages, to which they owed their national
greatness.  The hyperborean magician, Abaras, carried "a guiding
arrow," which Pythagoras gave him, "in order that it may be useful
to him in all difficulties in his long journey." ("Herodotus," vol.
iv., p. 36.)

The magnet was called the "Stone of Hercules." Hercules was the patron
divinity of the Phoenicians.  He was, as we have shown elsewhere,
one of the gods of Atlantis--probably one of its great kings and
navigators.  The Atlanteans were, as Plato tells us, a maritime,
commercial people, trading up the Mediterranean as far as Egypt
and Syria, and across the Atlantic to "the whole opposite continent
that surrounds the sea;" the Phoenicians, as their successors
and descendants, and colonized on the shores of the Mediterranean,
inherited their civilization and their maritime habits, and with these
that invention without which their great voyages were impossible.
From them the magnet passed to the Hindoos, and from them to the
Chinese, who certainly possessed it at an early date.  In the year
2700 B.C. the Emperor Wang-ti placed a magnetic figure with an
extended arm, like the Astarte of the Phoenicians, on the front
of carriages, the arm always turning and pointing to the south,
which the Chinese regarded as the principal pole. (See Goodrich's
"Columbus," p.  31, etc.) This illustration represents one of these

In the seventh century it was used by the navigators of the Baltic
Sea and the German Ocean.


The ancient Egyptians called the loadstone the bone of Haroeri,
and iron the bone of Typhon.  Haroeri was the son of Osiris and
grandson of Rhea, a goddess 'of the earth', a queen of Atlantis,
and 'mother of Poseidon'; Typhon was a wind-god and an evil genius,
but also a son of Rhea, the earth goddess.  Do we find in this curious
designation of iron and loadstone as "bones of the descendants of
the earth," an explanation of that otherwise inexplicable Greek
legend about Deucalion "throwing the bones of the earth behind
him, when instantly men rose from the ground, and the world was
repeopled?" Does it mean that by means of the magnet he sailed,
after the Flood, to the European colonies of Atlantis.  already
thickly inhabited?

A late writer, speaking upon the subject of the loadstone, tells

"Hercules, it was said, being once overpowered by the heat of the
sun, drew his bow against that luminary; whereupon the god Phoebus,
admiring his intrepidity, gave him a golden cup, with which he sailed
over the ocean.  This cup was the compass, which old writers have
called 'Lapis Heracleus'. Pisander says 'Oceanus lent him the
cup', and Lucian says it was a sea-shell.  Tradition affirms that
the magnet originally was not on a pivot, but set to float on water
in a cup.  The old antiquarian is wildly theoretical on this point,
and sees a compass in the Golden Fleece of Argos, in the oracular
needle which Nero worshipped, and in everything else.  Yet undoubtedly
there are some curious facts connected with the matter.  Osonius
says that Gama and the Portuguese got the compass from some pirates
at the Cape of Good Hope, A.D. 1260. M.  Fauchet, the French
antiquarian, finds it plainly alluded to in some old poem of Brittany
belonging to the year A.D. 1180. Paulo Venetus brought it in the
thirteenth century from China, where it was regarded as oracular.
Genebrand says Melvius, a Neapolitan, brought it to Europe in
A.D. 1303. Costa says Gama got it from Mohammedan seamen.  But all
nations with whom it was found 'associate it with regions where
Heraclean myths prevailed'. And one of the most curious facts
is that the ancient Britons, as the Welsh do to-day, call a pilot
'llywydd' (lode). Lodemanage, in Skinner's 'Etymology,' is the
word for the price paid to a pilot.  But whether this famous, and
afterward deified, mariner (Hercules) had a compass or not, we
can hardly regard the association of his name with so many Western
monuments as accidental."

Hercules was, as we know, a god of Atlantis, and Oceanos, who lent
the magnetic cup to Hercules, was the Dame by which the Greeks
designated the Atlantic Ocean.  And this may be the explanation
of the recurrence of a cup in many antique paintings and statues.
Hercules is often represented with a cup in his hand; we even find
the cup upon the handle of the bronze dagger found in Denmark, and
represented in the chapter on the Bronze Age, in this work. (See
p. 254 'ante'.)

So "oracular" an object as this self-moving needle, always pointing
to the north, would doubtless affect vividly the minds of the
people, and appear in their works of art.  When Hercules left the
coast of Europe to sail to the island of Erythea in the Atlantic,
in the remote west, we are told, in Greek mythology (Murray, p.
257), that he borrowed "the cup" of Helios, in (with) which "he was
accustomed to sail every night." Here we seem to have a reference
to the magnetic cup used in night sailing; and this is another proof
that the use of the magnetic needle in sea-voyages was associated
with the Atlantean gods.


Lucian tells us that a sea-shell often took the place of the cup,
as a vessel in which to hold the water where the needle floated, and
hence upon the ancient coins of Tyre we find a sea-shell represented.

Here, too, we have the Pillars of Hercules, supposed to have been
placed at the mouth of the Mediterranean, and the tree of life
or knowledge, with the serpent twined around it, which appears in
Genesis; and in the combination of the two pillars and the serpent
we have, it is said, the original source of our dollar mark [$].


Compare these Phoenician coins with the following representation
of a copper coin, two inches in diameter and three lines thick,
found nearly a century ago by Ordonez, at the city of Guatemala.
"M. Dupaix noticed an indication of the use of the compass in the
centre of one of the sides, the figures on the same side representing
a kneeling, bearded, turbaned man between two fierce heads, perhaps
of crocodiles, which appear to defend the entrance to a mountainous
and wooded country.  The reverse presents a serpent coiled around a
fruit-tree, and an eagle on a hill." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol.
iv., p. 118.) The mountain leans to one side:  it is a "culhuacan,"
or crooked mountain.

We find in Sanchoniathon's "Legends of the Phoenicians that
Ouranus, the first god of the people of Atlantis, "devised Bætulia,
'contriving stones that moved as having life', which were supposed
to fall from heaven." These stones were probably magnetic loadstones;
in other words, Ouranus, the first god of Atlantis, devised the
mariner's compass.

I find in the "Report of United States Explorations for a Route for
a Pacific Railroad" a description of a New Mexican Indian priest,
who foretells the result of a proposed war by placing a piece of
wood in a bowl of water, and causing it to turn to the right or
left, or sink or rise, as he directs it.  This is incomprehensible,
unless the wood, like the ancient Chinese compass, contained a
piece of magnetic iron hidden in it, which would be attracted or
repulsed, or even drawn downward, by a piece of iron held in the
hand of the priest, on the outside of the bowl.  If so, this trick
was a remembrance of the mariner's compass transmitted from age
to age by the medicine men.  The reclining statue of Chac-Mol, of
Central America, holds a bowl or dish upon its breast.

Divination was the 'ars Etrusca'. The Etruscans set their temples
squarely with the cardinal points of the compass; so did the
Egyptians, the Mexicans, and 'the Mound Builders of America'. Could
they have done this without the magnetic compass?

The Romans and the Persians called the line of the axis of the globe
'cardo', and it was to 'cardo' the needle pointed.  Now "'Cardo'
was the name of the mountain on which the human race took refuge
from the Deluge ... the primitive geographic point for the countries
which were the cradle of the human race." (Urquhart's "Pillars of
Hercules," vol. i., p. 145.) From this comes our word "cardinal,"
as the cardinal points.

'Navigation'.--Navigation was not by any means in a rude state in
the earliest times:

"In the wanderings of the heroes returning from Troy, Aristoricus
makes Menelaus circumnavigate Africa more than 500 years before
Neco sailed from Gadeira to India." ("Cosmos," vol. ii., p. 144.)

"In the tomb of Rameses the Great is a representation of a naval
combat between the Egyptians and some other people, supposed
to be the Phoenicians, whose huge ships are propelled by sails."
(Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 29.)

The proportions of the fastest sailing-vessels of the present day
are about 300 feet long to 50 wide and 30 high; these were precisely
the proportions of Noah's ark--300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30

"Hiero of Syracuse built, under the superintendence of Archimedes,
a vessel which consumed in its construction the material for fifty
galleys; it contained galleries, gardens, stables, fish-ponds,
mills, baths, a temple of Venus, and an engine to throw stones
three hundred pounds in weight, and arrows thirty-six feet long.
The floors of this monstrous vessel were inlaid with scenes from
Homer's 'Iliad.'" ('Ibid'., p. 30.)

The fleet of Sesostris consisted of four hundred ships; and when
Semiramis invaded India she was opposed by four thousand vessels.

It is probable that in the earliest times the vessels were sheeted
with metal.  A Roman ship of the time of Trajan has been recovered
from Lake Ricciole after 1300 years.  The outside was covered with
sheets of lead fastened with small copper nails.  Even the use of
iron chains in place of ropes for the anchors was known at an early
period.  Julius Cæsar tells us that the galleys of the Veneti were
thus equipped. (Goodrich's "Columbus," p. 31.)

'Gunpowder'.--It is not impossible that even the invention of
gunpowder may date back to Atlantis.  It was certainly known in
Europe long before the time of the German monk, Berthold Schwarz,
who is commonly credited with the invention of it.  It was employed
in 1257 at the siege of Niebla, in Spain.  It was described in an
Arab treatise of the thirteenth century.  In A.D. 811 the Emperor
Leo employed fire-arms. "Greek-fire" is supposed to have been
gunpowder mixed with resin or petroleum, and thrown in the form
of fuses and explosive shells.  It was introduced from Egypt A.D.
668. In A.D. 690 the Arabs used fire-arms against Mecca, bringing
the knowledge of them from India. 'In A.D. 80 the Chinese obtained
from India a knowledge of gunpowder'. There is reason to believe
that the Carthaginian (Phoenician) general, Hannibal, used gunpowder
in breaking a way for his army over the Alps.  The Romans, who
were ignorant of its use, said that Hannibal made his way by making
fires against the rocks, and pouring vinegar and water over the
ashes.  It is evident that fire and vinegar would have no effect
on masses of the Alps great enough to arrest the march of an army.
Dr.  William Maginn has suggested that the wood was probably
burnt by Hannibal to obtain charcoal; and the word which has been
translated "vinegar" probably signified some preparation of nitre
and sulphur, and that Hannibal made gunpowder and blew up the rocks.
The same author suggests that the story of Hannibal breaking loose
from the mountains where he was surrounded on all sides by the
Romans, and in danger of starvation, by fastening firebrands to
the horns of two thousand oxen, and sending them rushing at night
among the terrified Romans, simply refers to the use of rockets.
As Maginn well asks, how could Hannibal be in danger of starvation
when he had two thousand oxen to spare for such an experiment?
And why should the veteran Roman troops have been so terrified and
panic-stricken by a lot of cattle with firebrands on their horns?
At the battle of Lake Trasymene, between Hannibal and Flaminius, we
have another curious piece of information which goes far to confirm
the belief that Hannibal was familiar with the use of gunpowder.
In the midst of the battle there was, say the Roman historians,
an "earthquake;" the earth reeled under the feet of the soldiers,
a tremendous crash was heard, a fog or smoke covered the scene, the
earth broke open, and the rocks fell upon the beads of the Romans.
This reads very much as if the Carthaginians had decoyed the Romans
into a pass where they had already planted a mine, and had exploded
it at the proper moment to throw them into a panic.  Earthquakes
do not cast rocks up in the air to fall on men's heads!

And that this is not all surmise is shown by the fact that a city
of India, in the time of Alexander the Great, defended itself by
the use of gunpowder:  it was said to be a favorite of the gods,
because thunder and lightning came from its walls to resist the
attacks of its assailants.

As the Hebrews were a branch of the Phoenician race, it is not
surprising that we find some things in their history which look
very much like legends of gunpowder.

When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram led a rebellion against Moses, Moses
separated the faithful from the unfaithful, and thereupon "the
ground clave asunder that was under them:  and the earth opened
her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men
that appertained unto Korah, and all their goods....  And there came
out a fire from the Lord, and consumed the two hundred and fifty
men that offered incense....  But on the morrow all the congregation
of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron,
saying, Ye have killed the people of the Lord." (Numb. xvi., 31-41.)

This looks very much as if Moses had blown up the rebels with

Roger Bacon, who himself rediscovered gunpowder, was of opinion
that the event described in Judges vii., where Gideon captured the
camp of the Midianites with the roar of trumpets, the crash caused
by the breaking of innumerable pitchers, and the flash of a multitude
of lanterns, had reference to the use of gunpowder; that the noise
made by the breaking of the pitchers represented the detonation
of an explosion, the flame of the lights the blaze, and the noise
of the trumpets the thunder of the gunpowder.  We can understand,
in this wise, the results that followed; but we cannot otherwise
understand how the breaking of pitchers, the flashing of lamps,
and the clangor of trumpets would throw an army into panic, until
"every man's sword was set against his fellow, and the host fled
to Beth-shittah;" and this, too, without any attack upon the part
of the Israelites, for "they stood every man in his place around
the camp; and all the host ran and cried and fled."

If it was a miraculous interposition in behalf of the Jews, the
Lord could have scared the Midianites out of their wits without
the smashed pitchers and lanterns; and certain it is the pitchers,
and lanterns would not have done the work with out a miraculous

Having traced the knowledge of gunpowder back to the most remote
times, and to the different races which were descended from Atlantis,
we are not surprised to find in the legends of Greek mythology
events described which are only explicable by supposing that the
Atlanteans possessed the secret of this powerful explosive.

A rebellion sprang tip in Atlantis (see Murray's "Manual of
Mythology," p. .30) against Zeus; it is known in mythology as the
"War of the Titans:"

"The struggle lasted many years, all the might which the Olympians
could bring to bear being useless, until, on the advice of Gæa,
Zeus set free the Kyklopes and the Hekatoncheires" (that is, brought
the ships into play), "of whom the former fashioned thunder-bolts
for him, while the latter advanced on his side with force equal
to the shock of an earthquake.  The earth trembled down to lowest
Tartarus as Zeus now appeared with his terrible weapon and new
allies.  Old Chaos thought his hour had come, as from a continuous
blaze of thunder-bolts the earth took fire, and the waters seethed
in the sea.  The rebels were partly slain or consumed, and partly
hurled into deep chasms, with rocks and hills reeling after them."

Do not these words picture the explosion of a mine with a "force
equal to the shock of an earthquake?"

We have already shown that the Kyklopes and Hekatoncheires were
probably great war-ships, armed with some explosive material in
the nature of gunpowder.

Zeus, the king of Atlantis, was known as "the thunderer," and was
represented armed with thunder-bolts.

Some ancient nation must, in the most remote ages, have invented
gunpowder; and is it unreasonable to attribute it to that "great
original race" rather than to any one people of their posterity,
who seem to have borrowed all the other arts from them; and who,
during many thousands of years, did not add a single new invention
to the list they received from Atlantis?

'Iron'.--have seen that the Greek mythological legends asserted
that before the submergence of the great race over whom their gods
reigned there had been not only an Age of Bronze but an Age of
Iron.  This metal was known to the Egyptians in the earliest ages;
fragments of iron have been found in the oldest pyramids.  The Iron
Age in Northern Europe far antedated intercourse with the Greeks or
Romans.  In the mounds of the Mississippi Valley, as I have shown,
the remains of iron implements have been found.  In the "Mercurio
Peruano" (tom. i., p. 201, 1791) it is stated that "anciently the
Peruvian sovereigns worked magnificent iron mines at Ancoriames, on
the west shore of Lake Titicaca." "It is remarkable," says Molina,
"that iron, which has been thought unknown to the ancient Americans,
had particular names in some of their tongues." In official
Peruvian it was called 'quillay', and in Chilian 'panilic'.  The
Mound Builders fashioned implements out of meteoric iron. (Foster's
"Prehistoric Races," p. 333.)

As we find this metal known to man in the earliest ages on both
sides of the Atlantic, the presumption is very strong that it was
borrowed by the nations, east and west, from Atlantis.

'Paper'.--The same argument holds good as to paper.  The oldest
Egyptian monuments contain pictures of the papyrus roll; while in
Mexico, as I have shown, a beautiful paper was manufactured and
formed into books shaped like our own.  In Peru a paper was made
of plantain leaves, and books were common in the earlier ages.
Humboldt mentions books of hieroglyphical writings among the Panoes,
which were "bundles of their paper resembling our volumes in quarto."

'Silk Manufacture'.--The manufacture of a woven fabric of great
beauty out of the delicate fibre of the egg-cocoon of a worm could
only have originated among a people who had attained the highest
degree of civilization; it implies the art of weaving by delicate
instruments, a dense population, a patient, skilful, artistic
people, a sense of the beautiful, and a wealthy and luxurious class
to purchase such costly fabrics.

We trace it back to the most remote ages.  In the introduction to
the "History of Hindostan," or rather of the Mohammedan Dynasties,
by Mohammed Cassim, it is stated that in the year 3870 B.C. an
Indian king sent various silk stuffs as a present to the King of
Persia.  The art of making silk was known in China more than two
thousand six hundred years before the Christian era, at the time
when we find them first possessed of civilization.  The Phoenicians
dealt in silks in the most remote past; they imported them from
India and sold them along the shores of the Mediterranean.  It
is probable that the Egyptians understood and practised the art
of manufacturing silk.  It was woven in the island of Cos in the
time of Aristotle.  The "Babylonish garment" referred to in Joshua
(chap. vii., 21), and for secreting which Achan lost his life, was
probably a garment of silk; it was rated above silver and gold in

It is not a violent presumption to suppose that an art known to the
Hindoos 3870 B.C., and to the Chinese and Phoenicians at the very
beginning of their history--an art so curious, so extraordinary--may
have dated back to Atlantean times.

'Civil Government'.--Mr.  Baldwin shows ("Prehistoric Nations,"
p. 114) that the Cushites, the successors of the Atlanteans, whose
very ancient empire extended from Spain to Syria, were the first
to establish independent municipal republics, with the right of the
people to govern themselves; and that this system was perpetuated
in the great Phoenician communities; in "the fierce democracies" of
ancient Greece; in the "village republics" of the African Berbers
and the Hindoos; in the "free cities" of the Middle Ages in Europe;
and in the independent governments of the Basques, which continued
down to our own day.  The Cushite state was an aggregation of
municipalities, each possessing the right of self-government, but
subject within prescribed limits to a general authority; in other
words, it was precisely the form of government possessed to-day by
the United States.  It is a surprising thought that the perfection
of modern government may be another perpetuation of Atlantean

'Agriculture'.--The Greek traditions of "the golden apples of the
Hesperides" and "the golden fleece" point to Atlantis.  The allusions
to the golden apples indicate that tradition regarded the "Islands
of the Blessed" in the Atlantic Ocean as a place of orchards.  And
when we turn to Egypt we find that in the remotest times many of
our modern garden and field plants were there cultivated.  When
the Israelites murmured in the wilderness against Moses, they cried
out (Numb., chap. xi., 4, 5), "Who shall give us flesh to eat? We
remember the fish which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers,
and the Melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic."
The Egyptians also cultivated wheat, barley, oats, flax, hemp, etc.
In fact, if we were to take away from civilized man the domestic
animals, the cereals, and the field and garden vegetables possessed
by the Egyptians at the very dawn of history, there would be very
little left for the granaries or the tables of the world.

'Astronomy'.--The knowledge of the ancients as to astronomy was
great and accurate.  Callisthenes, who accompanied Alexander the
Great to Babylon, sent to Aristotle a series of Chaldean astronomical
observations which he found preserved there, recorded on tablets of
baked clay, and extending back as far as 2234 B.C. Humboldt says,
"The Chaldeans knew the mean motions of the moon with an exactness
which induced the Greek astronomers to use their calculations for
the foundation of a lunar theory." The Chaldeans knew the true
nature of comets, and could foretell their reappearance. "A lens
of considerable power was found in the ruins of Babylon; it was
an inch and a half in diameter and nine-tenths of an inch thick."
(Layard's "Nineveh and Babylon," pp. 16,17.) Nero used optical
glasses when be watched the fights of the gladiators; they are
supposed to have come from Egypt and the East.  Plutarch speaks of
optical instruments used by Archimedes "to manifest to the eye the
largeness of the sun." "There are actual astronomical calculations
in existence, with calendars formed upon them, which eminent
astronomers of England and France admit to be genuine and true,
and which carry back the antiquity of the science of astronomy,
together with the constellations, to within a few years of the
Deluge, even on the longer chronology of the Septuagint." ("The
Miracle in Stone," p. 142.) Josephus attributes the invention of the
constellations to the family of the antediluvian Seth, the son of
Adam, while Origen affirms that it was asserted in the Book of Enoch
that in the time of that patriarch the constellations were already
divided and named.  The Greeks associated the origin of astronomy
with Atlas and Hercules, Atlantean kings or heroes.  The Egyptians
regarded Taut (At?) or Thoth, or 'At'-hotes, as the originator
of both astronomy and the alphabet; doubtless he represented a
civilized people, by whom their country was originally colonized.
Bailly and others assert that astronomy "must have been established
when the summer solstice was in the first degree of Virgo, and
that the solar and lunar zodiacs were of similar antiquity, which
would be about four thousand years before, the Christian era.
They suppose the originators to have lived in about the 'fortieth
degree of north latitude', and to have been a highly-civilized
people." It will be remembered that the fortieth degree of north
latitude passed through Atlantis.  Plato knew (" Dialogues, Phædo,"
108) that the earth "is a body in the centre of the heavens" held
in equipoise.  He speaks of it as a "round body," a "globe;" he even
understood that it revolved on its axis, and that these revolutions
produced day and night.  He says--"Dialogues, Timæus"--"The earth
circling around the pole (which is extended through the universe)
be made to be the artificer of night and day." All this Greek
learning was probably drawn from the Egyptians.

Only among the Atlanteans in Europe and America do we find traditions
preserved as to the origin of all the principal inventions which
have raised man from a savage to a civilized condition.  We can
give in part the very names of the inventors.

Starting with the Chippeway legends, and following with the Bible
and Phoenician records, we make a table like the appended:

| 'The Invention o...... | 'The Race.' | 'The Inventors.........
| Discovery.....  ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  .......
| Fir....  ....  ....  | Atlantea... Phos, Phur, and Phlox....
| The bow and arro...... | Chippewa... Manaboshu....  ....    |
| The use of flin....  ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| The use of coppe....   ....  ....  ....  ....  .... ....
| The manufacture of bricks  | Atlantea... Autochthon and Technites.  |
| Agriculture and hunting....  ....... Argos and Agrotes....    |
| Village life, and the....  ......  | Amynos and Magos.......
| rearing of flock....   ....  ....  ....  ....  .... ....
| The use of sal....   ....  ....... Misor and Sydyk........
| The use of letter....  ....  ....  | Taautos, or Taut.......
| Navigatio....  ....  ....  ....  | The Cabiri, or Corybantes. |
| The art of musi......  | Hebrew....  Jubal....  ....  ....
| Metallurgy, and the use....  ....... Tubal-cain....  ....   |
| of iro....  ....   ....  ....  ....  ....  ....   ....
| The syrin....  ....... Gree....  | Pan....  ....  ....  |
| The lyr....  ....  ....  ....... Hermes....  .... ....

We cannot consider all these evidences of the vast antiquity
of the great inventions upon which our civilization mainly rests,
including the art of writing, which, as I have shown, dates back
far beyond the beginning of history; we cannot remember that the
origin of all the great food-plants, such as wheat, oats, barley,
rye, and maize, is lost in the remote past; and that all the
domesticated animals, the horse, the ass, the ox, the sheep, the
goat, and the hog had been reduced to subjection to man in ages long
previous to written history, without having the conclusion forced
upon us irresistibly that beyond Egypt and Greece, beyond Chaldea
and China, there existed a mighty civilization, of which these
states were but the broken fragments.



We come now to another question:  "Did the Aryan or Japhetic race
come from Atlantis?"

If the Aryans are the Japhetic race, and if Japheth was one of the
sons of the patriarch who escaped from the Deluge, then assuredly,
if the tradition of Genesis be true, the Aryans came from the drowned
land, to wit, Atlantis.  According to Genesis, the descendants of
the Japheth who escaped out of the Flood with Noah are the Ionians,
the inhabitants of the Morea, the dwellers on the Cilician coast of
Asia Minor, the Cyprians, the Dodoneans of Macedonia, the Iberians,
and the Thracians.  These are all now recognized as Aryans, except
the Iberians.

"From non-Biblical sources," says Winchell, "we obtain further
information respecting the early dispersion of the Japhethites or
Indo-Europeans--called also Aryans. 'All determinations confirm the
Biblical account of their primitive residence in the same country
with the Hamites and Semites'. Rawlinson informs us that even Aryan
roots are mingled with Presemitic in some of the old inscriptions
of Assyria.  The precise region where these three families dwelt
in a common home has not been pointed out." ("Preadamites," p. 43.)

I have shown in the chapter in relation to Peru that all the
languages of the Hamites, Semites, and Japhethites are varieties
of one aboriginal speech.

The centre of the Aryan migrations (according to popular opinion)
within the Historical Period was Armenia.  Here too is Mount Ararat,
where it is said the ark rested--another identification with the
Flood regions, as it represents the usual transfer of the Atlantis
legend by an Atlantean people to a high mountain in their new home.

Now turn to a map:  Suppose the ships of Atlantis to have reached
the shores of Syria, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, where
dwelt a people who, as we have seen, used the Central American
Maya alphabet; the Atlantis ships are then but two hundred miles
distant from Armenia.  But these ships need not stop at Syria,
they can go by the Dardanelles and the Black Sea, by uninterrupted
water communication, to the shores of Armenia itself.  If we admit,
then, that it was from Armenia the Aryans stocked Europe and India,
there is no reason why the original population of Armenia should
not have been themselves colonists from Atlantis.

But we have seen that in the earliest ages, before the first
Armenian migration of the historical Aryans, a people went from
Iberian Spain and settled in Ireland, and the language of this
people, it is now admitted, is Aryan.  And these Iberians were
originally, according to tradition, from the West.

The Mediterranean Aryans are known to have been in Southeastern
Europe, along the shores of the Mediterranean, 2000 B.C. They
at that early date possessed the plough; also wheat, rye, barley,
gold, silver, and bronze.  Aryan faces are found depicted upon the
monuments of Egypt, painted four thousand years before the time
of Christ. "The conflicts between the Kelts (an Aryan race) and
the Iberians were far anterior in date to the settlements of the
Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Noachites on the coasts of
the Mediterranean Sea." ("American Cyclopædia," art.  'Basques'.)
There is reason to believe that these Kelts were originally part
of the population and Empire of Atlantis.  We are told (Rees's
"British Encyclopædia," art. 'Titans') that "Mercury, one of the
Atlantean gods, was placed as ruler over the Celtæ, and became
their great divinity." F. Pezron, in his "Antiquity of the Celtæ,"
makes out that the Celtæ were the same as the Titans, the giant
race who rebelled in Atlantis, and "that their princes were the
same with the giants of Scripture." He adds that the word Titan
"is perfect Celtic, and comes from 'tit', the earth, and 'ten' or
'den', man, and hence the Greeks very properly also called them
'terriginæ', or earth-born." And it will be remembered that Plato
uses the same phrase when he speaks of the race into which Poseidon
intermarried as "the earth-born primeval men of that country."

The Greeks, who are Aryans, traced their descent from the people
who were destroyed by the Flood, as did other races clearly Aryan.

"The nations who are comprehended under the common appellation of
Indo-European," says Max Müller--"the Hindoos, the Persians, the
Celts, Germans, Romans, Greeks, and Slavs--do not only share the
same words and the same grammar, slightly modified in each country,
but they seem to have likewise preserved a mass of popular traditions
which had grown up before they left their common home."

"Bonfey, L. Geiger, and other students of the ancient Indo-European
languages, have recently advanced the opinion that the original
home of the Indo-European races must be sought in Europe, because
their stock of words is rich in the names of plants and animals, and
contains names of seasons that are not found in tropical countries
or anywhere in Asia." ("American Cyclopædia," art. 'Ethnology'.)

By the study of comparative philology, or the seeking out of the
words common to the various branches of the Aryan race before they
separated, we are able to reconstruct an outline of the civilization
of that ancient people.  Max Müller has given this subject great
study, and availing ourselves of his researches we can determine
the following facts as to the progenitors of the Aryan stock:  They
were a civilized race; they possessed the institution of marriage;
they recognized the relationship of father, mother, son, daughter,
grandson, brother, sister, mother-in-law, father-in-law, son-in-law,
daughter-in-law, brother-in-law, and sister-in-law, and had
separate words for each of these relationships, which we are only
able to express by adding the words "in-law." They recognized
also the condition of widows, or "the husbandless." They lived in
an organized society, governed by a king.  They possessed houses
with doors and solid walls.  They had wagons and carriages.  They
possessed family names.  They dwelt in towns and cities, on highways.
They were not hunters or nomads.  They were a peaceful people; the
warlike words in the different Aryan languages cannot be traced
back to this original race.  They lived in a country having few
wild beasts; the only wild animals whose names can be assigned to
this parent stock being the bear, the wolf, and the serpent.  The
name of the elephant, "the beast with a hand," occurs only twice
in the "Rig-Veda;" a singular omission if the Aryans were from time
immemorial an Asiatic race; and "when it does occur, it is in such
a way as to show that he was still an object of wonder and terror
to them." (Whitney's "Oriental and Linguistic Studies," p. 26.) They
possessed nearly all the domestic animals we now have--the ox and
the cow, the horse, the dog, the sheep, the goat, the hog, the
donkey, and the goose.  They divided the year into twelve months.
They were farmers; they used the plough; their name as a race
(Aryan) was derived from it; they were, par excellence, ploughmen;
they raised various kinds of grain, including flax, barley, hemp,
and wheat; they had mills and millers, and ground their corn.
The presence of millers shows that they had proceeded beyond the
primitive condition where each family ground its corn in its own
mill.  They used fire, and cooked and baked their food; they wove
cloth and wore clothing; they spun wool; they possessed the different
metals, even iron:  they had gold.  The word for "water" also meant
"salt made from water," from which it might be inferred that the
water with which they were familiar was saltwater.  It is evident
they manufactured salt by evaporating salt water.  They possessed
boats and ships.  They had progressed so far as to perfect "a
decimal system of enumeration, in itself," says Max Müller, "one
of the most marvellous achievements of the human mind, based on
an abstract conception of quantity, regulated by a philosophical
classification, and yet conceived, nurtured, and finished before
the soil of Europe was trodden by Greek, Roman, Slav, or Teuton."


And herein we find another evidence of relationship between the
Aryans and the people of Atlantis.  Although Plato does not tell
us that the Atlanteans possessed the decimal system of numeration,
nevertheless there are many things in his narrative which point to
that conclusion "There were ten kings ruling over ten provinces;
the whole country was divided into military districts or squares
ten stadia each way; the total force of chariots was ten thousand;
the great ditch or canal was one hundred feet deep and ten thousand
stadia long; there were one hundred Nereids," etc.  In the Peruvian
colony the decimal system clearly obtained:  "The army had heads of
ten, fifty, a hundred, five hundred, a thousand, ten thousand....
The community at large was registered in groups, under the control
of officers over tens, fifties, hundreds, and so on." (Herbert
Spencer, "Development of Political Institutions," chap.  x.) The
same division into tens and hundreds obtained among the Anglo-Saxons.

Where, we ask, could this ancient nation, which existed before Greek
was Greek, Celt was Celt, Hindoo was Hindoo, or Goth was Goth, have
been located! The common opinion says, in Armenia or Bactria, in
Asia.  But where in Asia could they have found a country so peaceful
as to know no terms for war or bloodshed;--a country so civilized
as to possess no wild beasts save the bear, wolf, and serpent? No
people could have been developed in Asia without bearing in its
language traces of century-long battles for life with the rude and
barbarous races around them; no nation could have fought for ages
for existence against "man-eating" tigers, lions, elephants, and
hyenas, without bearing the memory of these things in their tongue.
A tiger, identical with that of Bengal, still exists around Lake
Aral, in Asia; from time to time it is seen in Siberia. "The last
tiger killed in 1828 was on the Lena, in latitude fifty-two degrees
thirty minutes, in a climate colder than that of St.  Petersburg
and Stockholm."

The fathers of the Aryan race must have dwelt for many thousand
years so completely protected from barbarians and wild beasts that
they at last lost all memory of them, and all words descriptive of
them; and where could this have been possible save in some great,
long-civilized land, surrounded by the sea, and isolated from the
attack of the savage tribes that occupied the rest of the world?
And if such a great civilized nation had dwelt for centuries in
Asia, Europe, or Africa, why have not their monuments long ago been
discovered and identified? Where is the race who are their natural
successors, and who must have continued to live after them in that
sheltered and happy land, where they knew no human and scarcely
any animal enemies? Why would any people have altogether left such
a home? Why, when their civilization had spread to the ends of
the earth, did it cease to exist in the peaceful region where it

Savage nations cannot usually count beyond five.  This people had
names for the numerals up to one hundred, and the power, doubtless,
of combining these to still higher powers, as three hundred, five
hundred, ten hundred, etc.  Says a high authority, "If any more
proof were wanted as to the reality of that period which must have
preceded the dispersion of the Aryan race, we might appeal to the
Aryan numerals as irrefragable evidence of that long-continued
intellectual life which characterizes that period." Such a degree
of progress implies necessarily an alphabet, writing, commerce,
and trade, even as the existence of words for boats and ships has
already implied navigation.

In what have we added to the civilization of this ancient people?
Their domestic animals were the same as our own, except one fowl
adopted from America.  In the past ten thousand years we have added
one bird to their list of domesticated animals! They raised wheat
and wool, and spun and wove as we do, except that we have added
some mechanical contrivances to produce the same results.  Their
metals are ours.  Even iron, the triumph, as we had supposed, of
more modern times, they had already discovered.  And it must not be
forgotten that Greek mythology tells us that the god-like race who
dwelt on Olympus, that great island "in the midst of the Atlantic,"
in the remote west, wrought in iron; and we find the remains of an
iron sword and meteoric iron weapons in the mounds of the Mississippi
Valley, while the name of the metal is found in the ancient languages
of Peru and Chili, and the Incas worked in iron on the shores of
Lake Titicaca.

A still further evidence of the civilization of this ancient race
is found in the fact that, before the dispersion from their original
home, the Aryans had reached such a degree of development that they
possessed a regularly organized religion:  they worshipped God,
they believed in an evil spirit, they believed in a heaven for the
just.  All this presupposes temples, priests, sacrifices, and an
orderly state of society.

We have seen that Greek mythology is really a history of the kings
and queens of Atlantis.

When we turn to that other branch of the great Aryan family, the
Hindoos, we find that their gods are also the kings of Atlantis.
The Hindoo god Varuna is conceded to be the Greek god Uranos, who
was the founder of the royal family of Atlantis.

In the Veda we find a hymn to "King Varuna," in which occurs this

"This earth, too, belongs to Varuna, the king, and this wide sky,
with its ends far apart. 'The two seas are Varuna's loins'; he is
contained also in this drop of water."

Again in the Veda we find another hymn to King Varuna:

"He who knows the place of the birds that fly through the sky;
who on the waters knows the ships.  He, the upholder of order, who
knows the twelve months with the offspring of each, and knows the
month that is engendered afterward."

This verse would seem to furnish additional proof that the Vedas
were written by a maritime people; and in the allusion to the twelve
months we are reminded of the Peruvians, who also divided the year
into twelve parts of thirty days each, and afterward added six
days to complete the year.  The Egyptians and Mexicans also had
intercalary days for the same purpose.

But, above all, it must be remembered that the Greeks, an Aryan race,
in their mythological traditions, show the closest relationship to
Atlantis. 'At'-tika and 'At'-hens are reminiscences of 'Ad', and we
are told that Poseidon, god and founder of Atlantis, founded Athens.
We find in the "Eleusinian mysteries" an Atlantean institution;
their influence during the whole period of Greek history down to
the coming of Christianity was extraordinary; and even then this
masonry of Pre-Christian days, in which kings and emperors begged
to be initiated, was, it is claimed, continued to our own times in
our own Freemasons, who trace their descent back to "a Dionysiac
fraternity which originated in Attika." And just as we have seen
the Saturnalian festivities of Italy descending from Atlantean
harvest-feasts, so these Eleusinian mysteries can be traced
back to Plato's island.  Poseidon was at the base of them; the
first hierophant, Eumolpus, was "a son of Poseidon," and all the
ceremonies were associated with seed-time and harvest, and with
Demeter or Ceres, an Atlantean goddess, daughter of Chronos, who
first taught the Greeks to use the plough and to plant barley.  And,
as the "Carnival" is a survival of the "Saturnalia," so Masonry is
a survival of the Eleusinian mysteries.  The roots of the institutions
of to-day reach back to the Miocene Age.

We have seen that Zeus, the king of Atlantis, whose tomb was shown
at Crete, was transformed into the Greek god Zeus; and in like
manner we find him reappearing among the Hindoos as Dyaus.  He is
called "Dyaus-pitar," or God the Father, as among the Greeks we
have Zeus-pater," which became among the Romans "Jupiter."

The strongest connection, however, with the Atlantean system is
shown in the case of the Hindoo god Deva-Nahusha.

We have seen in the chapter on Greek mythology that Dionysos was
a son of Zeus and grandson of Poseidon, being thus identified with
Atlantis.  "When he arrived at manhood," said the Greeks, "he set
out on a journey through all known countries, even into the remotest
parts of India, instructing the people, as be proceeded, how to
tend the vine, and how to practise many other arts of peace, besides
teaching them the value of just and honorable dealings.  He was
praised everywhere as the greatest benefactor of mankind." (Murray's
"Mythology," p. 119.)

In other words, be represented the great Atlantean civilization,
reaching into "the remotest parts of India," and "to all parts
of the known world," from America to Asia.  In consequence of the
connection of this king with the vine, he was converted in later
times into the dissolute god Bacchus.  But everywhere the traditions
concerning him refer us back to Atlantis. "All the legends of
Egypt, India, Asia Minor, and the older Greeks describe him as a
king very great during his life, and deified after death....  Amon,
king of Arabia or Ethiopia, married Rhea, sister of Chronos, who
reigned over Italy, Sicily, and 'certain countries of Northern
Africa'." Dionysos, according to the Egyptians, was the son of Amon
by the beautiful Amalthea.  Chronos and Amon had a prolonged war;
Dionysos defeated Chronos and captured his capital, dethroned him,
and put his son Zeus in his place; Zeus reigned nobly, and won a
great fame.  Dionysos succeeded his father Amon, and "became the
greatest of sovereigns.  He extended his sway in all the neighboring
countries, and completed the conquest of India....  He gave much
attention to the Cushite colonies in Egypt, greatly increasing their
strength, intelligence, and prosperity." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric
Nations," p. 283.)

When we turn to the Hindoo we still find this Atlantean king.

In the Sanscrit books we find reference to a god called Deva-Nahusha,
who has been identified by scholars with Dionysos.  He is connected
"with the oldest history and mythology in the world." He is said
to have been a contemporary with Indra, king of Meru, who was
also deified, and who appears in the Veda as a principal form of
representation of the Supreme Being.

"The warmest colors of imagination are used in portraying the
greatness of Deva-Nahusha.  For a time he had sovereign control of
affairs in Meru; he conquered the seven dwipas, and led his armies
'through all the known countries of the world'; by means of matchless
wisdom and miraculous heroism 'he made his empire universal'."
('Ibid'., p. 287.)

Here we see that the great god Indra, chief god of the Hindoos, was
formerly king of Meru, and that Deva-Nahusha (De(va)nushas--De-onyshas)
had also been king of Meru; and we must remember that Theopompus
tell us that the island of Atlantis was inhabited by the "Meropes;"
and Lenormant has reached the conclusion that the first people of
the ancient world were "the men of Mero."

We can well believe, when we see traces of the same civilization
extending from Peru and Lake Superior to Armenia and the frontiers
of China, that this Atlantean kingdom was indeed "universal," and
extended through all the "known countries of the world."

"We can see in the legends that Pururavas, Nahusha, and others had
no connection with Sanscrit history.  They are referred to ages
very long anterior to the Sanscrit immigration, and must have been
great personages celebrated in the traditions of the natives or
Dasyus....  Pururavas was a king of great renown, 'who ruled over
thirteen islands of the ocean', altogether surrounded by inhuman
(or superhuman) personages; he engaged in a contest with Brahmans,
and perished.  Nahusha, mentioned by Maull, and in many legends, as
famous for hostility to the Brahmans, lived at the time when Indra
ruled on earth.  He was a very great king, who ruled with justice
a mighty empire, and 'attained the sovereignty of three worlds'."
(Europe, Africa, and America?) "Being intoxicated with pride, he
was arrogant to Brahmans, compelled them to bear his palanquin,
and even dared to touch one of them with his foot" (kicked him?),
"whereupon be was transformed into a serpent." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric
Nations," p. 291.)

The Egyptians placed Dionysos (Osiris) at the close of the period
of their history which was assigned to the gods, that is, toward
the close of the great empire of Atlantis.

When we remember that the hymns of the "Rig-Veda" are admitted to
date back to a vast antiquity, and are written in a language that
had ceased to be a living tongue thousands of years ago, we can
almost fancy those hymns preserve some part of the songs of praise
uttered of old upon the island of Atlantis.  Many of them seem to
belong to sun-worship, and might have been sung with propriety upon
the high places of Peru:

"In the beginning there arose 'the golden child'. He was the one
born Lord of all that is.  He established the earth and the sky.
Who is the god to whom we shall offer sacrifice?

"He who gives life; He who gives strength; whose command all the
bright gods" (the stars?) "revere; whose light is immortality;
whose shadow is death....  He who through his power is the one God
of the breathing and awakening world.  He who governs all, man and
beast.  He whose greatness these snowy mountains, whose greatness
the sea proclaims, with the distant river. 'He through whom the sky
is bright and the earth firm'....  He who measured out the light
in the air... Wherever the mighty water-clouds went, where they
placed the seed and lit the fire, thence arose He who is the sole
life of the bright gods....  He to whom heaven and earth, standing
firm by His will, look up, trembling inwardly....  'May he not
destroy us'; He, the creator of the earth; He, the righteous, who
created heaven.  He also created 'the bright and mighty waters'."

This is plainly a hymn to the sun, or to a god whose most glorious
representative was the sun.  It is the hymn of a people near the
sea; it was not written by a people living in the heart of Asia.
It was the hymn of a people living in a volcanic country, who call
upon their god to keep the earth "firm" and not to destroy them.
It was sung at daybreak, as the sun rolled up the sky over an
"awakening world."

The fire (Agni) upon the altar was regarded as a messenger rising
from the earth to the sun:

"Youngest of the gods, their messenger, their invoker....  For
thou, O sage, goest wisely between these two creations (heaven and
earth, God and man) like a friendly messenger between two hamlets."

The dawn of the day (Ushas), part of the sun-worship, became also
a god:

"She shines upon us like a young wife, rousing every living being
to go to his work.  When the fire had to be kindled by man, she
made the light by striking down the darkness."

As the Egyptians and the Greeks looked to a happy abode (an
under-world) in the west, beyond the waters, so the Aryan's paradise
was the other side of some body of water.  In the Veda (vii. 56,
24) we find a prayer to the Maruts, the storm-gods:  "O, Maruts,
may there be to us a strong son, who is a living ruler of men;
through whom we may 'cross the waters on our way to the happy
abode'." This happy abode is described as "where King Vaivasvata
reigns; where the secret place of heaven is; where the mighty
waters ar....  where there is food and rejoicin....  where there
is happiness and delight; where joy and pleasure reside." (Rig-Veda
ix. 113, 7.) This is the paradise beyond the seas; the Elysion;
the Elysian Fields of the Greek and the Egyptian, located upon an
island in the Atlantic which was destroyed by water.  One great
chain of tradition binds together these widely separated races.

"The religion of the Veda knows no idols," says Max Müller; "the
worship of idols in India is a secondary formation, a degradation
of the more primitive worship of ideal gods."

It was pure sun-worship, such as prevailed in Peru on the arrival
of the Spaniards.  It accords with Plato's description of the
religion of Atlantis.

"The Dolphin's Ridge," at the bottom of the Atlantic, or the high
land revealed by the soundings taken by the ship 'Challenger', is,
as will be seen, of a three-pronged form--one prong pointing toward
the west coast of Ireland, another connecting with the north-east
coast of South America, and a third near or on the west coast of
Africa.  It does not follow that the island of Atlantis, at any
time while inhabited by civilized people, actually reached these
coasts; there is a strong probability that races of men may have
found their way there from the three continents of Europe, America,
and Africa; or the great continent which once filled the whole bed
of the present Atlantic Ocean, and from whose débris geology tells
us the Old and New Worlds were constructed, may have been the scene
of the development, during immense periods of time, of diverse
races of men, occupying different zones of climate.

There are many indications that there were three races of men dwelling
on Atlantis.  Noah, according to Genesis, had three sons--Shem,
Ham, and Japheth--who represented three different races of men
of different colors.  The Greek legends tell us of the rebellions
inaugurated at different times in Olympus.  One of these was a
rebellion of the Giants, "a race of beings sprung from the blood
of Uranos," the great original progenitor of the stock. "Their king
or leader was Porphyrion, their most powerful champion Alkyoneus."
Their mother was the earth:  this probably meant that they represented
the common people of a darker line.  They made a desperate struggle
for supremacy, but were conquered by Zeus.  There were also two
rebellions of the Titans.  The Titans seem to have had a government
of their own, and the names of twelve of their kings are given in
the Greek mythology (see Murray, p. 27). They also were of "the
blood of Uranos," the Adam of the people.  We read, in fact, that
Uranos married Gæa (the earth), and had three families:  1, the
Titans; 2, the Hekatoncheires; and 3, the Kyklopes.  We should
conclude that the last two were maritime peoples, and I have shown
that their mythical characteristics were probably derived from the
appearance of their ships.  Here we have, I think, a reference to
the three races:  1, the red or sunburnt men, like the Egyptians,
the Phoenicians, the Basques, and the Berber and Cushite stocks;
2, the sons of Shem, possibly the yellow or Turanian race; and 3,
the whiter men, the Aryans, the Greeks, Kelts, Goths, Slavs, etc.
If this view is correct, then we may suppose that colonies of the
pale-faced stock may have been sent out from Atlantis to the northern
coasts of Europe at different and perhaps widely separated periods
of time, from some of which the Aryan families of Europe proceeded;
hence the legend, which is found among them, that they were once
forced to dwell in a country where the summers were only two months

From the earliest times two grand divisions are recognized in the
Aryan family:  "to the east those who specially called themselves
'Arians', whose descendants inhabited Persia, India, etc.; to the
west, the 'Yavana', or the Young Ones, who first emigrated westward,
and from whom have descended the various nations that have populated
Europe.  This is the name (Javan) found in the tenth chapter of
Genesis." (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Ancient History of the East,"
vol. ii., p. 2.) But surely those who "first emigrated westward,"
the earliest to leave the parent stock, could not be the "Young
Ones;" they would be rather the elder brothers.  But if we can
suppose the Bactrian population to have left Atlantis at an early
date, and the Greeks, Latins, and Celts to have left it at a later
period, then they would indeed be the "Young Ones" of the family,
following on the heels of the earlier migrations, and herein we
would find the explanation of the resemblance between the Latin
and Celtic tongues.  Lenormant says the name of Erin (Ireland)
is derived from Aryan; and yet we have seen this island populated
and named Erin by races distinctly. connected with Spain, Iberia,
Africa, and Atlantis.

There is another reason for supposing that the Aryan nations came
from Atlantis.

We find all Europe, except a small corner of Spain and a strip
along the Arctic Circle, occupied by nations recognized as Aryan;
but when we turn to Asia, there is but a corner of it, and that
corner in the part 'nearest Europe', occupied by the Aryans.  All
the rest of that great continent has been filled from immemorial
ages by non-Aryan races.  There are seven branches of the Aryan
family:  1. Germanic or Teutonic; 2.  Slavo-Lithuanic; 3. Celtic;
4. Italic; 5. Greek; 6. Iranian or Persian; 7. Sanscritic or Indian;
and of these seven branches five dwell on the soil of Europe, and
the other two are intrusive races in Asia 'from the direction of
Europe'. The Aryans in Europe have dwelt there apparently since
the close of the Stone Age, if not before it, while the movements
of the Aryans in Asia are within the Historical Period, and
they appear as intrusive stocks, forming a high caste amid a vast
population of a different race.  The Vedas are supposed to date back
to 2000 B.C., while there is every reason to believe that the Celt
inhabited Western Europe 5000 B.C. If the Aryan race had originated
in the heart of Asia, why would not its ramifications have extended
into Siberia, China, and Japan, and all over Asia? And if the Aryans
moved at a comparatively recent date into Europe from Bactria,
where are the populations that then inhabited Europe--the men of
the ages of stone and bronze? We should expect to find the western
coasts of Europe filled with them, just as the eastern coasts of Asia
and India are filled with Turanian populations.  On the contrary,
we know that the Aryans descended upon India from the Punjab, which
lies to the north-west of that region; and that their traditions
represent that they came there from the west, to wit, from the
direction of Europe and Atlantis.



The farther we go back in time toward the era of Atlantis, the more
the evidences multiply that we are approaching the presence of a
great, wise, civilized race.  For instance, we find the Egyptians,
Ethiopians, and Israelites, from the earliest ages, refusing to eat
the flesh of swine.  The Western nations departed from this rule,
and in these modern days we are beginning to realize the dangers of
this article of food, on account of the trichina contained in it;
and when we turn to the Talmud, we are told that it was forbidden
to the Jews, "because of a small insect which infests it."

The Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Phoenicians, the Hebrews,
and others of the ancient races, practised circumcision.  It was
probably resorted to in Atlantean days, and imposed as a religious
duty, to arrest one of the most dreadful scourges of the human
race-a scourge which continued to decimate the people of America,
arrested their growth, and paralyzed their civilization.  Circumcision
stamped out the disease in Atlantis; we read of one Atlantean
king, the Greek god Ouranos, who, in a time of plague, compelled
his whole army and the armies of his allies to undergo the rite.
The colonies that went out to Europe carried the practice but not
the disease out of which it originated with them; and it was not
until Columbus reopened communication with the infected people of
the West India Islands that the scourge crossed the Atlantic and
"turned Europe," as one has expressed it, "into a charnal-house."

Life-insurance statistics show, nowadays, that the average life
and health of the Hebrew is much greater than that of other men;
and he owes this to the retention of practices and beliefs imposed
ten thousand years ago by the great, wise race of Atlantis.

Let us now, with all the facts before us, gleaned from various sources,
reconstruct, as near as may be, the condition of the antediluvians.

They dwelt upon a great island, near which were other smaller
islands, probably east and west of them, forming stepping-stones,
as it were, toward Europe and Africa in one direction, and the
West India Islands and America in the other.  There were volcanic
mountains upon the main island, rising to a height of fifteen hundred
feet, with their tops covered with perpetual snow.  Below these
were elevated table-lands, upon which were the royal establishments.
Below these, again, was "the great plain of Atlantis." There were
four rivers flowing north, south, east, and west from a central
point.  The climate was like that of the Azores, mild and pleasant;
the soil volcanic and fertile, and suitable at its different
elevations for the growth of the productions of the tropical and
temperate zones.

The people represented at least two different races:  a dark brown
reddish race, akin to the Central Americans, the Berbers and the
Egyptians; and a white race, like the Greeks, Goths, Celts, and
Scandinavians.  Various battles and struggles followed between the
different peoples for supremacy.  The darker race seems to have been,
physically, a smaller race, with small hands; the lighter-colored
race was much larger--hence the legends of the Titans and Giants.
The Guanches of the Canary Islands were men of very great stature.
As the works of the Bronze Age represent a small-handed race, and
as the races who possessed the ships and gunpowder joined in the
war against the Giants, we might conclude that the dark races were
the more civilized, that they were the metal-workers and navigators.

The fact that the same opinions and customs exist on both sides of
the ocean implies identity of origin; it might be argued that the
fact that the explanation of many customs existing on both hemispheres
is to be found only in America, implies that the primeval stock
existed in America, the emigrating portion of the population
carrying away the custom, but forgetting the reason for it.  The
fact that domestic cattle and the great cereals, wheat, oats, barley,
and rye, are found in Europe and not in America, would imply that
after population moved to Atlantis from America civilization was
developed in Atlantis, and that in the later ages communication was
closer and more constant between Atlantis and Europe than between
Atlantis and America.  In the case of the bulky domestic animals,
it would be more difficult to transport them, in the open vessels
of that day, from Atlantis across the wider expanse of sea to
America, than it would be to carry them by way of the now submerged
islands in front of the Mediterranean Sea to the coast of Spain.
It may be, too, that the climate of Spain and Italy was better
adapted to the growth of wheat, barley, oats and rye, than maize;
while the drier atmosphere of America was better suited to the
latter plant Even now comparatively little wheat or barley is raised
in Central America, Mexico, or Peru, and none on the low coasts of
those countries; while a smaller quantity of maize, proportionately,
is grown in Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe, the rainy
climate being unsuited to it.  We have seen (p. 60, ante) that
there is reason to believe that maize was known in a remote period
in the drier regions of the Egyptians and Chinese.

As science has been able to reconstruct the history of the migrations
of the Aryan race, by the words that exist or fail to appear in
the kindred branches of that tongue, so the time will come when a
careful comparison of words, customs, opinions, arts existing on the
opposite sides of the Atlantic will furnish an approximate sketch
of Atlantean history.

The people had attained a high position as agriculturists.  The
presence of the plough in Egypt and Peru implies that they possessed
that implement.  And as the horns and ox-head of Baal show the
esteem in which cattle were held among them, we may suppose that
they had passed the stage in which the plough was drawn by men,
as in Peru and Egypt in ancient times, and in Sweden during the
Historical Period, and that it was drawn by oxen or horses.  They
first domesticated the horse, hence the association of Poseidon or
Neptune, a sea-god, with horses; hence the race-courses for horses
described by Plato.  They possessed sheep, and manufactured woollen
goods; they also had goats, dogs, and swine.  They raised cotton
and made cotton goods; they probably cultivated maize, wheat, oats,
barley, rye, tobacco, hemp, and flax, and possibly potatoes; they
built aqueducts and practised irrigation; they were architects,
sculptors, and engravers; they possessed an alphabet; they worked
in tin, copper, bronze, silver, gold, and iron.

During the vast period of their duration, as peace and agriculture
caused their population to increase to overflowing, they spread out
in colonies east and west to the ends of the earth.  This was not
the work of a few years, but of many centuries; and the relations
between these colonies may have been something like the relation between
the different colonies that in a later age were established by the
Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans; there was an intermingling
with the more ancient races, the 'autochthones' of the different
lands where they settled; and the same crossing of stocks, which
we know to have been continued all through the Historical Period,
must have been going on for thousands of years, whereby new races
and new dialects were formed; and the result of all this has been
that the smaller races of antiquity have grown larger, while all
the complexions shade into each other, so that we can pass from
the whitest to the darkest by insensible degrees.

In some respects the Atlanteans exhibited conditions similar
to those of the British Islands:  there were the same, and even
greater, race differences in the population; the same plantation
of colonies in Europe, Asia, and America; the same carrying of
civilization to the ends of the earth.  We have seen colonies from
Great Britain going out in the third and fifth centuries to settle
on the shores of France, in Brittany, representing one of the
nationalities and languages of the mother-country--a race Atlantean
in origin.  In the same way we may suppose Hamitic emigrations
to have gone out from Atlantis to Syria, Egypt, and the Barbary
States.  If we could imagine Highland Scotch, Welsh, Cornish, and
Irish populations emigrating en masse from England in later times,
and carrying to their new lands the civilization of England, with
peculiar languages not English, we would have a state of things
probably more like the migrations which took place from Atlantis.
England, with a civilization Atlantean in origin, peopled by races
from the same source, is repeating in these modern times the empire
of Zeus and Chronos; and, just as we have seen Troy, Egypt, and
Greece warring against the parent race, so in later days we have
seen Brittany and the United States separating themselves from
England, the race characteristics remaining after the governmental
connection had ceased.

In religion the Atlanteans had reached all the great thoughts which
underlie our modern creeds.  They had attained to the conception of
one universal, omnipotent, great First Cause.  We find the worship
of this One God in Peru and in early Egypt.  They looked upon the
sun as the mighty emblem, type, and instrumentality of this One
God.  Such a conception could only have come with civilization.  It
is not until these later days that science has realized the utter
dependence of all earthly life upon the sun's rays:

"All applications of animal power may be regarded as derived directly
or indirectly from the static chemical power of the vegetable
substance by which the various organisms and their capabilities
are sustained; and this power, in turn, from the kinetic action of
the sun's rays.

"Winds and ocean currents, hailstorms and rain, sliding glaciers,
flowing rivers, and falling cascades are the direct offspring of
solar heat.  All our machinery, therefore, whether driven by the
windmill or the water-wheel, by horse-power or by steam--all the
results of electrical and electro-magnetic changes--our telegraphs,
our clocks, and our watches, all are wound up primarily by the sun.

"The sun is the great source of energy in almost all terrestrial
phenomena.  From the meteorological to the geographical, from the
geological to the biological, in the expenditure and conversion of
molecular movements, derived from the sun's rays, must be sought
the motive power of all this infinitely varied phantasmagoria."

But the people of Atlantis had gone farther; they believed that
the soul of man was immortal, and that he would live again in his
material body; in other words, they believed in "the resurrection
of the body and the life everlasting." They accordingly embalmed
their dead.

The Duke of Argyll ("The Unity of Nature") says:

"We have found in the most ancient records of the Aryan language
proof that the indications of religious thought are higher, simpler,
and purer as we go back in time, until at last, in the very oldest
compositions of human speech which have come down to us, we find
the Divine Being spoken of in the sublime language which forms the
opening of the Lord's Prayer.  The date in absolute chronology of
the oldest Vedic literature does not seem to be known.  Professor
Max Müller, however, considers that it may possibly take us back
5000 years....  All we can see with certainty is that the earliest
inventions of mankind are the most wonderful that the race has ever
made....  The first use of fire, and the discovery of the methods
by which it can be kindled; the domestication of wild animals; and,
above all, the processes by which the various cereals were first
developed out of some wild grasses-these are all discoveries with
which, in ingenuity and in importance, no subsequent discoveries
may compare.  They are all unknown to history--all lost in the
light of an effulgent dawn."

The Atlanteans possessed an established order of priests; their
religious worship was pure and simple.  They lived under a kingly
government; they had their courts, their judges, their records,
their monuments covered with inscriptions, their mines, their
founderies, their workshops, their looms, their grist-mills, their
boats and sailing-vessels, their highways, aqueducts, wharves,
docks, and canals.  They had processions, banners, and triumphal
arches for their kings and heroes; they built pyramids, temples,
round-towers, and obelisks; they practised religious ablutions;
they knew the use of the magnet and of gunpowder.  In short, they
were in the enjoyment of a civilization nearly as high as our own,
lacking only the printing-press, and those inventions in which steam,
electricity, and magnetism are used.  We are told that Deva-Nahusha
visited his colonies in Farther India.  An empire which reached from
the Andes to Hindostan, if not to China, must have been magnificent
indeed.  In 'its markets must have met the maize of the Mississippi
Valley, the copper of Lake Superior, the gold and silver of Peru
and Mexico, the spices of India, the tin of Wales and Cornwall, the
bronze of Iberia, the amber of the Baltic, the wheat and barley of
Greece, Italy, and Switzerland.

It is not surprising that when this mighty nation sank beneath the
waves, in the midst of terrible convulsions, with all its millions
of people, the event left an everlasting impression upon the
imagination of mankind.  Let us suppose that Great Britain should
to-morrow meet with a similar fate.  What a wild consternation
would fall upon her colonies and upon the whole human family! The
world might relapse into barbarism, deep and almost universal.
William the Conqueror, Richard Coeur de Lion, Alfred the Great,
Cromwell, and Victoria might survive only as the gods or demons of
later races; but the memory of the cataclysm in which the centre of
a universal empire instantaneously went down to death would never
be forgotten; it would survive in fragments, more or less complete,
in every land on earth; it would outlive the memory of a thousand
lesser convulsions of nature; it would survive dynasties, nations,
creeds, and languages; it would never be forgotten while man
continued to inhabit the face of the globe.

Science has but commenced its work of reconstructing the past and
rehabilitating the ancient peoples, and surely there is no study
which appeals more strongly to the imagination than that of this
drowned nation, the true antediluvians.  They were the founders
of nearly all our arts and sciences; they were the parents of our
fundamental beliefs; they were the first civilizers, the first
navigators, the first merchants, the first colonizers of the earth;
their civilization was old when Egypt was young, and they had passed
away thousands of years before Babylon, Rome, or London were dreamed
of.  This lost people were our ancestors, their blood flows in our
veins; the words we use every day were heard, in their primitive
form, in their cities, courts, and temples.  Every line of race
and thought, of blood and belief, leads back to them.

Nor is it impossible that the nations of the earth may yet employ
their idle navies in bringing to the light of day some of the
relies of this buried people.  Portions of the island lie but a
few hundred fathoms beneath the sea; and if expeditions have been
sent out from time to time in the past, to resurrect from the depths
of the ocean sunken treasure-ships with a few thousand doubloons
bidden in their cabins, why should not an attempt be made to reach
the buried wonders of Atlantis? A single engraved tablet dredged
up from Plato's island would be worth more to science, would more
strike the imagination of mankind, than all the gold of Peru, all
the monuments of Egypt, and all the terra-cotta fragments gathered
from the great libraries of Chaldea.

May not the so-called "Phoenician coins" found on Corvo, one of
the Azores, be of Atlantean origin? Is it probable that that great
race, pre-eminent as a founder of colonies, could have visited those
islands within the Historical Period, and have left them unpeopled,
as they were when discovered by the Portuguese?

We are but beginning to understand the past:  one hundred years ago
the world knew nothing of Pompeii or Herculaneum; nothing of the
lingual tie that binds together the Indo-European nations; nothing
of the significance of the vast volume of inscriptions upon the tombs
and temples of Egypt; nothing of the meaning of the arrow-headed
inscriptions of Babylon; nothing of the marvellous civilizations
revealed in the remains of Yucatan, Mexico, and Peru.  We are on
the threshold.  Scientific investigation is advancing with giant
strides.  Who shall say that one hundred years from now the great
museums of the world may not be adorned with gems, statues, arms,
and implements from Atlantis, while the libraries of the world shall
contain translations of its inscriptions, throwing new light upon
all the past history of the human race, and all the great problems
which now perplex the thinkers of our day?



End of The Project Gutenberg Etext of Atlantis:  The Antideluvian World
by Ignatius Donnelly